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DESIGN REPORT

DUSTOPIA

Designing Invisible Medium

Jacky Thiodore

BP ro M. A rch UD | R C14 Bar tle tt School of A rchite ctu re Unive rs ity Colle ge Lond on 22/07/2016 Tutor : Camila E. Sotomayor


DESIGN REPORT

DUSTOPIA

Designing Invisible Medium

Jack y T hiod ore ucqbhio@ ucl.ac .uk B P ro M. A rch UD | R C14 B a r tl e t t School of A rchite cture U n i ve rs ity Colle ge Lond on 22/07/2016 Tu to r : Camila E. Sotomayor


Dustopia: Design Invisible Medium


Contents: 01 Introduction

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4 02 Timeless and Unseen Particles 2. 1 T he vis cocit y of dust. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 6 2. 2 T he dyna mi c of at mospheric dust ................................... .. 8 2. 3 V i sibl e dust....................................................................... 10 03 Dystopian City: Should It Be Revived? 3. 1 Envi ro nme nt al dyst opia in c it y....................................... .. 12 3. 2 L o ndo n a nd t he dyst opia................................................ .. 14 04 Dustopia: Designing Invisible Medium 20 4. 1 T he bo unda r y of dyst opia space and human body.......... ... 20 4. 2 Occupy a tmosphere: climat e cont rol space .................... .. 22 4.3 Design the invisible: material energies, microcrimate, dust....................... 24 0 5 C o n c l u s i o n . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30 I n d e x . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32 B i b l i o g r a p h y . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

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Dustopia: Design Invisible Medium

01

Introduction

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ucianne Walkowicz, who works on NASA’s Kepler mission which searches for places in the cosmos that might support life, says we are at a tipping point in human history, where human beings are poised between gaining access to the stars and losing our home planet, the Earth. NASA and other private corporations are committed to and hoping to begin a permanent colony on Mars in the relatively near future. Unfortunately at the same time our culture and way of life has harmed the Earth on a massive scale and probably irreversibly so. We live in an era called Anthropocene. The term Anthropocene is popularized by Paul J. Crutzen1 as the current geological epoch that reflects the major and ongoing impact of human life on Earth where human activities have started to make a significant global impact on Earth ecosystems. The inconvinient truth for us paralel to global warming, catastrophic weather, atmospheric pollution and land contaminationi is we are predicted to be the generation which will face extinction because of the drastic environmental change. An old novel in 1880 by William Delisle Hay called The Doom of the Great City shows the catastrophic disaster when soot-filled fog hunted the inhabitants in London. Strongly he claims:

“This is the way the world ends: not with a bang but a bronchial spasm.� At this moment what Hay wrote in his novel in the past could in fact be imagined as a vision of a dystopian future. This dystopia has already taken root in our world, with many mega cities including London facing the looming dangers of polluted air as an urban nightmare. It directs us to question how we could mitigate air pollution especially dust and how humanity could face urban air degradation. From a large planetary scale to even a more localized problem such as the risk of death increasing for the people who live in London. It also questions the very need for such an extravagant belief that Mars will be there to save us from our selfinflicted destruction of our own planet. In our project Dustopia, we recognize the relationship between dust and severe health impacts and intend to handle such a dystopian environment born of dust, with both science and architecture working together to restructure a city both in private and public spaces. In doing so it possibly offers a utopian vision that is optimistic of preserving the habitability of the city against dystopian environments out there.

Paul J. Crutzen is an atmospheric chemist who won the 1995 Nobel Prize in chemistry for his research on ozone-depleting chemicals. 1

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Figure 1 Buzz Aldrin on the surface of the moon

Figure 2 Cold war gas mask. People in city rehearsh inhospitable atmosphere.

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Dustopia: Design Invisible Medium

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Timeless and Unseen Particles

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Figure 3 Image of the Great Rift - a dusty lane that stretches from the constellation Cygnus to Sagittarius.

olluted air is not visible to human being. Days, weeks, months, or years later, some humans die of respiratory infection and lung cancer. Collective daily activities such as transportation, industrialization and construction lead to the degradation of the air quality. High concentration of some substances in air like NO2, PM10, PM2.5 harm human health, animal life and ecosystem. The variety concentration of each gas in air classified air into several categories such as clean, harmless, polluted, toxic air. All these categories are breathable with a different impact to human health. For instance an extreme air condition in a place called Ijen Volcano (Indonesia), some Sulphur miners work inside the crater of the active volcano. This crater is filled with a mix of highly toxic gases such as Sulphur Dioxide, which have claimed the lives of over 70 miners by pneumonia and burn their throat in the last 40 years. The air in Ijen volcano is reported by BBC has a breathable air 40 times worse than UK’s safe breathing level. Polluted air may not be visible but it could be measured. The impact of polluted air to human life

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does not directly kill the person who breathes it on site, but will definitely lead to respiratory diseases such as bronchitis, pleurisy, asthma, pneumonia. In this chapter we will focus on dust in different scales. Its existence in a global planetary scale as well as in a scale that has a closer proximity to us and becomes a serious threat to human health. Dust is less dirty than dirt and has several characteristic such as dry, light, volatile, mobile and formless. Timothy Morton, a professor of Rice University, where his works explore the intersection of object-oriented thought and ecological studies, invented term “hyperobjects”2 for objects that are massively distributed in time and responsible for a climate change that threatens human existence. According to Timothy Morton, “hyperobjects have their own properties such as viscosity, nonlocality, temporal undulation, phasing and interobjectivity.”3 We will use Timothy Morton’s theory about hyperobjects to explore dust as a material contain in time and space involving wind, human, non-human factors and possible relevant to architecture.

Morton, T (2013). Hyperobjects: Philosophy and Ecology After the End of the World. Univ of Minnesota Press. pg.1 ibid.

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Figure 3

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Dustopia: Design Invisible Medium

2.1 The viscocity of dust

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ust is unseen but it is not truly distant from us. In fact dust is a close proximity object that threatens our health but unfortunately we cannot live without producing dust. This fact is explained by Morton in hyperobjects where dust has the property of viscocity when “objects are what they are, in a sense that no matter what we are aware of, or how, there they are, impossible to shake off.”4 Morton explain that viscocity means hyperobjects are not merely accessed across a distance but actually surround us in transparent medium. Dust swirls in the air, settles, accumulates, but then becomes easily airborne again to be a peril in the air. People in Beijing choose to stay in an enclosed space to reduce their exposure to the inhospitable environment, but dust as a hyperobject invades and pervades everywhere. We come across them, we find ourselves poisoned by them, and possibly we find it in our lungs. Though effective, physical Indoor architecture is not a defense mechanism to airpocalypse dust. But then dissolving dust into nothing-

ness is impossible as well. What kind of defense mechanism can we build against a close proximity threat object like dust? Dust as an undesirable material was ignored or erased in human space. A paradox in our project Dustopia, we choose to enable dust to settle on our architecture. We decided to show dust, as a means “to expose uncomfortable and unresolved issues in architecture and urban life.”5 Dust is harmful when it is in the air and breathed by humans.We aim for two things. That by collecting the dust, it will transform it into a harmless material and also make sure that it no longer stays in air.This will greatly reduce dust concentration in air. It could also be possible to turn the collected dust into raw aggregate for concrete. In order to do so later on we need to design how we could manipulate dust movement within certain environments and attract dust to accumulate at the same time it is released into the air.

Morton, T (2013). Hyperobjects: Philosophy and Ecology After the End of the World. Univ of Minnesota Press. pg.35 Stoppani, ,T. (2007), ‘Dust revolutions. Dust, informe, architecture. (notes for a reading of Dust in Bataille),’ The Journal of architecture, volume 12 (4), https://www.academia.edu/5124191/Dust_revolutions._Dust_informe_architecture_notes_for_a_reading_of_Dust_in_Bataille_ 4 5

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Figure 4 Simulation of the collision of two dust agglomerates in a protoplanetary disk. The two aggregates consist of 44359 monomeres and have been created by a realistic growth process using ballistic cluster-cluster aggregation.

Figure 5 Two irregular shaped porous dust aggregates collide with an impact parameter b = 0.25. Both aggregates have an outer radius of roughly 50Âľm and have been created by a combination of particle-cluster-aggregation and ballistic collisions of smaller aggregates.

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Dustopia: Design Invisible Medium

2.2 The dynamic of atmospheric dust

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perception that people will be safe if they are far from the source of pollution is not always right. The pollution level is proportionate to the distance from pollution source. But we should learn to look at dust more objectively as a real entities that populate in space where we are and light enough to be carried far away by wind flow. Dust travels. It is similar to Morton’s idea that “hyperobjects seem to inhabit human causal system in which association, correlation and probability are non-locality.”6 He emphasizes by using an example about the nuclear accident at Fukushima where unseen and dangerous radiation particles travels thousands of miles away. Years after the accident, there might be people dying from radiation affliction even though they were not at the site at the time. Another note Morton writes for nonlocality about “Post-Human causality is by no means a matter of “objective” versus “subjective” impression, let alone a matter of human reality versus non-human reality.”7 From this point of view, he wants to challenge the idea of locality, where one thing must be

occupied in a specific place and time. For instance distribution of Saharan dust, dust from the desert in Africa which travels across Europe and reach London to the north part of UK. Saharan dust creates the highest air pollution levels in London and becomes a serious issue when healthy people can also feel small symptoms. But Saharan dust also gives positive value to rainforest in Amazon. Figure 6 shows tons of phosphorus in Saharan dust which was carried by winds more than 3.000 miles across the Atlantic Ocean to Amazon fertilizes the rainforest. On average about 27.7 million tons of dust flows from the Sahara to the Amazon basin each year, containing 22,000 tons of phosphorus. A short term of environmental change can change the urban environment rapidly. For instance, at the afternoon polluted air make haze around squares and plazas make the place become less people. The next hour after the event of heavy downpour wash away the haze, people start to occupy the square. It is a temporal undulation condition, as Morton explain dust is dynamic which

Morton, T (2013). Hyperobjects: Philosophy and Ecology After the End of the World. Univ of Minnesota Press. pg.35 Stoppani, T. (2007), ‘Dust revolutions. Dust, informe, architecture. (notes for a reading of Dust in Bataille),’ The Journal of architecture, volume 12 (4), https://www.academia.edu/5124191/Dust_revolutions._Dust_informe_architecture_notes_for_a_reading_of_Dust_in_Bataille_ 6 7

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Figure 6 NASA used its satellites to track and map 27.7 million tons of dust from the Sahara Desert to the Amazon rainforest. According to NASA, the finding is part of a bigger research effort to understand the role of dust and aerosols in the environment and on local and global climate.

Figure 7 Risk degree equation that we create to calculate all the factors that affect pollution (environmentally) with how human occupy space.

could happen and change its composition quickly and this temporality intersects with human temporality in space. Dust as a temporal phenomenon constantly reacts according to the dynamics of its environment, such as wind and temperature. Dust is a dynamic material to our project. We consider dust concentration within an area to be affected by several dynamic factors rather than a single factor ,such the distance

from pollution source, pollution level, land use, human frequency during day and night, and the changing climate such as temperature, wind pressure and wind flow. Those combinations we sum into an equation we named as risk map equation (figure 7) to access area in our site which need higher protection than other parts. In this equation we analyse the data along the site to create a more location based project.

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Dustopia: Design Invisible Medium

2.3 Visible Dust

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orton’s definition about interobjectivity implies “at least one more object (1+n) can make invisible objects become visible and has a causality effect.”8 For instance, he uses wind as an invisible hyperobject that can be felt by human beings through the interaction with other objects, each gust causes bamboo clicks, windmill spins, waving leaves. This give us an idea that pollution is a result from interaction of different entities (visible and invisible) in the urban environment. The dust as particulates is invisible but in our life we can see dust sticking to our glasses or when sunlight enters a dark room we can see dust swirls in the air. “Dust is form-less. It does not possess its own form and it takes on that of its host, the nook in which it sits, the surface on which it is deposited. It is in this sense, apparently passive. And yet, in this, it activates. In settling and settling, dust relieves. It relieves in the sense that it measures, increments and enhances set forms and surface while coating them; covering and obliterating them it just makes them more visible.”9

The invisible dust over time becomes visible as a material. For instance dust exists on the dining table and if we left the table untouched for years, at one point we could see a thin layer of dust covers the surface of the dining table. Dust is attracted to objects by static electricity. LCD screens for example. At a certain point this invisible material could create a phenomena we can see clearly such as dust storms. Dust has the property of flowing to another part of space quickly and this make us think we might design to manipulate these dust movements. We could probably attract them to where we want. We create a prototype that could work to attract dust. The prototype is built using copper that is electrically conductive to produce an electrostatic field in the air to attract dust. We tested our experiment to come to the conclusion that it takes an entire week to get a visible layer of dust on our copper. Eventually when dust accumulates and becomes visible in our structure, it emerges as a political warning to the world about the prevalent air pollution.

Morton, T (2013). Hyperobjects: Philosophy and Ecology After the End of the World. Univ of Minnesota Press. pg.89 Stoppani, T. (2007), ‘Dust revolutions. Dust, informe, architecture. (notes for a reading of Dust in Bataille),’ The Journal of architecture, volume 12 (4), https://www.academia.edu/5124191/Dust_revolutions._Dust_informe_architecture_notes_for_a_reading_of_Dust_in_Bataille_ 8 9

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Figure 8 Ruskin’s treatise on dust. Within an aluminium factory, he used a latex cleansing technique widely used in contemporary preservation for removing dust from the dirty surface of buildings. http://thefunambulist. net/2010/12/23/architectural-theories-subnature-bydavid-gissen/

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Dustopia: Design Invisible Medium

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Dystopian City: Should It Be Revived? 3.1 Environmental dystopia in city

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laces we inhabit like villages, towns, small cities, larger metropolitan cities thrive on a system that works to support our life. This system is considered as sick city or dystopian when our life in the city is in danger and the city probably cannot be inhabited for a long time. For instance the town of Pripyat, around 3 kilometers away from Chernobyl nuclear disaster, once was a beautiful town by Soviet standards with 50.000 residents, today it is stamped as a ghost town and abandoned due to the radioactive contamination in 1986. Three decades after the catastrophic fallout, the town remains unsuitable for human settlement and will be for hundreds of years to come. “Radiation levels in Pripyat hover around 62.3 microroentgens an hour (0.52 microsieverts): just over twice the normal background radiation in London, and less than going through an airport security scanner three times.”10 This fact shows that Pripyat is sufficiently safe for a brief visit, but not long-term habitation. Dustopia as a project is an intervention in the urban fabric that will propose a possibility for long term habitation in such places.

Around this time we see the environmental catastrophe like air pollution has spread across great cities (over 14 million inhabitants) such as Beijing, Cairo, Dhaka, Mexico City, and Delhi. According to the latest urban air quality data from World Health Organization (WHO) reveals that “98% of cities with over 100.000 inhabitants in low and middle-income countries do not meet WHO air quality guidelines.”11 WHO estimates that it causes 3 million premature deaths a year, making it one of the greatest environmental risks to human health. This risk to human life has led to the utterance of a term called ‘airpocalypse’ which is popular in China as Chinese people use it to talk about their country’s toxic air. “On one day in Beijing, pollution levels were 30 times higher than levels deemed safe by the WHO. Flight were canceled, roads were closed, and one hospital in east Beijing reported treating more than 900 children for respiratory issues.”12 Basically the most threatening aspect of the smog is its high concentration of PM2.5, particulate matter

Willsher,K. (2016), Chernobyl 30 years on: former residents remember life in the ghost city of Pripyat. [Online]. available at https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2016/mar/07/chernobyl-30-years-residents-life-ghost-city-pripyat Last accessed 17 / 07 /2016. 11 World Health Organization. (2016). WHO Global Urban Ambient Air Pollution Database. [Online]. available at http:// www.who.int/phe/health_topics/outdoorair/databases/cities/en/ Last accessed 17 / 07 /2016. 10

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Figure 9 Global satellite-derived map of PM2.5 averaged over 20012006. Credit: Dalhousie University, Aaron van Donkelaar

that is small enough to lodge deep into the lungs and enter the bloodstream, causing respiratory infections, asthma, lung cancer, cerebrovascular disease, and possibly damaging children’s development. The poisonous atmosphere is already prevalent in our planet and there are 21 million inhabitants of Beijing engaged in a city-wide rehearsal to

live in an inhospitable planet. Should the city be revived? Or is it too late?

Kaiman, J. *2013). Chinese struggle through ‘airpocalypse’ smog [Online]. available at https://www.theguardian.com/ world/2013/feb/16/chinese-struggle-through-airpocalypse-smog Last accessed 17 / 07 /2016. 12

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Dustopia: Design Invisible Medium

3.2 London and the dystopia

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ir pollution has already been a significant issue which began to have a direct impact on every aspect of human life since the industrial revolution. As mentioned before in Hay’s popular novel The Doom of The Great City in 1880 depicts an anthropogenic source of pollution, rising from the heavy industries. It creates a cloud of pollution suffocating London and that makes London uninhabitable. Hay’s novel was like a prediction of the future,as there was a terrible air pollution catastrophe that affected London in December 1952. It is remembered as the Great Smog of 1952. “It was a period of cold weather, combined with an anticyclone and windless condition, where collected airborne pollutants (mostly arising from the use of coal) formed a thick layer of smog over the city from the 5th December to 9th December 1952.”13 The Great Smog of 1952 killed 4.000 people and 100.000 more suffered respiratory and cardiovascular problems. Now in the 21st century, air pollution has risen as an urban nightmare in London, which we may also call London

airpocalypse14. This issue has defined how Londoners occupy space related to pollution in the city of London. For instance, individuals of the upper class society largely occupy the western part of the city of London in contrast to the eastern part. The reason behind it was that general wind or pollution flow moves from the west to the east. This led to the Eastern part of London becoming an area for many industries and cheaper social housing. Airpocalypse in London comes with numerous variations, but one of the deadliest air pollutants is fine particles (dust). The highest levels of air pollution in London history have been caused by Saharan dust originating from the Saharan desert, combined with a mix of pollutants from Europe along that route to the UK. Saharan dust upheaval usually happens only once or twice a year but today the primary source of dust is not just from industry but also other operations that involve the burning of fuels such as road vehicles (car, truck, and bus), worldwide deforestation, construction equipment exhausts, etc.

Cleaner Air for London. History of air pollution in London. [Online]. available at http://www.cleanerairforlondon.org.uk/ londons-air/air-quality-data/trends-london/history-air-pollution-london Last accessed 19 / 07 /2016. 14 Airpocalypse is a term popular in China as Chinese people start use it to talk about their country’s toxic air 13

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Figure 10 ”Old king Coal” and the Fog Demon’, a cartoon featured in Punch, November 1880, the year in which Hay’s novella was published. Detail from the image above showing some of the fatal diseases London’s polluted fog could bring: pleurisy, pneumonia, bronchitis, and asthma.

Figure 11 “Important Meeting of Smoke Makers”, a cartoon featured in Punch (1853)

Mayor of London. Air quality and health. [Online]. available at https://www.london.gov.uk/what-we-do/environment/ pollution-and-air-quality/air-quality-and-health Last accessed 19 / 07 /2016. 15

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Dustopia: Design Invisible Medium

Figure 12 A London policeman wearing a mask for protection against the thick fog which hit most of the country and turned to smog in the city. (1952)

“An updated study by King’s College London in 2010 showed 9,400 deaths in London were due to long-term exposure to fine particles. Research shows particles with diameter of ten microns and smaller (PM10) can be inhaled deep into the lungs as smaller particles (PM2.5) can penetrate deeper and link to asthma and death.”15 In our project a series of site visits in Newham were conducted using three measurement devices to get a series of data including NO2, CO2, PM2.5, and PM10. The number in our measurements indicate that several places close to the sources of pollution are at risk. This condition could worsen due to the combined effect of localized pollution issues along with the Saharan/ European dust combo on route to UK. The majority of air pollution in Newham is from an anthropogenic source. Major sources are driven by the industries along and across the area such as the coal burning in Tate Lyle Sugar Factory,

the constant pollution from road and trains across Newham, the burning fuels of airplane frequenting the city airport, the heating system of the Excel Exhibition Center, ferry activity as a shortcut passing through the Thames river and some ongoing construction work for housing and railways. Pm 2.5 is also produced by common indoor activities like cooking, burning candles, fuel burning space heaters and tobacco smoke. Besides there is a possibility of fine particles originating outside Newham area as fine particles can be carried long distances from their source. Taking all these sources into consideration, the amount of PM2.5 in some areas is close to 100 µg/m3 during day time which is considered as a slightly dangerous level based on the London Air Quality Index. As a result, residents in Newham are victims of airpocalypse in the urban city. Our project called Dustopia aims to counter this issue of airpocalypse.

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Figure 13 Completely covered: Thick fog blacked out large areas of London, including Brixton pictured above, and the Home Counties while bringing road and rail traffic to a

Figure 14 Snug in the smog: Two-yearold Jill Hamlin, from Oxted, is seen at a mask fitting at Bourne And Hollingsworth store

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Figure 15 Carrying on: Commuters pictured wearing extra layers to work to protect them from the dust and dirt on their way to work as London entered its second day of dense fog in 1952

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Dustopia: Design Invisible Medium

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Dustopia: Designing Invisible Medium 4.1 The boundary of Dustopia space and human body

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n a city full of dust (Dustopia), people look forward to cleaner air by staying indoors so as to avoid the exposure of particulate matter in outdoor environment. In a matter of time human occupation in outdoor areas could disappear. As a result of the degradation of physical, urban and social connections outdoor in the city, people will soon begin to go through all activities indoor. For instance parents may prefer to raise their children inside the house rather than sending them to school or play outside. Homeschooling or a long distance learning system, which are already possible with the modern technology, would perhaps become popular. Psychology dictates that raised indoors leads to one facing serious social problems such as communicating and meeting people face to face. The school building (physical) will be empty and the surroundings (urban) could become a ghost district because neither students nor teachers occupy the school environment. We started Dustopia by doing a series of site visits with measurement devices to collect data and compile them into

maps. The maps would then help us diagnose air pollution risk within the area. We intervened at some urban spaces that fell under high risk of protection like the walkway to the DRL tunnel, a park, school playground, and long wall to examine our design proposal. The ambition of Dustopia is to revitalise and give back the outdoor space to the inhabitants by proposing a clean route where the particulate matter or dust is lesser. The challenge of our project is to design the microclimatic condition (lesser dust) in outdoor space as it is already done in indoor space. “Architecture has responsibilities to secure and facilitate a wide range of activities (from outdoor restaurant dining to a hospital operating room).� Sean Lally claim on his book The Air From Other Planet. Range of human activity shows that human beings occupy indoor and outdoor space. There are many spaces that should be outdoor due to the kind of activities that take place in them, but they are being designed as indoor spaces. This programmatic reasoning is ex-

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Figure 16 Sean Lally explain sensorial envelope as an envelope that organizes space and activities can exceed surfaces and walls. There fore a range of energy to design in each activity will be different and sensity. Such space like operating room still unreachable to be defined as outdoor space.

founder of Sean Lally Weather and an assistant professor at the University of Illinois at Chicago. A simple example is set in a camp on a mountain. When the bonfire was set, people around the camp preferred to sit around the bonfire rather than stay in the tent. He suggests that an architect as a designer needs to rethink program in such a way that the environmental aspect of design is considered first to shape human need. He explains that boundaries between indoor and outdoor exist as means to get a suitable microclimatic level within the indoor, to facilitate human occupancy. He argues that wall are an unneeded element in order to expand the boundary of living space. Microclimates in indoor spaces were created by using technology to achieve the ideal air temperature or humidity. Technology but not the wall. Lally feels that technological advancement can be used in the outdoors to produce microclimates in outdoor areas. In order to do that he thinks architecture should view the energy field of technology as design material as much as concrete or iron as

material. He define sensorial envelope of human body as a personal envelopes that can inform spatial organizations. In our project we will relate the sense of people to the exposure of air. Figure 16 is a diagram show how Lally compares range of activities based on the need for enclosed space, utilizing both walls and energy fields. From his diagram, we get idea to rethink the program of our proposal to activities that need clean air and usually need to be placed outdoors. We offer our prototypes for a range of activites such as yoga, jogging, sauna, playground, amphitheater, orator platform, retreat place, library, pavilion, market and outdoor cafe in Newham. Another program option considered is that our prototype can occupy spaces with the poorest air quality such as the tops of massive car park areas, DRL railway stations, chimney of the factory, and the ferry bridge in Thames River to collect massive amounts of dust. Then the dust could densify to create a complementary aggregate for making concrete.

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Dustopia: Design Invisible Medium

Figure 17 Philippe Rahm designs Jade Eco Park with different tematic of climate inside the park. He call it cliamate as architecture.

4.2 Occupy atmosphere: climate control space

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aking an environmental condition as a material to be designed, architecture should have capacity to adapt to changing circumstances through time. For example, self-generating materials promise an architecture that might actively absorb the emissions back into its own fabric. “Jean Nouvel’s Arab World Institute Building in Paris gave powerful and poetic expression to this promise of an intelligent building. Its facade was composed of thousands of wired mechanical apertures that opened and closed automatically in response to shift in external light levels.”16 This architecture reacts to environmental change and gives an effective lighting condition to the people who use the building.

park on the site of the old airport as exterior spaces where the excesses of the subtropical warm and humid climate of Taichung are lessened. He designed the park as 3 thematic climatic zones such as less hot (in the shade), less humid (sheltered from the remain) and less polluted (adding filtered air).To achieve these climatic zones, he research on a catalogue of climatic devices (natural and artificial) that are capable of lowering, reducing, inverting and heat, humidity and pollution. Those are classified into three sub devices: the cooling devices, the drying devices, the depolluting devices.”17

An extreme example of manipulating atmosphere was proposed by Philippe Rahm on a project called Jade Eco Park (figure 17). “He designed 70 hectare Von Stephen Cairns, J. M. J. (2014). Buildings must die: a perverse view of architecture. pg11 Rahm,P. (2016). Jade Eco Park. [Online]. available at http://www.philipperahm.com/data/projects/taiwan/index.html Last accessed 20 / 07 /2016. 16 17

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Figure 18 The construction of the Antycyclone, which blows out naturally cooled air. The design underwent rigorous testing and simulations for climatic conditions to quantify the speed of the air. The device is is being built after an intensive testing process.

Figure 19 The prototype we design to capture dust is developed from a cone combine with 3d weaving using 20 points. The weaving material is using copper wire, which could be electricly charge and the reasonable than other metal to create an electromagnetic field.

In our project we try to deal with an existing atmospheric condition which is pollution by PM2.5 from the industry. Our prototype can be deployed at several places as a wall module, canopy, street light and standalone device. The prototype generates electrostatic field to capture dust from the polluted air.The dust get attracted to the surface of three

dimensional weaving copper wire. As an addition we use natural depolluting devices such as trees and landscape mound with capability to block particles from road and supply oxygen to the space.

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Dustopia: Design Invisible Medium

Figure 20 The images shown were created from photographs of physical models that the team has built. They show images of mysterious floating energy sources, hovering above defined floor surfaces.

4.3 Design the invisible: material energies, microclimate, dust

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Innovations have led to extreme advances in envelope technology (rain screens, waterproof membrane, glazing, insulation) and in the systems capable of climatic control, rather than in the engineering and architectural control of the material variables that existed on the other side of the surface envelope. Current trends of architecture design as advocated by Sean Lally deal with how various forms of energy (electromagnetic, thermodynamic, acoustic, and chemical) are controlled and visualized. This gives architects a new set of materials for constructing the physical boundaries that define space.�18 By controlling material energy he assumes we can break the need of a wall as micro climatic property and create more habitable outdoor spaces, such as design that enables people to sit in the park or drink their coffee outside in the winter season.

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The challenge we have to face in Dustopia is that the characteristics of the material (dust) are not constant but vary overtime. Our design needs to be able to manipulate dust in certain context. In our project we aim to provide a microclimate that has clean air (lesser dust). Creating a sealed microclimate like typical greenhouse is not our option, since we want to create outdoor space. To achieve that we research a form of energy (particles and wave) that could attract dust from the air, to design using an electrostatic field. On using this electrostatic field we catalogued the effectiveness of our prototype to be able to attract microscopic dust. We came to the conclusion that the prototype depended on several parameters such as material, the geometry of the prototype, the size of the prototype, the weaving pattern, the density of the weaving, and the power of electricity.

Lally, S. (2014). The air from other planets: A brief history of architecture to come,, pg. 15

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Figure 21 The range of ioniser from our protorype that occupy by existing lamp post. The longer it is activated the wider range of ionisatation we get.

Copper Ionising Experimentation

3D Printed Pattern

Figure 22 The prototype to generate electro static field to capture the ionise dust from the air. Here are the field line of electrostatic in our prototype D.

weaving, and the power of electricity. We made a series of studies on copper patterns. Inspiration was drawn from a Rodin Coil, which made by wrapping wires around a doughnut-shaped core in a star pattern to produce a strong-

er electromagnetic field. We created several patterns and duly tested them. Results lead us to justify that the starship pattern worked the best in attracting dust. The electrostatic power can be increased by increasing the density of weaving on this pattern. We develop a

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Dustopia: Design Invisible Medium

Figure 23 Sean Lally project called “wandering� he designed landscape that could adjust termperature as a summer time. This make people occupy the park in a winter time and grass are grown in the cold weather.

more performative design to try to intensify the electrostatic field energy that we use to separate dust from the people. We converted 2 dimensional patterns into a 3 dimensional weave on a cone in order to get a wider range of electrostatic field using the same amount of copper as in the 2 dimensional pattern. Based on function we can divide our prototypes into two parts. First is an ionizer to charge the air particles (dust), converting them into negative ions. The second is creating the electrostatic field to attract dust.The prototype had a varied range to attract dust, between 0.5 to 10 meter radius.We assembled those prototypes using the logic of circle packing as they become strong enough to hang on the air and the space underneath we can use for different programs, such as amphitheater, yoga, etc. Dustopia is tied to the relationship between the intensity of material energies

used and climatic variables of the surrounding context. As properties of the climatic surroundings fluctuate (increasing in humidity or wind speed, or dropping in temperature), the architectural shape must respond by either intensifying or decreasing the energy output needed to maintain the special series of boundaries for refining and organizing a given space. Those two influence physical and spatial control of architectural shape. These energy properties produced have the potential to be combined with environmental sensors such as dust sensor or temperature sensors to identify which item that should change on the site, being activated and deactivated according to the environment. This picture shows that the possibility to combine the prototype and sensor, will give opportunity to provide a clean air in a more efficient and sustainable way.

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Figure 24 Drawing of our prototype in section and plan. Section show the boundary of interior that we define as microclimatic less polluted air than surround the areea. This will bring people to come back to use outdoor space in the threat of apocalypse in the city. the lines of enerfy will be change and developed through out time.

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Figure 25 Top view of Dustopia project with the electrostatic field generated by the prototype (activated and deactivated depend on the fluctuation of the environment). Prototype tied together in one circle packing system to expand larger area covered for cleaner air. We provide space underneath to use as urban public space in airpocalypse city.


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Dustopia: Design Invisible Medium

05

Conclusion

A

Air pollution can be considered as an extremely intimate threat to human health. Among all air pollutants airborne particle such as dust are the biggest threat to inhabitants, as they cause several respiratory diseases. This atmospheric dystopia in these cities serves as a rehearsal on how to live in an inhospitable planet. The current way humanity faces this dystopian city is by avoiding exposure to those particles. This is achieved by staying indoors, preferring to exercise in a gym rather than a park, choose home schooling instead of actual school, and choosing delivery options rather than walking outside. I do not agree to this concept of indoor living as a means of human defense mechanism against a city full of dust (Dustopia city). The main reason is that dust as an entity invades and pervades everywhere so hiding indoors would seem futile. The other reason is that staying indoors will render outdoor spaces as negative spaces in a city (unoccupied). People choose to occupy indoor spaces in a dustopian city because indoor space have less dust but not completely devoid of it. Our project aims to push for outdoor space to be re-occupied by

inhabitants in the Dustopian city. By creating a less dusty outdoor environment, the project will successfully revitalise the outdoor space for the inhabitants. Our project evaluates how architects could provide an outdoor space that has similar qualities to indoor space, which is less polluted (dust) air. This is done by modifying the air or atmospheric condition to provide spatial qualities required for a human body. The way to create this microclimate is by the attraction and controlled accumulation of dust rather than destroying or washing it down. To attract and accumulate dust, we work with a form of energy manipulation. Generated electrostatic field is used as a material to be designed with in a space. Giving shape to an architecture based on material energies is a means to avoid the passive aspects of designing that begin by defining activities and then constructing boundaries to facilitate them. Several copper weave patterns were created in order to study and perfect the medium of the electrostatic field that is to be produced in the air. This helps to determine the working of the several prototypes used in dustopia, en-

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abling us to control the range, strength and capacity of the electrostatic field in our project. Microclimatic factors like certain specific temperatures, air quality condition, and lighting conditions are taken into consideration. This technology is similar to that of a filtration machine but the prototypes vary in accordance to produced electrostatic field on the site. Research and drawings have led to the conclusion that architecture in Dustopia should be more of a performative design that would be a possible response to the material world of dust. Dustopia explores the invisible medium as a design material. These invisible medium are dust, energy and microclimate. The design is such that one needs to always find the correlation within this three materials in order to accommodate human needs.The possible future of our project could be to research more into the possibility of responsive architecture in our prototypes. A limitation of dustopia is that a proper range of electrostatic attraction is difficult to achieve in order to collect dust on a real scale (real size prototypes require a high voltage power). It is merely due to our limitation of experimenting with high volt-

age. Irrespective of this we hope we can achieve clean air for people to do yoga outdoors, drink their coffee outdoor, and allow for children to play outdoors. Dustopia is critical in order to push the boundary of living space. Where human beings no longer occupy the surface or space but occupy the atmosphere. The boundaries of architecture in designing a space can be breached by controlling energy. An ability to explore energy as material enables us to change the definition of “interior” or more accurately the boundary that determines what “interior” (less dust) is. The project doesn’t seek to simply ‘condition’ exterior spaces and reproduce existing and known climates, but instead seeks new territories of design, infastructure, texture, and social interaction. Every component of our pollution risk assessment is tangible and non static. Our project is a responsive form of architecture where the prototype is connected to sensors that calculates all the relevant data collected in real time and it determines whether our project works partially or is fully activated as climatic infrastructure in the ‘airpocalypse’ city.

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Dustopia: Design Invisible Medium

Index Figure 1. Buzz Aldrin on the surface of the moon. (2014). [image] At: http://www.dailytech.com/Buzz+Aldrin+Says+First+Ast ronauts+to+Set+Foot+on+Mars+Should+Never+Return+Home/article36190.htm (accessed on 20 July 2016) Figure 2. Cold war gas mask. People in city rehearsh inhospitable atmosphere. (2014). [image] At: http://www.darkroastedblend.com/2007/04/cold-war-gas-mask-fashion.html Figure 3. Image of the Great Rift - a dusty lane that stretches from the constellation Cygnus to Sagittarius. (2016). [image] At: https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Great_Rift_(astronomy) Figure 4. Simulation of the collision of two dust agglomerates in a protoplanetary disk. The two aggregates consist of 44359 monomeres and have been created by a realistic growth process using ballistic cluster-cluster aggregation. (2011). [image] At: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=sFYg-9HlDBY Figure 5. Two irregular shaped porous dust aggregates collide with an impact parameter b = 0.25. Both aggregates have an outer radius of roughly 50µm and have been created by a combination of particle-cluster-aggregation and ballistic collisions of smaller aggregates. (2012). [image] At: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uoABtVHv4iA Figure 6. NASA used its satellites to track and map 27.7 million tons of dust from the Sahara Desert to the Amazon rainforest. According to NASA, the finding is part of a bigger research effort to understand the role of dust and aerosols in the environment and on local and global climate. (2015). [Iimage] At: http://www.nasa.gov/content/goddard/nasa-satellite-revealshow-much-saharan-dust-feeds-amazon-s-plants Figure 7. Risk degree equation that we create to calculate all the factors that affect pollution (environmentally) with how human occupy space. Source: Dustopia Figure 8. Ruskin’s treatise on dust. Within an aluminium factory, he used a latex cleansing technique widely used in contemporary preservation for removing dust from the dirty surface of buildings. (2010). [image] At: http://thefunambulist. net/2010/12/23/architectural-theories-subnature-by-david-gissen/ Figure 9. Global satellite-derived map of PM2.5 averaged over 2001-2006. Credit: Dalhousie University, Aaron van Donkelaar. (2010). [image] At: http://www.nasa.gov/topics/earth/features/health-sapping.html Figure 10. ”Old king Coal” and the Fog Demon’, a cartoon featured in Punch, November 1880, the year in which Hay’s novella was published. Detail from the image above showing some of the fatal diseases London’s polluted fog could bring: pleurisy, pneumonia, bronchitis, and asthma. [image] At: http://publicdomainreview.org/2015/09/30/bad-air-pollution-sin-and-sciencefiction/ Figure 11. “Important Meeting of Smoke Makers”, a cartoon featured in Punch (1853). [image] At: http://publicdomainreview. org/2015/09/30/bad-air-pollution-sin-and-science-fiction/ Figure 12. A London policeman wearing a mask for protection against the thick fog which hit most of the country and turned to smog in the city. (1952). (2012). [image] At: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2243732/Pea-souper-killed12-000-So-black-screen-cinemas-So-suffocatingly-lethal-ran-coffins-How-Great-Smog-choked-London-60-years-ago-week. html#ixzz4F17qMzP8 Figure 13. Completely covered:Thick fog blacked out large areas of London, including Brixton pictured above, and the Home Counties while bringing road and rail traffic to a crawl. (2012). [image] At: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2243732/ Pea-souper-killed-12-000-So-black-screen-cinemas-So-suffocatingly-lethal-ran-coffins-How-Great-Smog-choked-London60-years-ago-week.html#ixzz4F17qMzP8

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Figure 14. Snug in the smog:Two-year-old Jill Hamlin, from Oxted, is seen at a mask fitting at Bourne And Hollingsworth store. (2012). [image] At: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2243732/Pea-souper-killed-12-000-So-black-screen-cinemas-Sosuffocatingly-lethal-ran-coffins-How-Great-Smog-choked-London-60-years-ago-week.html#ixzz4F17qMzP8 Figure 15. Carrying on: Commuters pictured wearing extra layers to work to protect them from the dust and dirt on their way to work as London entered its second day of dense fog in 1952. (2012). [image] At: http://www.dailymail.co.uk/news/article-2243732/ Pea-souper-killed-12-000-So-black-screen-cinemas-So-suffocatingly-lethal-ran-coffins-How-Great-Smog-choked-London60-years-ago-week.html#ixzz4F17qMzP8 Figure 16. Sean Lally explain sensorial envelope as an envelope that organizes space and activities can exceed surfaces and walls. There fore a range of energy to design in each activity will be different and sensity. Such space like operating room still unreachable to be defined as outdoor space. (2014). [image] At: http://www.archdaily.com/495586/the-air-from-otherplanets-a-brief-history-of-architecture Figure 17. Philippe Rahm designs Jade Eco Park with different tematic of climate inside the park. He call it cliamate as architecture. (2014) [image] At: http://www.philipperahm.com/data/projects/taiwan/tw1.jpg Figure 18. The construction of the Antycyclone, which blows out naturally cooled air. The design underwent rigorous testing and simulations for climatic conditions to quantify the speed of the air. The device is is being built after an intensive testing process. 2014. [image] At: http://www.metropolismag.com/November-2014/Philippe-Rahm-Climate-as-Architecture/ Figure 19. The prototype we design to capture dust is developed from a cone combine with 3d weaving using 20 points. The weaving material is using copper wire, which could be electricly charge and the reasonable than other metal to create an electromagnetic field. (2016). [Photograph] By: Dustopia Figure 20. The images shown were created from photographs of physical models that the team has built. They show images of mysterious floating energy sources, hovering above defined floor surfaces. (2014). [image] At: http://www.dezeen. com/2014/11/03/new-energy-landscapes-sean-lally-istanbul-design-biennial-2014/ Figure 21. The range of ioniser from our protorype that occupy by existing lamp post. The longer it is activated the wider range of ionisatation we get. (2016). [drawing] By: Dustopia Figure 22. The prototype to generate electro static field to capture the ionise dust from the air. Here are the field line of electrostatic in our prototype D. (2016). [drawing] By: Dustopia Figure 23. Sean Lally project called “wandering� he designed landscape that could adjust termperature as a summer time.This make people occupy the park in a winter time and grass are grown in the cold weather. (2008). [image] At: http://www.weathers.cc/Wanderings-Installation Figure 24. Drawing of our prototype in section and plan. Section show the boundary of interior that we define as microclimatic less polluted air than surround the areea. This will bring people to come back to use outdoor space in the threat of apocalypse in the city. the lines of enerfy will be change and developed through out time. (2016). [drawing] By: Dustopia Figure 25. Top view of Dustopia project with the electrostatic field generated by the prototype. Prototype tied together in one circle packing system to expand larger area covered for cleaner air. We provide space underneath to use as urban public space in airpocalypse city. [drawing] By: Dustopia

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Dustopia: Design Invisible Medium

Bibliography Books & journals: Gissen, D., & ebrary, I. (2009). Subnature: Architecture’s other environments : atmospheres, matter, life (First edition.). New York: Princeton Architectural Press. Lally, S. (2014). The air from other planets: A brief history of architecture to come Morton, T (2013). Hyperobjects: Philosophy and Ecology After the End of the World. Univ of Minnesota Press. Morton, T. (2012). Ecology without nature. Retrieved from www.ecologywithoutnature.blogspot.co.uk: http://ecologywithoutnature. blogspot.co.uk/2012/12/what-does-hyperobjects-say.html Stoppani, ,T. (2007), ‘Dust revolutions. Dust, informe, architecture. (notes for a reading of Dust in Bataille),’ The Journal of architecture, volume 12 (4), https://www.academia.edu/5124191/Dust_revolutions._Dust_informe_architecture_notes_for_a_reading_of_Dust_in_Bataille_ Von Stephen Cairns, J. M. J. (2014). Buildings must die: a perverse view of architecture. pg11 Online articles: Afifi, S. (2014). Blurred Boundaries. [Online], available at: http://www.suckerpunchdaily.com/2014/09/15/blurred-boundaries/ Last accessed 21 / 07 / 2016 Cleaner Air for London. History of air pollution in London. [Online]. available at http://www.cleanerairforlondon.org.uk/ londons-air/air-quality-data/trends-london/history-air-pollution-london Last accessed 19 / 07 /2016. Kaiman, J. (2013). Chinese struggle through ‘airpocalypse’ smog [Online]. available at https://www.theguardian.com/ world/2013/feb/16/chinese-struggle-through-airpocalypse-smog Last accessed 17 / 07 /2016. Lally, S (2014). Weathers. [Online]. Available at http://www.weathers.cc/ http://www.weathers.cc/ Last accessed 21 / 07 /2016 Lally, S (2014). Shagg. [Online]. Available at http://www.weathers.cc/ Last accessed 14/ 07 /2016 Lally, S (2014). Wandering. [Online]. Available at http://www.weathers.cc/ Last accessed 20 / 07 /2016 Mayor of London. Air quality and health. [Online]. available at https://www.london.gov.uk/what-we-do/environment/pollution-and-air-quality/air-quality-and-health Last accessed 19 / 07 /2016. Mancuso, M. Dna:Dust Eye / Dust Architecture. [Online]. available at: http://www.digicult.it/design/dna-dust-eye-dust-architecture/ Last accessed 15 / 07 / 2016 Rahm, P. (2016). Jade Eco Park. [Online]. available at http://www.philipperahm.com/data/projects/taiwan/index.html Last accessed 20 / 07 /2016 Shirley, A. (2016). Which are the world’s most polluted cities?. [Online]. available at: https://www.weforum.org/agenda/2016/05/ which-are-the-world-s-most-polluted-cities/ Last accessed 15/ 07 / 2016 Wainwright, O. (2014) Inside Beijing’s airpocalypse – a city made ‘almost uninhabitable’ by pollution. [Online]. available at: https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2014/dec/16/beijing-airpocalypse-city-almost-uninhabitable-pollution-china Last accessed 19 /07 / 2016 Willsher,K. (2016), Chernobyl 30 years on: former residents remember life in the ghost city of Pripyat. [Online]. available at https://www.theguardian.com/cities/2016/mar/07/chernobyl-30-years-residents-life-ghost-city-pripyat Last accessed 17 / 07 /2016.

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Urgent meeting about gas as weapon during coldwar. source: http://www.darkroastedblend.com/2007/04/cold-war-gas-mask-fashion.html

Dustopia | Design Invisible Medium  

MArch UD Bartlett School of Architecture

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