Page 1

Design Sketching approaches sketching technIque In a unIque and inspirational way by showing sketches from all phases in the desIgn process. The broad col lect IOn contains ske tches va rying both regarding degree of dIfficulty and type of produc t d Isplayed. The main purpose of Design Sketchmg IS to help readers find ways to better VIsualize theIr Ideas, In a way that SUI tS their personal style. Moreover. It alms to se r ve as a source o f Insplratton and as a complemen t to more theoretical sketchI ng books. Twenty·four talented and creat ive students from one of Europe's best design schools, the Umea InstItute of Design. have contnbuted to the dIverse material In this book. The collection conSISts of sketches taken from authentIC course assIgnments and degree projects completed by students at the Advanced Product DeSign, Interaction DeSign, Transportation Design , and Bache lor Programmes. The book IS sepa rated Into 5 chapters co ntaining:

Including an extensive collection of inspiring sketches by 24 students at the Umeii Institute of Design

• Basic Theory ThiS section covers the most impo rtant aspects of sketc hing theory, (su ch as material . perspective. shad ing, etc .) wit h areas speci fically se lected for thei r relevance to industr ial des ign. • Investigative and Explorative Sketches ThiS chapter shows investigative and explor ative sketches, whi ch are se ldom shown In books and papers. despite the fact that they are normally prod uced in the largest quantity during a design project. • Explanatory Sketches The ability to communica te the function or form of a product is essential to a designer. Th is chapter shows sketches created in order to illustrate concepts or proposed deSign solutions, often for the purpose of presentation and discussion.

• Persuas ive Sketches The expressive sketches shown In thiS chapter don't stop at explaini ng functi on or form. but further convince an audi ence by conveying the m ood and emotional values of a product.

• •

• Step-by-Step Tutorials Instructional step·by·step tutorials reveal the crea t ion process of six sketches that cover a broad r ange of complexi ty, from Init ial outl ines to advanced reflective surfaces.

• •

• \\'W\~ .d es l sn5kc l c h

Erik Olofsson • Klara Sjoh~n

ISDN 91-63 1· 1J9~ ·8


Erik Olofsson • Klara Sjtih3n

Alexander Nemtsov • Ene Gunnarsson • Floris W,egermck • Frednk NIlsson · Hlrash Ra zagh, • Ida Ristner Jarno Sund ell · Jens Andersson · Joak.m Sallberg • John Andersson . Jonas Samrel1u5 • Jonat han Hicks

Karl Forsberg . Karolina Ran tfors • Ladlslao Camarena . lmda Bagren • Mana Balthammar • Mlkael Lugnega rd Mauri cIO Bedolla Gasca · Pont us Unger . Robin Hedman · Slen Haggblom • Sl lan Sorhe • Ozgur Tazar

Table of Contents Introduction 4-5

Basic Theory 6-19

Investigative and Explorative Sketches 20-45

Explanatory Sketches 46 -71

Persuasive Sketches 12-87

Step路by-step Tutorials 88-102

Thanks to 103

Index and Literature TIp


Productloo, GraphiC Desisn and Publishing: Enk Ololuon and Klara SJol~n Langua~ E01l1n8.

Ahms EmZlnas

Bnan Weissman Cecilia Berhn ll~


Pnnted on env'fonmenlallnern:ny paper



ISBN 9163173948 Copynghl 0 2005 ~EEOS DeslRn Books AS h All nihls leserYeCI No PlIrt of tIllS publiCation may be reproduced ,1'1 1Irl)' form , Of by afl)' means. Without Written permiSSion from the pubhs fr.

Second Edition 2006 04 10 Prmtt!(lm S... edlM by l,unlltwlrgs

Tryc~.efl AB,

KI'ppan, S.... edl!ll


Sketching - the Designers' Visual Language

The book you are now holding 10 your hands was first envIsioned dunng our Iinal yea r at the Bachelors' program at the Umet! Institute of Design . Throughout the whole o r our edllca· honal period. we had looked for, but could not find. a modern book on sketching ,tech,olques that focused on Industnal Design - giVing us the idea to make a book that could InspI re and teach sketching by presen ting the large vanety of ske tches thai are useful In the design process. We could not halle been In a better poslhon to ,turn such a book into rea l it~! At t,he Umea Institu te of Design, we were surrounded by creative and talented student s skilled In sketching. The institute IS one of Europe's most prominent Industn al Design schools, pro· vidlng 4 academiC programs: one Bachelor"s Programme and three Master's Programmes Within the areas of Interaction·, Product· and Transportation Design .

The ability to sketch IS one of the most valued skills among Industnal deSigners, their co workers and clients - and It IS not WIthout reason . Sketching has proved over the years to be one of the fastest ways lor a deSigner to defme problems, ex.plore Ideas and develop form whether using paper, digital media or combined, of which you Will see many examples In thiS book.

Our selections from the different areas of the Institute have resulted in a unique collection of sketches from all phases in the deSign process, which show various degrees of d ifficulty and represent a large number of different products. Smce personal sketchmg style ca n vary greatly amongst different designers - and no right and wrong rea lly exist - sketches have been chosen With style vanety in mind. Furthermore, they are taken directly from real projects: the sketches Included have not been made expressly for thiS book. We wou ld have been glad to see a more even representation of the sexes among the sketch contributors for th is book though. The truth IS, the proportion of male to female contributors roughly reflects the ratio of male to female students enrolled 10 the International Master's programmes at the Institute at the present time. Nevertheless, we hope and believe tha t both wom en and m en Will feel equally addressed by the contents of this book.


Often , t he investIgative functi on of sketching IS lightly connected to the early research phase of a design proJect . The deSIgner IS examining the problem space, and sketching helps ana lysing the contex t while the problem and ItS components are emerging. Explorative sketching IS often used when proposals of deSign solutions are generated and evaluated. These skelches are produced 10 la rge numbers, are often very rough and do seldom make much sense for others than the people directly Involved In the design process. Explanatory sketches have to communicate a clear message to others than the deSigner and the tea m , in contrast to the explorat ive sketches mentioned above. These sketches descnbe and illustra te proposed concepts 10 a neutral and straight·forward manner, and are often created in the later phases of a proJect , t o get valuable feedback from users, chents and extern al exper ts. Persuasive sketches are the most artist ically Impressive type of Images. often called renderi ngs and takes much more time to finish than the other types. The main purpose WIth these d rawings is to 'sell' the proposed deSIgn concept to influential stakeholders. such as CEOs or Design Managers.

A lot of time and effort is required to accomplish a thorough and we ll ·though t out d esign prolect - a designer's abIlity to sketch IS merely a small pa rt of the skills needed du ring the overall process! But the fact is, even a great design concept stilt has to be visualized success· fully In order to be both communicated and sold to others, 10 which the sketch m ost oft en plays a great part.

Design Sketchmg was wntten to serve as a source of Inspiration as well as help you improve your sketching skills and find ways to better visualize your ideas in accordance with your personal style. We hope tha i It Will give you many val uable t ips, release your creativity and fuel your urge to sketch!

Of course, many of these purposes coexist 10 the same sketches, and the dIfferent types of sketches oft en appear repeatedly dunng the many IteratIons of a successful deSign project , especially explorative and explanatory sketches are the most frequent types.

EnjOy your read!

E"k and Klara,


The ter m sketch has generally the meaning of a rough or unfinished drawmg, and the ach vity to sketch IS to gIVe a brief account or general outline of something. The English word ongmates from the italian SCh,ZZO, In turn based on the claSSIC Greek term slchedlos signifying 'done extempore · spoken or done WIthout preparation'. One of the baSIC cognitive benefits of sketchmg IS that the mere acts of formulallng a mental Image In a conc rete wayan paper makes It pOSSIble for the deSigner to reflect over the concept at once and almos t Instantly develop it further lOtO a new concept. a so called Iteration . When working In teams, sketchmg is a valuable tool for creative group activities such as bramstormlng and concept evaluati on. In professional deSign prachce, sketchmg has proven to have multitude of pu rposes which can be summanzed under four headlines - investigation , exploration, explanation and persuasi on:

August 2005

Enjoy th is ric h collection of sketches made by talented design st udents of Umea Institute of Design p resented in this book, and I hope it will Inspire and stimulate you to further explore the visuat language of design.

Niklas Andersson Director of Studies Ume~ Institute of Design

Klara Sj o l ~ n was born In 1980 In Sundsvall. Sweden. She IS currently completing her Master's Degree (2006) In Industrial Design Engmeenng at Chalmers UniverSity 01 Technology, speclahzlng In Materials Science and Transportation. She has a separate Bachelor's Degree (2005) In Industrial Design from the UmeA Inshtute 01 Design. DUring Internshlp$ abroad she has developed an Interest In Pubhc Transportallon.

Eri k Olol sso n was born In

1978 In Umea,

Sweden. He graduated With a Bachelor'S Degree In Indust"al Design from Umea Instltute 0 1 DeSIgn In 2005. Erik has a speCial Interest in EntertalOment Design and Conceptual Art, and IS cu rrently purSuing a num be r 01 d iffer. ent entrepreneural buslOess projec ts.






...____~_________~";.;"~h~'"~•...;;Ih;.~O';;;."~."~.~"~· Visual Language


IntroductIO _" _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~_


Basic Theory For more experienced readers, these pages can act as remmd. ers, while for the begmner, they can serve as an outlme of the most Important draWing techmques and also as a checkl,st of areas to gam greater knowledge of. For a fIst of l,terature that covers these areas more thoroughly, please consult the litera ture tiP Ilsc on page 104.

n lakes a grea t deal of practICe co become good at sketchmg! Asrde from the essentral abr/rty 10 draw, a good knowledge of baSIC IllustratIon theorres Irlre perspective and shadmg rs reqUIred to create credIble and attractrve sketches. The followmg theoretICal sectron mcludes a summary of areas or subjecls deemed Important speclftcally when drawmg mduStrlal product desrgn s~e tches.

... Gouache This IS an opaque and water soluble coloured peunt often used lor Vibrant highlights It IS normally mixed ..... ,th 'Nater (retaining coverage) for a more eaSily controlled and lIuenl can slstency. Gouache IS apphed to a sketch ..... ,th a hne lipped brush

... Airbru sh Airbrushing creates shading With a yery smooth gradl ent To create sharp edges, It IS necessary to mask ofl (cover) areas that are not to be coloured. Masking IS used lor many me dHl. but IS espeCIally Important lor aIrbrushing, since airbrushed fields cannot be erased . There are many arrbrushlng systems ayallable, from the tradl' tlonal to the more modern ones that Involye a Simple marker pen attachment, like the COPIC or Tlla marker aIrbrUSh systems.

Sketching Media ThIs sectIon shows examples of materials used to create the sketches m thIS book. Experrment WIth these and other media to get a sense of theIr characteflstlCs and discover personal favoufltes. SpecIfIC brands are only mentioned as examples and should not be considered recommendatIons. .. Ballpoint Pen The sketch to the right was drawn usmg a ball· POint pen deSigned to create thin and exact lines 01 ink. Usually, pen shadings are created by Iltllng fields wllh parallel slanting hnes. Because the Ink has a tendency to bleed when marker IS added over II. marker IS sometimes combined With ballpOint pen to create shading. To avoid thiS effect when usmg markers over ballpoint pen hne art. try uSing a different mil( of marker and pen brands. (For el(ample, 8,c Orange Fine ballpoint pens do not bleed .....Ith Caple markers.)

, . \

I •

• Coloured Pencils Many brands olfer coloured penCils In a mul· tltude of colours and hardnesses. These penCils are less rellee· tlve and have higher plgmenl saturation than graphite pencils. Coloured penclts are used both alone and In combina tion With olher media. Hard penCils glye thin and exact lines and are olten used lor 10undailOn sketches, while softer ones can creale high.

hght and el(tra·powerful outlines. Black and white colou red pencils can be useful for cre ating QUick planar Ylews, pOSSibly on coloured backgrounds or coloured paper. Many of the sketches in thiS book were made with Sanford P"smaco/or (salt) and Sanford Vel/thin (hard) brands 01 colou red pencils, fr eq uently in black. white and Indigo blue.

. '

.. Mark!:!r This IS a type 01 lelt ·tlpped pen, ayaHable '" a Wide range of COlours. Marker can be applied In one or more ta ers' layefinS slro~es of the same Colour Will darken an area wlrh ' saturated colour. To create a smooth surface marker k and liberally, covermg the


... Digital Software It IS also poSSIble to sketch With the aid of a computer and graphiC soltware. A dIgital pen and drawmg board IS prelerable to usmg a mouse, Since the pen allows for more accuracy and control. Many "mltatlons of tradItional media can be overcome when working digItally. lor example, a sketch can be reworked or re·coloured Indeflmtety Without destrOYing It. Digital media IS olten used on scanned hand·drawn hne art, to add separate layers of colours and effects. The most commonty used software for workmg digitally on sketches In thiS book are Photom ap and Pamte r.

... Past !:!1 Pastels are often used to create gradients. or for cover· ing large areas like backgrounds. They can be used to express light re flections or shiny and transparent su rfaces such as glass and d isplays. In order to achleye an eyenly filled surface. either draw pasllhe lines 01 a par I. using an eraser to remove redun · dant pastel, or mask off the area before adding the pastel. To creat e the Impression 01 a lit or shiny surface; Simply erase the pastel from the area meant to appear lit. To enable a smooth application. pastel blocks can be scraped to obtain a powder, which IS then mixed with baby powder and ap· piled to a sketch with a soft pad or co tton wool . Pastel powders of dllferent hues can be mixed to creat e the deslfed shade .


Paper The paper can mfluence the performance 01 some media. A paper's gram or smoothness Will determine how frne and clear· Iy lines can be drawn. and can affect the appearance 01 coloured penCIl or ballpOint pen sketches. Markers are olten used on 'bleed proal' paper. a klOd of paper that doesn' t allow marker Ink to seep through . ThIS protects underlYing surfaces from getting stained . and prolongs the hIe 01 the marker pens. When marker IS added liberally. bleed proal paper's low absorbency allows for more exact marker helds. A brand 01 marker paper commonly used for sketches III thiS book IS Letraset.


wh~le sUrfa~~ b~'~~~ ~t

It IS a iOOd Idea to buy m.ilrkers In pairS, I.e. two of the same colour. but WIth dltfermg hghlness/ saluratlon They c b together to ColOUr the dltferent surfaces of a~ object ~~ t e us~ ~::~~t In I,he shade respectl~ely. The most freqUentl; ua:~ II mar ers rn thIS book IS Copic.

, •

&~IC Th ;::"=", - - - - - - - - - - - -

Sketching MedIa

BaSIC Theory



Material • Textured Material The technique used here {see the black gnp surface} IS called frottage. and 15 used to indicate teklured 5urface~ like gnps or cloth. A draWing tool (e,g. a pencil) IS used to make a ~rubblng' O',{ef a te~tured underlay. thus transfemng a textured ap. pearance to the paper. Many dlf1erent surface textures can be tned to achIeve a deSired ellect. for example. by uSing plastIC folders. metal screens, notIce boards, etc. (WhIte soft pencil. marker)

The sAelches below show only a few of the many \Vays that matel/afs can be ,lIustrated. Rendermg skills can be Improved by observing the way that maret/als and te.\tutes reflect lIght. and by trying to replIcate these effects usmg dIfferent sketchmg media and techntques. A general prmclple to keep In mmd. concernmg all materials, IS that an obJect'S shape IVIII also convey a mate"al. Because of the design limItatIOns of some materials. small details such as the size of edge radII reveal what II/nds of malenal the object IS made of.

... Sh iny Plastic In thIS case, a saturated blue colour has been chosen. In order to aVOId the fisk of confUSing the plastic WIth matenals thai are typIcally rendered In shades of grey. such as metal or rubber. The more contrasts and defIned reflectIOns there are on it sur. face, the shImer the malenal Will seem. (Black hard pencil, black and while sofl pencil, marker, gouache)

.6. Matte Plast ic MaUe plashc has been Illustrated here (the green parts) uSing smooth and salt shading, wllh very vague or no rellechons. (Black and while soft pencil. marker)

... Rubber Rubbery materials are charactenzed by surfaces With soft gradients and very low contras ts. These effects have been produced here uSing pastels and coloured pencils over a layer of dark marker. (Hard and soH black pencil, white soft pencil • marker, pastel)

.6. Metal Any hl!!hly reflective matenal should appear to mirror Its surroundmgs on Its surfaces. In thiS example (above), a rou!!h Illustrat ion of the reflection has been created using hl!!hly can. trastlng and defmed fields combined With Bradlent areas. (Black hard penCil. black and white salt pencit. marker, gouache)

In order to crea te believable sketches, il,s Imperative that a designer has an understanding o( perspective theory. An audl' ence lVII/instinctively know when a sketch has been drawn 'ou/ of' perspective. even IVlthou/knowlng perspective rules. Correct perspective IS also Vital for the deSigner to be able to estimate and convey the proportions of a sketched obJect.






109 POints too close together results In a distorted or 'warped'

.6. Two. poi nt Per spective The sketch above Illustrates the rules of two· POint perspective. Notice that all vertical lines on the boxes are parallel to each olher, and perpendicular to the hOTizon line (I.e. the hOTizontalline drawn across the picture that mdlcates eye level). Parallel honzontal lines on Ihe actual object are not parallel in the sketch. but meet at a speCifi C 'vanlshmg palOI' on the horizon line (blue and green dots). These vanlshmg pomts are arbitrarily placed by the designer. To better understand the effects of vanishing points. the object can be drawn several times wi th vari ations ,n the placemen t of the pOints. Pl acmg the vamsh·

perspective. To aVOid thiS effect. make sure that a perpendicular front corner (marked here 10 red) of an object creates a substan ual angle between the vamshlOg pornts. ThIs angle should exceed 90 degrees.

• •



- - ,-


.4 Transparent Mat eri al Tinted transpa rent materials have deeper COlour Intensity where the material Is at its thickest. Clear tran s· parent parts olten con tain complex refra cti ons that can be too IImeconsumm!! to Illustrate If they're not simplified (catalogue photos of transparent product s can be studied to get a reference on how to make controlled and simpli fied refra cti ons). The IlIu· Sian of a transparent matenal 10 a sket ch can be enhanced by dra .....lng something behind the object that IS VISible through the mateflal. (Black hard pencil. wtllte soft pencIl. marker. Photoshop)

.6. Varnished Surface A varnished surface has been Illustrated ht:re uSing rough reflections created With marker and a liberal apphcahon 01 highlights. Smooth Bradlents of a Slightly different ~IOUr ha.-e be<en made .... Ith pastels, IndiCatln8 reflections 01 dlf. erent Colours In the er1Ylronmen\. (Black hard pencil h t pencil. marlter. pastel. gouaChe) . w I e salt


B.:tSIC Th'~"~'~y--------~'-----------~--

thIrd pomt. A three·pomt perspective Will make a small object appear closer to the viewer's eye or a large object seem more monumental. B'vmg a sense that the objett IS being seen from high above or far below (often used In architectural sketches).

.6. Three·point Per specti ve This perspec\tve IS based on t he same prm clples as the hvo·pomt perspectIve, but mcludes a third vamshin!! pomt placed above or below the oblect. Vertlcallmes (drawn parallel 10 two· pOint perspective) now converge at thiS


BaSIC Theory


Complex Forms in Perspective ..."l Proportions In Perspective DesCrIbed below IS a method used to draw the correct proportions of two or more eQually SiZed objects In per spect ive. Thi s example shows how a

second square (dashed lines In last illustration) IS drawn propor· tlonally to the onglnal square

1 Mark out the centre of the first square by intersecting the tines drawn between opposing corners.

2 Find the cen tre of the si d e line by draw· Ing a line from the first square's centre towards the flShl vanishing point.

It takes some effort to draw it complex symmet"cal/orm COf' rectly In pefspeCl/ve . The method described below can be practi sed to Imp/ove one's ability to Illustrate these forms.

Once a better understandmg of perspectIVe shapes ,s at· tamed, thiS process can be simplified.

1 FItSI , a perspectIVe grtd IS sel up, on to which the form ...... 11 be bUill . Next. contour lines of the Side vIew and the near half of the top view are d rawn.

2 To create the correct shape of the top View outline. chosen pomts on the near half of the lOp vie ..... are mirrored across the centre line uSing the "keepmg proportionS m perspective ·-method (see page 10). The mirrored POints are then connected With a line. compl eting the top view con tour When the entire top vie ..... contour IS defined, the perspectIVe and contour hnes are traced onto a fresh page to keep the sketch fr om beComtng too clut teredo

3 Create the sides for the second squa re by extending the sides of the firs t square towards the fight vanishing point.



r. ......... , ,


,, , ,


3 Front view c ross·sections of the near half of the form are drawn. definin g its shape.

4 Find the furthe st corner of the new square by draWing a line from the closest corner of the first square. through the centre of the sIde (2) and reaching the Side elCtenslon (3).

5 Create the last side of the new square by drawing a line from the left perspec. tlve point. through the furth est corner (4) and to the right Side elCtenSlon ( 3).

4 The cross·sectlons are mirrored across the cen tre line. The method for ·keeplng p,oportlOns In perspect,ve- IS repeated as neces sary to find support pOints mirrored to the other Side of the centre.

5 All of the completed cross·sectlOns make up a shape·descnbmg 'skeleton' that shows the correct form 10 perspec· tIVe .

6 All sides of the square to be duplicated are now defined .

6 With the cross·sectlons

place, the contours of the object In perspective can be drawn accurately. In

( .. These rectangles were drawn to appear the same Sile an "I. ualty spaced In perspective, uSing the method above to ,. elf proportions correct. eep

Keep In mind that distortions can occur when this m thod repealed many times tn a two·point fS e IS the te'Sull should be double-checkei:lpe

pectlve. In these cases. lions appear because the tWO.polnt u~~ng the eye. The dlstor· lied repre-s.entahon 01 reality, whiCh;: sepecbytlve IS onry a slmph · thr~ , pomt perspectrve.. en the human eye In

.. _ Construclion lines 51 ar I 109 a sketch by m aking some lead· :In.g.p'·l fspec!tve lines helps to define th e space the object and .. I erent parts Will OC Th .. deSigner sket h cupy. ese cons tru cti on Itnes help the 'IniShed , I '. With greater con fiden ce and can also make Ihe se c m ore readable.





______"". .______________________. ._'. ._'....~----. .--L----------'. .L--'....-----.:c:o~ m p:"~'~Fo:'~m~'~'~'~"::":p«~I:'~:.~.~~B:.:':"~Th...,_~____.. _. .__________________. .______. .__. .""~I~I

Ellipses when baSIC theofles dre understood. Drawmg ellipses by hand IS t"chy at fllst, but gets easier WIth practise. To achieve perfect elltpses. gUides can be used.

Clreu/al shapes eXist In many objects. thelefOfe Il lS Important to understand how they are drawn In perspect/"e as ellipses. It IS a common mIstake to draw ellipses In an Incorrect perspecf/\'e, but they can, In fa ct, eas/IJ' be drawn correctly

<III .. Choosing the Ellipses' Value Take a look at the three et IpS~S drawn on the rectangular surface (to the lelt). Obviously onl)l oru:

01 them represents a Circle corresponding to the per5pectl¥e 01 the rectangle. whilst the other two haye Incorrect v,dues While the eye can often chose the correct value. gUides can be helpful when draWing an ellipse A useful gUide can be created by draWing a square IrI the same perspective. placed on the surface on which the ellipse Sits An ellipse that can be placed With Sides touching the centre points of thiS square WIU have the correcl value. Nole Ihal when uSing a Iwopoml perspective (as opposed to a Ihrel! pamt perspec lIVe). thiS method has lIS restrictIOns. The best gUidance square IS placed approXlmalely at an equal distance to the Jefl and nght vamshmg polnls. However, If the gUidance square IS closer to one of the two vanlshmg pomts. the ellipse win be 100 warped to hi Into the gUidance square .

C_ _ _)

• The Ellipse An en ipse IS symmetric along two axes: the mmor aXIs (blue) and the major aXIs (gn!en). These axes are al ways perpendicular 10 each other.

" .-- -

... A Cylinder in Perspect ive The minor axis of the ellipses al the ends 01 a cylinder musl always comclde With the central aXI s of the cylmder, and point to the same vanishing pam\.








-t-- .


10 '

:W S· ZO'

0' ... t>- Values of Ellipses Ellipses of di ffe ring value or degrees appear on the section surfaces of the cylinder (above). The values stale how much of the circular area IS seen al that pOint. The lower Ihe value. the closer 10 perpendicular Ihe View and the shorter the minor aXIs of the ellipse Will be. The same rules apply 10 horizontally placed Circular areas (rlghl). A Circle Viewed perpendicularly from the Side appears as a line (corTesponcling to the value 0). Note Ihat both Illustrations show Ihe Circular planes as parallel, With their minor a~IS pointing In the same dlrecllOn.

, (

T Centre 01 Ihe Ell ipse The centre 01 a circular area shown In

perspective, an ellipse, does not coincide With the point of Intersec· tion between the ellipses' m inor and major aXIs (blue respec!lvely black dot) This IS due to fo reshortenings, smce lustlhe Circle IS shown In perspective. The cen tre 01 the Circular area wilt instead be found by placmg lIon a square surface. The centre of the Ci rcle IS the pomt of mtersectlon between the square's diagonals. A very Im port ant thing here IS to d raw the square so that It IS sit uated in the same plane as the circle Is!

T ConcentriC Ellipses When two or more elhpses are placed wllhm each other and displaced atong their minor aXIs. concave or convex forms are created (below). If the ellipses are mstead placed With comcldmg centre pamlS. Ihey are kept on Ihe same plane .



20 '




Bas.C Theory



line Weight


Usmg hnes of dlffermg thickness can help clarify a form and add dynamIcs to a pIcture. lme weIgh t can be used In a vaneIy of ways to emphaSIze chosen parts of an obJect. strengthen

Dark shadmg appears on an object In areas where the IIghtmg IS bloc ked or mdlrect. Before shadmg an object, the dlfeC/lon

In the followmg fwO examples. the lIghting has been chosen to make Simple forms appear clearly. However. the pOSitioning and angle of the light sources should be cons/deled a mere recommendalJon. For objects and composItions ~/lh greater compleXIty. the Ilghtmg that creates the most SUitable shades for descrlbmg the obJect's form Will "ary

of the Ilghtmg should be chosen WIsely. as the shadows It pfOduces can help to descflbe the Object's form and/of create a specIfiC mood.

the perspective and create depth.

.. Basic line WeJght The upper nght hand Image shows <I baSIC hne .... elght treatment. The thickest lmes are used for the basehnes (hnes describing surfaces on which the oblet! rests - In thiS case, a ground plane). the second thickest hnes are used on edges that have air behind them (note that these are not only contour Imes, but can occur wlthm an Object). while the thinnest lines deSCribe edses that point towards the Viewer. .. Exaggerating th e Contour line Exaggerating contour lines can 'pop' an object forward. pushing the other objects further Into the background and adding depth to the picture. This ireatment of contour hnes 15 often used to dlstmgulsh objects of Impor· tance. There are other Ime weight effects one can use to enhance the O'ieraU Quality of the sketch as well. Two examptes (not shown here) Include shOWing lightning by thickening shadow,slde edges and uSing thinner lines on hshtslde edges, or enhanCing per· specllve by decreaSing the hne weight as the Imes stretch further from the viewer.


,\ Basic lightning The arrow next to the cube Indicates a light·source dIrectIOn commonly used for deSign sketches. ThiS IIShtinS scheme makes the top surface of the cube the brightest. Its right side the darkest. and the left Side a shade In between. This lighllng has also been applied \0 the cylinder and sphere. Rounded forms have smooth gradient shading.

.... Core Shadow An object IS seldom ht by a Slnsle light source.

but usually by several lights andl or hght reflected from surround· Ing surfaces. When a curved surface IS lit Irom two opposmg Sides, a dark core shadow will appear along the radiUS of the curve. Llghtmg that crea te s thiS kmd of shade IS most SUitable for descnbmg rounded shapes. These objects (above) are lit uSing the 'baSIC lighting' descnb@d to the left. but are also hit by light being ·bounced· from the sround. The cylmder shows how a core shadow IS produced vertically, bemg ht from the fight by a second light source or hSh! bounCing from the envlfonment.


Cross-sections " Cross-sect ions and Part lines Cross·sectlOns are Imes that follow the surface of an object to heJp the eye 're2d' a form. These hnes lire often thin or of a dllferent colour, making them eaSily dl~cernlble. Rounded and complex shapes are more ea~lly de~crlbed uSing cros~.sec tl ons. Pdfllmes appear between the different parts or matenals that a product IS compose<! 01. When placed correctly, part hnes make an object Jook more reahshC. and Ihey are often drawn In

sketche~ to ~erve Ihe same functi on as cros~ · secllons in descflb. inS form. One common e)(ample IS the line between a battery door and the rest of a plastiC caSing.




Lont We.ifll arid Cross,s!ehons

BaSIC Theory

Bas.c Theory


Cast Shadows

Reflections slletch life and contribute to the realism of the pIcture.

The type of shado" that an Illummated objec t casts on anoth-

When a deSigner AnOL\S the baSIC lheofles of how shadows dIe cast, It IS possIble for him/her to draw a slmplll led. Ilme-sav_ mg cast shadow tha t sltll serves Its purpose, Posslblyaddmg an artIstIC dImenSIOn to the s~et ch.

er object IS called a cast shadow. It can help describe not only the form of the ob/eel castmg the shadow. but also the form of the objec t that IS hit by It. For example. a rear-VIe w mmo, on a Cdr can cast a shadoll along the SIde of the car. workmg I,ke a cross-section followmg the car's form. Shadows a/so give the

1 The angle of the hght sou rce In reiallon to the hOrIZontal plane (t he direct ion of the green arrows, affect mg t he d irec ti On Ihe shadow 15 caslin). 2 The ver I/cal placement or apparent height of Ihe Ilghl SOu rce (... ert lcal direction of blue arrows, affectmg th e length of Ihe cast shadow).

... ChOOSing th e Light Source The most common way to trea t lighting lor cas t shadol'o s IS to Imagme a light !.ource endlessly far al'o ay. resul t ing In perfectly parallel IIghl beams. In order \0 const ruct a cas! shadow. tw o things must be decided first

.. Shadow Cast by a Cube Here. the cube's shadow was begu n by ske tching the green hnes aJong the direction 0 1 the shadow. Th is was followed by sketchmg the blue hnes. The out lines of t he cas t shadow were drawn between the mtersect lons 01 the green and the blue hnes. Note that the upper edge of the cube and the ed!Se It crea tes m the cast shadow converge, pomtlng towards the same vanlshmg POlOt (see their dashed extensions). E...en cast shadows are bound by t he rules of perspective, USlflg perspechve hnes and vamshlOg potnts, together With the blue or green hnes 15 another way of construc tlflg the cast shadow

... Shadow Ca st by a SphNC To understand thiS shadow, Im agtne a cylinder - Wit h the same d ia m eter as the sphere, and With ItS aXIS aligned 10 t he same d irection as th e light - cutting through t he ground plane. The elliptical cutt ing area on th e ground plnne comcldes With the for m 0 1 the shadow.

... Notice that the ellipses and thelf reflections do not have the same values. The lo..... er the ellipses are placed In the reflection. the more Circular they appear ThiS vertlcat reflection 15 created u!.mg a two'pOlnt pers~ t lve. so the mirrored object will not be smaller than the onglnal

T Rellectlon In Pe rs pective This .lIustrallon shows some baSIC prmclples of ref lect ion. Due to perspective, the distance between t he object and t he mirror 15 no longer the same as the distance between the reflec ted object and the mirror, meaning that the green pomts of ref lect ion are not placed In the middle of the blue reflection Imes. The ref lected objects also become smaller than the Originals. Their proportions and placemenl 10 the mirror can be lound by uSing t he "Keepmg proportions In pe'specfl~e" ·method (see page 10). Nol e t hat the reflecllon always occurs along a line perpendicular to t he ml rronng surface. The sphere 15 most eaSily mirrored by flfst mirroring Its resting POlOt and t hen d raw lOg the reflec ted sphere.

face wl!h an angle of InCidence equal to the angle of reflection. Note the behaViour of t he reflectIOns on the convex and concave shapes at the end of the cyhnder. EnVironment reflec t ions are often rendered In a very Simplified manner and can be shown 10 any colour, depending on the cho· sen en... .,onment (see the car sketch below).

... Rcllcction of Surr oundings in Non. planar Objects A common way to show th at an oblect 15 highly refl ect ive IS to place It In an Imaginary deser t environm ent, resulting In re fl echons of blue and yellow gradient s deSC ribi ng Its form. The inset sketch, showing an eye 'seetng' th e Side vie w of the cylinder, helps to explatn the distribution of th e re fl ected scene. Light from any pom t in the environment WI \l hit the re fl ect ive sur,

.. Shadow Ca st by a Cylinder In Ihl s case, the elliptical part of th e shadow IS verltcally placed between the top and boltom of the cyhnder. Thi s Will gIVe Ihe ellipllcal par t of the ellipse 10 the cast shadow, furthest away from th e observe r, a value somewhere between the ... alues of the top and bottom ellipses of the cylinder. .. Shadows on Non.planar Surfaces The illustrat ion on the left was begun by draWing the part of th e shadow that hits t he top surface. Next. an Ima!Slnary downward extension of th e object casting the shadow was d rawn, ending at the bott om surface (dashed hnes). This made It II pOSSible to cas t the shadow onto the bottom su rface. The shadow was com pleted by connec ttng Ihe outlines of the top and bottom shadows. creat mg the shadow that falls over Ihe tilted plane, .... Highlights Highlights are particularly strong reflections of hght. appearing on sharp corners or edges such as those of part hnes. H1!Shhghts are small det ails that at flfst might seem Iflslgnlficant to Ihe overalilmpresslon. However, they are Important because t hey add a great deal of hfe and bounce to t he sketch .

... The Shadow Because light naturally tends to 'bounce' It surfaces In an envirOnmen\, caSt shadows normal! am dar"er core that fades the further II falls from an:b eXh,lblt a Jec ,


CUI Sl\ado..lo


BilSIC Theory


Composition and Backgrounds

~ Tyi ng th e Composition Togeth er A few minut es o f ex tra work

depends on how th e speCifiC product IS normally seen). USing a 'blrd 's eye'Ylew' (high hOrizon) places the Object below the observer, gl'o'ing the viewer a sense o f survey and con tr ol. One way to make a ske tch more dynamic and interesting IS to use an oblique hOrizon.

• Choice of Perspec.tiwe When chooSing a perspective. It IS im· portant to conSider not only which viewing angle wilt beSt explain the product. but also what feellns you want the object to convey_ Usmg a "frog 's eye,YleW' (low honzon) ma ... es an objec t appear po...'erful and mighty. and the . newer small. (Naturally, this effect



can cre ate a more composed and ' finished' sketch. Experiment With dilierent ways to t ie a com pOSition toge ther, uSing colour or just a few hnes. Framing the composit ion can also be used In an Illustrative way, as In the sketch 0 1 th e shampoo bottles (right) where the bubbles suggest the produc t' s environment . ... Explaining a Course of Events A serles 01 events - such as how some thing collapsible folds or what happens when a button on a product is pushed - can be explained by uSing step,by·step Illu stra ti on s. Sketchmg a product In this explanatory way IS often an effective way to glVe the audience a qUick understanding of a product 's l unctlons.




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• Di rections When draWing several objects or views of an objec t In the same compoSItion, their dll'Ktlons should be taken Into conSidera tion. Direction can refer to a course of mohon (in the case 01 a moYlnS object. such as the truck below). I' the Object has 'active faces '. or Indeed If there IS a Pl!rt:elved 'dlrect lon' distingUIshable by the object's shape (e.g. If II IS easy to Identify


one part o f the objec t as ItS ' front'). Objects pointing outward near th e edge of a page can some times feel uncom fortable and haVing all objec t s in a composillon aiming towards th e sam e pomt makes the sketch leel st iff. A balanced composi ti on can be achieved by varying th e direct ions 01 the objects. as well as their sizes and perspec tive s.


• foc~l Points Focal POints are used In sketches to lead the vlt!Yoer S eye 10 the most Important areas of a product or to details 10 a deSign Ihatthe deSigner chooses to POint ~u t f aI pomts are crea ted by making certain areas pu rpo sely nch I : de!;;",', strong tn colou r Intensity or high In con trast . .. ~ackg round Box A background bol IS often used to ' tighten up a sketCh by covering old Sketching lines and colOur 'Ields dra"Nn OUlslde the hnes of the object The box can " baCk8'. d dd ' . . so serve as a un . a Ing more con trast and maktng Ih out e pr od uct stand Nohce thaI when the bottom edge of a background boX' ends ~Io<v an obtec!. the object appears to lIoat. Conversel .....h the bottom edge IS ahgned ..... Ith the rest ing plane as s~' en the st<etch to the fight, II can be Interpreted as dOW," m s.urface or a table lop_ e e ge a


• Logot ypes Whenever a reill logotype IS used In a sketch on a product or as par i of a compOSitIOn / presentatIOn, .1 should be reproduced In a way that does not o ffend the commiSSioner. The logotype IS an Important symbol for a company and should nol con tain careless spelling mistakes or have .ts Idiom changed. If applicable, use an underlay of the logo for a sketch or rendering . Any corporate logotypes have been removed digitally from all ske tches m thi S book (thiS was done to present the ske tches In a more neutral way and to prevent any chance 01 trademark mfrlngements).

• Elploded Views Exploded views like the one above show a product's component s, o ff se t from each other and spread Irom th e cen tre. These views serve to demonstrate a product's componen t parts. explain a product's assembly and also help to clarify form and function.


Ie •

BaSIC Th~;;:;---~-----~--------

Composlhon and BackSfounds

B.1SIC Theory



more than one purpose, or may have the capaclly to be used for somethmg other than what It was Intended fOr - as you will notice. several sA etches In thiS book could have served as examples for aspects presented In more than one of the dI ffer. ent chapters.

In the next three chapters, sketches are grouped mto families accordmg to thelf flmct/onal roles m the desIgn process. The dIfferent famIlies are: Inves/lga lnte and Explorative Sketches, Explanatory SAetches. and PersuasIVe SAelches. There are no speclilc borderlmes be t l~ een Ihese groups; m fact. many skerches defy categorizatIOn. A sketch IS often created for

Investigative and Explorative Sketches


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tlonal role la fer m the deSIgn process because they illustrate the basis on which decisions have been made and explam a sequence of work to others. The often qUick na ture?f these sk.e/ches makes it possible 10 genera te a large quantIty of dra wmgs. allowing for many so/u. tions to be tried out and evalua ted.

ThiS chapter contams sketches created m the Ideation phase of the deSign plOcess, I.e. sketches used to structure and understand a problem. as well as to generate and explore solutIOns; func/lOns or forms. These types of sketches are often drawn quickly With a loose hand and are created for rhe deSigner's use or for use wltllm a deSign team. Readable Ideation sketches can play an educa·


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Iron, Universal Design In Ideat ion sketches. it IS often uselullo add snlall text notes 10 en5ure that new thoughts and Ideas that arose du ring the sketchlns process are not forgotten. Objects that serve <lslorm ,nsp/rnilon, the fish and the caterpillar In








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the example betow. may atso be Included In the sketch as small reminders 01 the exploration process. The sketches thereby become more characteristic and enjoyable to look at . (Blue soft penCil)

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Anot her usefu l t iP IS to start by sketching t he baSIC shape. gradu. ally add ing details as the session progresses. This way. it IS pos. sible to stay focused on developing the form , rath er than getting Involved With m inor detai ls too early In the process. ( Black hard pencil, white soft penCi l. marker)

lawn Mower The marker fields do not necessarily represent realistic reflections and shadows. but can Instead be used to communicate the oblect'S form. A tiP from thiS deSigner IS to never treat your sketch as If It were sacred In Itself - the most Important thing IS to con tinually develop the fo rm dUring the sketching sessIOn.

• Hand Dr il l The seTies of sketches below explore the object's form from different pomts of view (Btack solt pencil)

A Orient ation Tool . library Project These sketches were created to explore for m. This deSigner first sketches qUick side views to discover a form worth explonng fur ther, and then shows the oblect In a perspective Il lS normally observed in (as seen above). Form is furt her defi ned by sketching t he object m a vanety of dlf· ferent perspect ives. (B lack hard penCil, soft whi te pencil. marker)







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Articulated Dump Tru ck Many A3 s ( 11 ~JC I 7" sheets of paper) .... ere ftUed With these Ideallon sketches. which explore the devel· opment of a truck from dlHerent angles. Construction parts and techOical detail!> have been hidden In shadow In order to save l ime and to ensure ihat the level 01 detail IS kept re levant to the curre nt development stage. The addItion of human figures gives both the deSigner and the vIewer it clearer sense of the t ruc k's scale.









These sketches were created lnit iaUy with ballpoint pen. follOwed

by marker and then finished With anot her heavier layer of ball . pOint pen to sharpen and define lines . Heavy ballpOint lines have a tendency to smear when marker IS applied over them , hence

their application after the marker for these sketches. (Ballpoint pen. marker)

,' •

... Dish Brush Elaborations have been m ade In the sketches wll h the <lid 01 l eKI and by enlarging a section, shown enCircled beSide the Ori ginal. An arrow links the enlarsed part to li s posi tion on Ihe object. A hand serves as scale reference, slmullaneously sho wlnS how Ihe bru sh IS 10 be handled . ( Hard and sofl blue penCils, felt·l ip pen, marker)





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T ROUSh sketches can help 10 define the baSIC concepi for a product, When thiS has been achieved, sketches Wi th a hlsher level of detail are needed 10 clearly communicate and define de· tails such as part hnes, materials, textures etc. thiS higher level 01 detail makes II easier to evaluate t he proposed deslsn both as a whole and In detail. ( Hard and soft bl ue penCils, ballpoint pen, marker)



_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~_ _ _ _ _~_ _~_~" ::<~G:"~""'~:~~.... ":':, Tran~r la h Ofi Design

• I~stlg,ltl~ and Explorahve S~etche5 ::::::::::::::::::::::::::::.._~--......." , - - - -

Enc Gunnar5son, TrilnsporlRhon DeSign (sket ches lrom Bachelor )

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... Shadows were used to ti lt these object s from a ground plane, creating the impreSSion that they are float ing. The marker fields add conlrast and separate surfaces of differing materials from each other. (Ba llpomt pen. ma rker)

A Underwater Entertai nment Robot This designer used rapidly drawn famt lines to help keep these sketches in perspective. In the cluster of sketches above, a fa VOUrite deSign has been high· hghted with a marker background. (Ballpomt pen. marker)


A The designer found one tine art sketch of the robot particularly interesting. ilnd used Photoshop to quickly explore further shape and colour possibili ties. (Ballpoint pen, Photoshop)

... Ballpoll'lt pen hnes were drawn directly on a pnnted photo of a foam model . This IS a common sketching method for working through a deSign . Best used In the later stages 01 a protect. thiS method allows for elCploratlon of details such as the placement of part hnes and graphiCS. (Ballpoll'lt pen, marker)


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Truck These sketches explore and determine the Identity of a cer tam truck brand . To allow for qUick exploration of form from one consistent perspective. an underlay was used to trace over. and wa s sllghtty displaced lor each sketch. The background boxes behmd the windscreen add contrast. makmg the glass appear brighter. This collage 01 sketches was partly assembled usmg Phol oshop. (Black hard penci l. PhotoshOp)


• Goggles Hen!. Ihe designer used a centre con tour hne (or cross·sectlon curve) to deswbe the symmetrtCal plane of the lorm and to define the surfaces. The sketches were left vasue. leaving room for Interpretation - a Irick used at the concep tu al stage to leave more options for the designer later In thc design process. Since Ihls sketch IS 01 a sport s product. extra loose· ness was used to add speed. movement and !lIe. The Impression 01 texture around the nose was created uSing a special textured underlay and rubbing a solt .....hlte penCil oyer the sketch. (Black hard penCil. wMe solt pencil. marker. lextured rubbing surface)

" With Ihe aid of pronounced con tour lines. the deslsner has clarlfled the surfaces of an ot herwise loosely del med Sketch (set the goggles' gln55 sect ions). Contra st s m hne ",elSht a fC used ellectlvely to emphaSize or fade parts 01 the design 'especl"'t~ (Black hard pencil)

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These sketches are deliberately expressive, exploring the emotional characteristics of the motorcycle. It IS common to create a focus pOint In a perspective sketch by butldlng detail ilnd contrast on the part closest to the observer. However. Wi th this method It IS also possible to draw attentIOn to a chosen area on a flat view of an object (nght). Because of the Impression created of motion and speed, Ih ls technique can be an asset when used on sketches 01 vehicles and other mobile obrects. The perspective chosen for the motorcycle sketch below gives the illUSion of II bemg observed through a Wide angle lens, and is oft en referred to as ~ f lsh·eye perspective", The cu rved 8uide tines have been kept visible, revealing the choice of perspect ive. (Black hard pencil. black and white soft pen· cils, marker refi ll, marker, ellipse guides)

Motorcycle Ollferent parts are here made diS· tinct from one another uSing contrasting cold and toner grey markers. Red secllonal lines give the sketch attitude and help to further explain the profiles of shapes. (Ballpoint pen. ted and white soli pencils. marker)



Sten Haublom. Trilntpo.tllhon Des,S"


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... Hand Training Tool for Disa bled Chi ldren When desCri bing Ihe

envi ronment a round a sketched ob,ect. II 1$ helpful to use shad·

.., A dynamic and artistiC compositIOn was achieved uSing vana· tlons In contrast and placement of the objects , (Btue soft penCil)

ows or con tras ting boxes. Above, Ihe shadows d ropped benea t h Ihe hands show t hat they each re st upon a su rfa ce. while the box behind the htlnd on t he far left suggest s th at 1\ 15 belnB held In t he air. (Blue so ft penCil)

... Knives Extreme perspectives can sometimes make a sketch less ObviOUS to understand - however, t hey are ollen inspiring to work Wit h and can help to cap ture the character or sense of the

... When Idea ting form, Simple p ro file ske tch es can be qUick and efficient studies that allow for a las t c ompar ison o f diliereni deSigns, (Pain ter)

product being deSigned. The chromallC effect was c reated uSing high ctlntrasts. (Painter)



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... Publ ic Seating Changing the hue of a sketch can affect the Impression that II makes. The sketch below was Originally created In grey marker and adjusted tonally In Photoshop. (Black hard pencil. fell -tip pen. marker. Photoshop)

... Ambul anc e Stretcher When sketching objects contaming wheels or other circu lar shapes, Ihls designer suggests that you try to draw t he ellipses freehand, with out the use of ellipse guides. Firsl - draw" the ellipse a lew times in the air Just above the paper. and then drop the pen to the paper when the arm has found the corre ct shape. Also, guiding perspective lines can be drawn straighter and more subtly by uSing the mO\lon of the full ar m - including the upper ann - when sketching. (Black hard pencil. fel t·llp pen, marker)

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Water Tap These sketches use pronounced gradients to create the appearance of metallic surfaces. Directi onal arrowS and tellS effectively communica te the fu n-ction. (Blue hard pencil, felt·IIP pen. marker)

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l~tIBatJvt! and E~plora t lve Ske tches


Flor iS W,egertnck, Advanced Produc t DeSign

lf1V1!sh8at l~

and Explotlltll'f! Ske tches


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Form Projec t The primary goal of these ske tches was to generate and record form Ideas qUickly. The designer commen ted I hilt In

this case, correct persPKII~ and overall accuracy 01 the sketch had lesser Significance. (Ballpoint pen)

" These sketches were drawn to establish an attractive Side view. Shading was added to explore undefined and / or interesting areas. (Blue soft pencil , Circle templates)


This more detillted sketch combines Interesting elements from preylDusty drown ske tches like the ones below. Beciluse thi s sketch IS d~loped to it more rendered level with colour, shadmg and parI lines, the design proposal IS more eaSily Cvolui'lled by

both t he designer and others. (Black 501t pencil, ballpOint pen, marker, cl(cle l empln les)



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+... Rescue Project This IS a typIcal example 01 an mvestigatlve sketch pae:e. The crea t ion date noted In the lOp left corner makes It eaSier fo r Ihe designer 10 keep a record of the chronological sleps taken to complete a proJett. (Ballpomt pen, marker)

sketches deserving further exploratIon. and centre lines were drawn to note planes of symmetry. The ·thumbnall" sketches below are shown m actual size. (Ballpomt pen)

f uel Cell Car Dun ng the mltial sketch phase 01 a proJect , small ·thumbnail' sketches can be used to qUickly explore Ideas. This qUick sketching technique was used In these examples to fill sheets of low.quality paper. Arrows were added to mark out



T With the basic design alrea dy set, mark er and penCil were used directl y on a printed photo of a three·d imensional foam modella effectively explore more detailed Ideas and for m ·solutions. (Black hard pencil, marker)






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Mau ricIo Bedolla Ga!Ca. Transporta" on DesIgn In'e!l.gall . . e oIInd uplora tlve Sketches

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.. Fuel Cell Car These sketches are a further form development based on the sketches from the prevIous page, Notice that only some selected parts of the extenor are shaded and that sources of light are placed m such a way that core shadows are crea ted ,

further defmms the car's shape. ThiS technique take s for m development from f lat sketchmg to the next level of defmltl on. (Blue soft pencil, ellipse gUides)

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Maun CIO Bedolln Gasca. Transpor talton Design


the deSign process. pans of the

truck that have been roughly deSigned are assembled. The overall Ideas art! examined from different pomts of vie .... To allow for mistakes. a special technique IS used where marker blender IS applied With pads to more or less erase the penCil lines. This offe~ the opportUnity to detail a form, but also 10 create attractive blending or shading. Stnce marker blender IS expensIVe. other solvents can be explored to achieve the same effect. Text notal,ons graphically enhance the overalilayoul of the sketches by fllhng In white space. The added text also shows a non·deslgner audience that these are not 'Just pretty pictures' but that elements and functions have actually been thought out ( Blue 50ft penCil, marker blender, ellipse gUides)



... Toolbol Truck At this stage

.. Bicycle. Brand ing Project This deslsner commen ted that when creative energy is being focused on the e.llptoratlon of form, It IS sometimes difficult to conSider the sketch's overall layout at the same t ime. If there IS a chance that the sketch Will be used In a future presentation, however, It may be wise to gIVe the layout some conSideration. As shown above, It is helpful 10 note Ihe values of ellipses used m order 10 save time If the same perspective IS used agam. (Blue soft penCil . ellipse gUides) /'




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• Journalist's Tool The simple illustrated notes above were not meant to be shown or presented. Visualizing thoughts may 1m· prove a desIgner's focus and prove help/ul when decIding how to proceed In a prolect. (Ballpoint pen)




f orest Harvester Robot These sketches show concepts for a forest harvester. The technique used to cre ate them can be lound In the tu torial on page 89 ·90. Here. showing several View s 01 the robot design helps the viewer to better understand the concepts. (Black hard penc". felt ·t,p pen. marker)


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Sports Car Here. an almost flat perspective was chosen for Its

control the wheel base ( Blue and brown hard penCil , ball point pen. marker. ellipse guides)

relatively uncompllcatea nature. which allo.... ed for qUICk sketching. Ellipses on the side of the car have been drawn to measure and

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... The above three·quarter "'Iew sketches show t he back and front of a selected Side view. The th m cross-sect ion curves were gl ...en arrows to hel p d ifferent ia te them fr om part lines. Marker was used to de...elop undefined sections. while areas that were already defi ned were left uncoloured to sa ...e t ime. (Blue hard penCil . ballpoint pen. marker. elhpse gUides)

slde·... lew sketches althe top of t he pase were created to del lne the car's silhouette before start ing on a clay model. The profil es also ser...e to explore and analyse the sraphlC ellects 01 different part li nes and chamfers. (Blue hard penCil. marker. el· lipse SUldes)

Explanatory sketches are created to explain function. structure and form. They most often communicate a design In a clear and neutral manner, focusing on explammg It ra ther than trying /0 sell/I. Explanatory sketches are commonly used to


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Impart/aUy present a number of concepts for users and clients to evaluate. AddltJonally, relatively unfmished deSigns ale often Illustrated In a more explana tory way in order to fa Cilitate discussion of concepts wi th others.

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... These sketches IClI ture the Intenor 01 the vehicle but also show enouBh 01 the car's exterior to show con text. The body 01 the car was drawn quickly USing Il printout from a 3D CAD program as an underlny. The lam I treatment of the extenor sect ion serves to emphasize the mtenor's doslsn, (Black hard penct!, marker)


... When an object features a movIng part, In thIS case the sun· roof. the whole object can be drawn two or more tImes to clearly deSCribe that part's functIon and dIfferent poSItIons. ReflectIons drawn beneath the car Imply that It IS sItuated on a surface. (Black hard pencIl, marker)


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Sports Car, Construction ThIs sketch was specIfIcally created lor use In dISCUSSIons With an engineer. Black marker was added to further detllli and Isolate parts, maklns the sketch more under. .!.tandab e (GraphIte penct!, ballpoint pen. marker, gouache)



TransportGllon Deslsn

bplana tory Sketches

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Al arll1 Clock Here, the designer has used slightly crossing lines 01 marker to add li fe to the lightning In the sketch. The pur pose wa s not 10 make a perlect Illustration or photorealistiC sketch, but rath er to show the product In a clear yel arti stic manner. Notice Ihe placemen t 01 the marker tines; In most of the cylindri cal shapes. the m arker lines follow their longitudinal axes 10 help describe the direction 01 the surf aces. The lines often end at an edge, Visually separating su rfa ces and making gradients easier to create. Surface angles on each Side 01 the cham fers are repre sented by the changing direction of marker lines. (Black hard pencil, black and white soft pencils, marker. ellipse gUides)

Child's Car Seat In these sketches, a carefully chosen section around the product is Included to show its fu nctional context, making the sketch more Informatwe, light grey marker wa s used to deter· mine perspective and the sket ch wa s finished uSing pencils and mark er. (Black hard pencil, black and white soft penci ls, marker)


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<II Self-watering Flower Pot USing exploded

l awn Mower In Ihese {VoO sketches marker IS applied In different manners to descnbe Spec,'IC types of surfaces: convex 5ur1OlceS and radII hSl'e hllle or no marker applied. to deSCribe hghl reflections. (Black hard pencil, black and white soft pencils.




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makes It pos Sible to 5110w all the parts 01 a product. as well as their relative: poSItions and assembly Bending an apparently horizontal Ime to depict Ihe effect of refraction Indicates that the pot IS made of a transparent matenal. (Black and white soft penCils, marker) ~ In order to ensure that the pol IS the main focus 01 th,s sketch,

the plant and background have been drawn uSing low·contrast colours. Again. the Imear edge between the wall and the floor ap' pears refracted throush the slass. (Black and whIte soft penCIls, marker)




/ RI'r v P Rally Truck These sketches show heroN high-contras t surfaces and pronounced outhnes emphaSIl:e the graphiC Impact of a product, highlighting the relalTve posItioning 01 Its parts. The contrasts are exaggerated to bnng out ce r tain areas and make them easy to distinguish: the

most notable example IS the red glass. Exaggerating the Size of the wheels and reducing Window

size IS a commonly used deSign Inck that strengthens the charac ter of 11 vehicle. Here, the edges 01 clear reflectIOns on shinY surfaces seM the same form-descnblng purpose as cross -sec· tlons. (Blue soft pencil. ballpOint pen, marker)


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Journalist's Tool In these sketches, the eye Is drawn to the area s treated With t he highest con trast while part s drawn only in pen take on a secondary or supporting role. Both warm and cool greys ha.... e been used to Isotate obiects lrom one another and to make the overall composition more Interesting. These


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E~plll"alory Sketches





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... Au tonomous Balloon Robot To give the appearance of soft and inflated form s, two yellow and four grey toned markers were used. First. thin outlines were d rawn to define the forms, then a mid·toned marker was used to shade. While the marker was still wet. the other "a lues were added to de"elop the soft shapes. An appealing marker gradient is easier to creat e when there are no pen lines in the way to smudge. For this reason, part lines across large surfaces were added as a final step In these sketches. (Black hard pencil, marker)

moving parts, functionality and other detaIls. The placement of the smaller sketches fills In space and creates a balanced layout . (Hard and soft black pencils. marker)

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• In the sketch below, elastiC and Iree cross-section hnes help to describe the kayak's form. The shadmg IS qUickly laid down uSing only a few nuances. applied as defined fields rather than by grad· 109 the tones mto each other. (Black hard pencIl. Pamter)

• SailIng KaY3k Nol lce the cast shadow from the mast m the ske tch above: this is a type of small detail thai makes a sketch seem more realtst lc and polished . (Black hard penCil, Pamter)

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the concepts and make them easier to remember. lite Red marker IS used to accentuate t he pencil lines and make sketches stand oul from t he page. (Blue solt pencil. marker)


socl al~ with each of the Ideas Clarify

Jonas Snmrelllls, Bachelor Programme






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.., ThIs page IS hlled WIth as many aspects of the des1gn as could be shown on a smgle page. including dIagrams, text. p1ctures and scenaflOS. (Btack and wh Ite soft pencIl. marker)

bo_es behind Instead 01 around

skel ch segments create s a more dYOIuTnc yel stlU organIzed delivery. (Black tlf'Id white soft pencils.



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usm8 mar~tr to ~plaln form ::~h shol'<s an alternate way of '1 uSing a pad and ..... ithout ~ a er Ink has been add~ liberal· of the s~elehed trame Th Trying about SlaYing .,..Ilhln the lines stetch ITIOfI! eJ'pli(11. Mall~ ~~~~~:;e th~n reinforced to make the SfCIIOO1. completely C(M!red In "lm5 es are represented by marer, .... hlIe high gloss surfaces

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lions. The Intenor 01 th e truck 15 only fain tly Indicated .... lthOut detail, In order to keep attention on the deslS" 01 the outer ~I. (BloCk hard pencil. white solt penclt . marker refill. martler, ellIpse gUides)



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Ambul ance Inter ior USing a bold red line In thiS manner IS an ellectlve way to depict a sectional cut-through . To make Ihe mterlor shapes easier to read, Ihe dark pari lines hove been exaggerated by d rawmg fme white hlghhghts on either


Side of them. Translucent green areas ha~e been applied around parts that light up, Illustraling light bell'g reflected on the surrounding surfaces. (BlaCk hard pencil. Pamter)

to further defme th e design and finally. a white so ft penCI! helped to create highlights. The electric blue details add Impact to Ihe sketch. (Black hard penci l . white soft pencil, marker)

Furn itur e, Brand ing Project The addition of planar views gives extra explanation. making the concep ts more readable. The sketchy emotlonalloak was achieved by first using cool grey marker to find the right perspechves and forms. Darker grey (8 or 9) marker areas suggest sections With a different matenal than Ihat 01 the lighter ones. A black hard penCil was then used

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Jonathiln HiCks, Advanced Produc t Oeslgn



(xplilnll tory Sl..etches


I ... In jector. Ambull'lnCo Pr ojec t This concep t sketch wa s dr ~ ... n at an enrly siage In Ihe design proJect. Knowmg the sketch .... ould be used Inter in a presentati on. t he dellllis v. are made relol l l~l~ clear_( Photoshop) " Storage Sys tem , Ambullln co Pr olect Th .. qU ick Shlch belo-ot descrlb 5 the usc 01 a bnckpack . Complemt'nl ar)' mlor rml,on IS Si mply not~ III a ShOll wTl tten 1151. (Block hard pencil)




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Cars Usmg value and conl raS! to descn be depl h and local POints IS especially Impor tant 10 a grey scale sketch. sIOce dOIOg th iS by uSing colou r sal urat lon IS not an opt ion. Parts of the cars t hai appear cl oser have been drawn In higher contrasi . while areas 01 t he car that are l urther away are drawn l amlly. ( Hard and soli black pencils)

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... Ergonomic Hand Saw this side view of the final lorm was ell!' aled to precisely illustrate li s design before beglnn]n!! work on a physical model. (Black and white soH pencils, ballpoint pen, marker) • Map Reader for Rally Co-drivers The concept below was drawn expressly for a non·deslgner and therefore Is as detailed and ful! of explanation as possible. Even though the sketch IS realisti cally rendered, cross -sechon lines were added to further explain the form. (Black hard pencil , black and white so ft pencils. ballpOint pen, marker, pastel, gouache)

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E.Plafl8tory S~eICh"~'_ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _~_ _ _ _ _ _ _'

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... Car For this one POint perspectlv,; drawing. a sketch of one Side 01 the car was used as an under la)' and then mlfrored along Its centre line to create symmetry NotICe the look of light reflecting onto the underSide of the tyres. InCluding reflecting or ·bounCln~f light 'S often forgotten. but ItS use often results In a much more ~presslve sketch. These kends of details are very effective at making tightly curved shapes feel three·dlmensional. adding extra depth to a sketch. (Ballpomt pen. white soft penCIl . fell liP pen, marker)

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T Truck Inspired by Extrusion The Initial ballpOint pen line art of thiS sketch was scanned Into Pho· toshop and printed out. to provide an underlay wh ose hne art wouldn·t smudge when subjected to applicatfOn of marker. The lines were made lamter In Photoshop by adJustmg the Image opacity. DOing thIS gave the deSIgner an opportunIty to draw over the faint sketch lines to adjust the shape for further expJoralton . Because the mltlal sketch IS sailed dlg,t ally. It can be reprinted as often as needed to be used as an underlay for lightmg and shape explora tl on. The pleasmg gradients were accomphshed b)' keep · Ing the paper wet. uSing fIrst hght then mcreasmgl)' darker markers. The full grey scale was used . from white to black. to amphfy the depth and appearance of the sketch . (BallpOint pen, felHlp pen. while soft pencil, marker. Photoshop)

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Toolbox Truck. Constructi on These sketches were created to be used m discUSSion wllh engmeers. They primarily serve 10 define volumes that mfluence the baSIc shape of the design. The black

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• shadows (and reflecti ons) are time -consuming to complete, and seldom Improve the quali ty of a ske tch more than simple shadows do. ( Fel l ·l lp pen, mark er, Photoshop)

.. Portfol io Suitcase ThIs sket ch shows a sUItcase from several dIfferent angles In order to describe Its funct ions and fea tures. The deslsner would li ke to pom! out th at overty complicated










• A scanned monochrome sketch was coloured In (using Pho toshop) to create thiS compoSitIOn , Reflect ions and other lighting effects are eaSily added to dark backgrounds uSing digital media (see the reflectIOns In the glass). In thiS case, an ai rbrush would have been needed to create a Similar effect uSing analogue tools. This deSigner focused on creating an attract rve balance In values. chOOSing low-contrast colours to avoid diViding the composition. (Felt·llp pen. marker, Photoshop)

... Kitchen Workb ench Adding two·d imenslonal Ylews can some· times explain overall d imenSions and proporti ons more effect ively than perspect ive sketches alone. In t he sketches above. arrows are used to indicate t he funct ions of moving parts. (Felt-tip pen. marker. white soft penCil . Phoi OShOp)

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<III Ambul ance Stretcher These drawings Include

a figure to show scale and product use. (FCIHIP pen, marker) 2

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, l' Air pl ane Food Supply This sketch explains several technical details of a concept. Ruled lines were used to set the perspective. (Hard and soft black pencils, m arker)

• A.irpl ane rood Supply Sys tem The sketches above explain a concept by comparing a present-day scenario to Ihe proposed Idea. USlnS lext together With key illustrations can be an mformatlve method to use when explaining an Idea, since It makes th e presentation more Interestmg. understandable and memorable. (Slack soft pencil, marker)

& Rescu e Project This sketch was crea ted dUring the research

phase of a project and depicts a reeord of Interesting Ilndlngs and Ideas. (Ballpoint pen. marker) 'f' Ai rpl ane Food Supply The use of three,polnt perspective

makes thiS sketch more expreSSive. The same kind 01 baSIC lightning as descnbed on page 15 wa s used to give the objects three·dlmenslonal feel. ( Hard and soli blue pencils. marker)

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Jens Andersson. AdY:lnced Product Desilin


use a prmt of roses as brush teKiure to enhance the illUSion of leather and to add a ' rock·n 'roll' quality to the gogBles. The technique used to create these sketches can be found m the tutonal on paBe 96·97. (Black hard penCil, Pamter)

Goggles The transparency of the coloured glass IS emphasized by drawmB the goggle straps vaguely, to show t hem Iymg behind the glass, The appearance 01 a fl oral teKture on the leather was created usmg a Photoshop teKture brush. The deSigner chose to

l'arolltla R.1ntfor~. Bachelor P,osramme

PerSUIISIVf! S~etchu



,Advitnce(l Producl Desisn



Vehicle. Form Project The pu rpose of this IlnBI rendering was to disp lay t he design with mallimum clanty. Past els were used to qUiCkly render a smooth sky reflect ion (see the white pa rt 0 1 the vehicle). Tem plates were used to generate the sharpest Imes pOSSible. Nol lce where t he wheels meet t he ground and how they appear t o 'melt" toget her. This Inck 0 1 the t rade IS Irequent ly seen In transport ati on d raWings. (Black and white soft pencils. marker, pastels, gouache, ellipse gUides)

... Articulated Dump Truck thiS sketch was ' 1OIshed fairly qUickly. laking apprOlumal ely 90 minutes 10 complete. The focus of the sketch IS Ihe fron t 01 t he truck, which was parlly drawn uSing paths 10 speed up the work. A scan 01 a hand-drawn sketch was uS@d as an underlay. (Ballpoint pen, PhOloshop) .,. thiS qUick method 01 rendering, uSing a monochromat ic colour scheme, ellect lvely conveys a mood to the viewer. The rendering was created by flrsl laying out a l.u Be mid·tone colour surface to work on. uSing marker refill and a pad. To Ihls coloured area, lighter and darker tones y,ere applied to crea te the ImpreSSions of tight and shadow


To create sharp highlights althls pomt (for brle:hl Windows el c.), the designer sue:sests that you cu t the deSired highlighted <'IrC<I S oul and place Ihe rendering over a Iresh whi te sheet 0 1 paper (Blue, blnck and white solt penCi ls, marker, m ark er rel lll , ellipse gUides)






Electric Hand Saw These ty,o deSign proposals were QUickly rendered for presentation. line art was first scanned and Imported to Photoshop where lalie brush strokes .... ere added to create Wide fields of value and colour Each slo.etch took about two hours to complete (Black hard pencil. Photoshop)

,. Tool boJ Tru ck This complex rendering was created In several steps uSing many un derlay. Firs!. a rough sketch was drawn and used as an underlay to create a more refined sketch. That relined sketch was In turn used as an underlay for an even further detailed and defined sketch and so on. When the deSign was finally established , a final penCil sketch was drawn, scanned and Imported Into Photoshop. Sections were further de hned uSing paths and filling them With one colour. Shading and highlights were created uSing the aI/brush and dodge tools, at low opacity. This process gradually built up the sketch With layers of warm and cool shades. (Black hurd pencil. Photoshop)

" This expen mental sketch shows an Independent pa rt of t he truck In a more expressive way than 10 the sketch obove, by con· Ye)'lng a sense of d rama and speed . A few pat hs were used (see the wheels) and a rough·edged Photoshop brush was employed


to create a sketchier and less n gld look. A tip from the designer: t hiS rough·edged brush can also be used on more defined renderings like the one above, to make t hem look looser and more 'sketchy' (Black hard penCil, Photoshop)


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different perspectives In order to explain all aspects of the MIni SUV design, The sketch tha t shows the vehicle fully open IS drawn from a perspect ive that allows as much informati on as poSSible to be displayed In one Image. BaSIC sketches In ballpOint pen

and grey marker were Imported to Photoshop lor colouring. Photoshop tools were used Instead 01 pastels to creale Bradlenls and to render highlights and fin e details, (BallpOint pen, marker, Photoshop)

10 II"" rnMI _ _ . -

""'''_''*'9211\01" â&#x20AC;˘ _otJIo Ia _ .... _ _ 110'

, ........

' ""



4 Sport s Coupe These concep ts were pre sen ted mld ,way through a des'Bn prOJect. They describe t he form Without excessive detail and are appropriate to show at thiS st age m development, where the deSign .s shll not se\' It IS Impor tant to keep sketches at a le..el where the details are not too highly de'med, or the aud. ence or chen t may be prematurely led to beheve that the fm lshed product Will look a certain way, This could restnc t the deSigner's Ireedom to explore form when proceeding With the deSign process,



A large Photoshop brush wa s used to create the coloured fields, while a white brush was used to erase some of the Image, adding con trast and highlights - a irick that cannot be done usmg mark , ers. The Breatest difference m contrast was given to the elements conSidered most Imporlant to show here: the rear lights, About one 'workmg day' wa s spent completmg three sketches on thi S level. (Ballpoml pen, Photoshop)


Articulated Dump Truck QUick. Simple hnes provide a hmt ot en~lronment but are kept famt enough to not dl~rrt attention from the ~ehlcle Some of the sketched lines pass slightly beyond the contours 01 the vehicle. makmg the s~t<lch more 1I\'ely_ (Black hard pencil. marker. ellipse gUides. Photoshop)



1.1, na S.Jllhammar, TraO$port31,on

De 'Bn


51 'lin 5011,,-, Tran1>pa'toltl(' 0.,.:


---'' ' ..::•.,


, ,


... The Sides of the linkS In the watch band below were gIVen a metalliC feel by adding marker to the back of the paper and by uSing plenty of gouache to Illustrate shine and reflectIOn . A sketched underlay was used to give the rendenns a clean appearance. With no Visible perspective / gUide lines. (Black soft penCil. felt·llp pen. marker. gouache, ellipse SUides)

.. Wris t Watch, Rend erin g The perspec t ive Imes were added as a hnal louch to m ake thiS free-hand sket ch look more relaKed. The hne weight Is vaned, With the heaViest lines used to con tour the shape and make the wal ch stand ou l Irom the page. (Blue hard pencil. white soft pencil. ballpOint pen. mar ker. gouache. ellipse gUides)



... Post DeHwery Vehicle The vaguely mdlcated shapes of bUild. mBS In Ihe bacio:graund 01 this sketch are enouSh to Imply thai


vtrUCre IS In

an urban seIling. (Black hard pencil, Pholoshop)


... Here, a loose and exaggerated fish·eye perspective IS u sed to Imply movement while 51111 persuasively conveymg the vehicle's form . The deslgne(s advice here IS that smce vehicles are made for mollon. they should be given a more dynamic sketch treat·

menl than sialic products. (Black hard pencil, PhOloshop)


___________ _____ ~

Sltf'I H.tnblom, Tr.a",ponallon

On.,. •

.:::=..::..::::::=::::.::~~.:_ FW$lJI$IWt: Ske IC."~ " _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _-~

EriC Gunnarsson. Tran spor tation Design




Cars. Rendering Study All four cars on these pages were created expressly to cap ture a mood and to show texture and hghllng. One tiP from the designer IS to pmntthe scene as matte. with only ambient light. Afterwards. light sources can be gradu· ally ·turned on' by building layers of painted reflections of hght. By beglnmng with a mane appearance. shadows Will not have to be applied as they Will occur naturally In areas not painted as ht.

A second suggestion IS to use reference pictures from catalogues, magazines etc. for Inspiration. In order to establish a colour scheme and render componen ts accurately. Thi s 1'1111 help to more precisely express teKlure. thereby conveying the true feeling of a design. Thlfdly, decide on the pu rpose and mood of a sketch as early as poSSible. so that you have a goal to work towards. (Photoshop, Painter) ...


BachelOr PrOllnu"Tlme


Sket cht:;


Step-by-step Tutorials ThIS chapter shows the lYorAmg sequence of the creatIOn of SIX desIgn slletches. The sketches shown vary In levels of com· plelflty. and hIghlight some of the

most commonly used media

and techmques.

The maIO purposes of thIs sectIon ate to Illustrate how each

pontus Unger, Forest Harvester Robot (Marker, black and white sofl pencils. felt tiP pen)

sketch IS ,realed, and to break down a seemmgly mtlml-

da!mg and comple."( sketch into steps that are mOle easIly understood. There are often severa/ways to achIeve the same effects. so cons/del the steps shown In these tutorials merely as options or examples.

, 2 Cuboids with centre hnes delmed the volumes that would eventually make up the object.

1 The sketch was begun by drawing baSIC perspective hnes with a IIShl Srey marker.

3 A number 2 cool srey marker wa s used to expefimentaUy work towards the deslfed form. Alternately drawlnS on the left and fight Sides of the centre hne helped to keep proper proportions.

Eric Gunnarsson, Dish Brush (Hard and soft blue penCils. marker) 1 The sketch was started off usmg a hard Indigo blue pencil . 2 More penCil hnes began 10 define the bristles of the brush. The contour of a cas t shadow was drawn. thereby revealing the dlrec· tlon of the light source.

3 The addition of a hand showed how the product

supposed to be held. and also assured that the form and proportIOns of the handle were accurately drawn. IS

4 Different colou red markers defined different matenals and expressd form through shadIng. Note that the surlaces are not !>aturated wI!h colour but have sect ions left white to Indlcale areas of light reflection.

5 A Simple conlraslmg background block hfts the draWing all the page. A signature and date compleled the sketch.

4-5 Contrast was gradually increa sed in the areas that Ihe deSigner wished to draw attention to. Oark felt ·llp pen hnes added definition to specific reSlons of the sketch .

• ,

sa ______________ ....: '.:<:.G~"':n3ruon. Transpo."'lIoo ()e>s'gn •

89 Step bystep Tutorials

Pontus Unger, Adv:,nced Product DeSign

Step·by,step Tutonals

Floris Wiegerinck, Lawn Mover (Blue hard penCIl. w hlt~ Kltt ~

1-4 A hard blue penCil was used to I,na the dtl:>lh!d haPE: by IlfSI blocking up baSIC forms and then success,vely add'"8 mOle detail. The iH ro~ Indicate the hmetlon of mO'o',"& par a wit hin the product

6-7 Solt white penCil was used to create hlghhghts. A simple cast shadow was constructed by drawing Imaginary verllcallines from pOints on the robot down to the horizontal plane. The designer notes that this type of sketch IS interesting because It IS not fuUy detailed. Sometimes It IS appropnate and effective 10 leave some areas undellned .

5 A felt tip pen was used to to create dark clean lines with enough contrast 10 sl ay Visible after marker applica tion .


6 A drop shadow wa s added by uSing black ma rker, and the darkest areas Of Ihe lawn mover were shaded With dark cold grey markers. The deSigner Susgests that Ihls IS a good tune to stop drawmg II you are not pleased With the deSIgn: a sketch completed to th iS pomt will st ili show your t rain 01 thought and '"tent.

Step. by st ep. TutOlllllS

__~S~I~'P~~by'!"~'~PT"~I~':"~"~'--~--------......----__________________ " __

. FloriS Wlegerlnck. Adva nced,~~~~n-~~~~ ! roduct ,-,""sign

Mikael Lugnegard, Car (Black hard pencil, ma rker, marker air brush. Photoshop) 7 Sections 01 while were left on top sur· laces to Indicate the rellectlon 01 light. while matker was liberally added to the Ironl and nglll Sides of the lawn mOl'oer.

1 The perspechve lines were drawn as gUide lines marking


the propor tIOn s of overhangs, cab placement, walsthne, etc. The graphiC layout of light clus ters, windows and trim patterns were defined and gUldehnes for th e place ment 01 baSIC re flect ions and shadows are also Included this Ime art . The designer notes tha t the chosen view of th e sketched object should of course be the view that best descflbes the aspects of the design you are presentmg. In


.... I ~


8 Pastels were then used to crea te a smooth gradient over the top surfaces to depict a hlgh .gloss m atenal. A sugges tion from the deSigner IS to use paper tissues (or even better, m ake·up removal pads) to apply the pastel s, since uSing one's fingers gets very messy. Whi te and black pencil were drawn next to each other to add dimenSion to part hnes.

1 _..:-___

\ 3 The shapes

the car's body were further sculpted uSing marker airbrush (numbers 2 and 3. cool grey). always With the hght source direction In mind to ensure the correct placement of shadows. Shadows, matte surfaces and reUecllons were all enhanced by combining marker and marker airbrush. Keep In mind Ihat marker apphed With an airbrush generally gives darker results t han marker applied wllh a pen .

2 A Ilrstlayer of 118ht marker (numbers 2·4 , cool grey) was ap· plied Without lettmg the marker ink dry between applications. cast shadows, core shadows and refl ect ions were all hinted at dunng thiS stage. The deSigner notes that l or t his step, one should work fa st and roughly Wllh ou t lear 01 destr oying th e sketch With misplaced line!>. This Will keep t he eKploration free and flOWing.

9 The fmal slep was the additIOn 01 an abstracted tetraln as a background.



" •

_ _ __ _ _ _ _ _ _---'Mlkael Lugnegi'lrO. Bachelor Programme


Slap by step Tutonols _ _ _ _ _~_ _ _ _ _~_ _ _ _ _ _~_~

7 The prOCeSS described here IS m ore 01 a total

5 this wa s the last hand· rendered step. The designer's aim was

4 The body of t he car IS sculpted even l ur ther uSing darker tones of marker (cool grey, numbers 5 and 7). The drop shadow IS streaked wIth black. glVmg It more welsht and visual power. Shapes behmd the glass were depicted uSing a cool grey number 5 tone.

to create th e highest con t rasts possIble wit h areas of whit e ap. pearlng close to da rk greys, In order to gwe the sketch maximum visual Impact and clan ly.


'malle.over· of an already completed sket ch rlither than a step. The sketch Irom step 6 wa s lIalle ned • and several copies wefe made 01 the resulting Image. ThiS made It pOSSible to com pose several proposals 01 the fmal sketch, In · creasing the freedom to play around . adjusting curies, bogh/ness/contrast, hue/saluratlon etc. Hue/ saturallOn (With the "coloUl" box checked), was used to see how the colours change when adjusting the hue (a tinted warm sepla·greYlsh tone was chosen for the version shown here). In order to make Ihe background look more hke a sheet 01 grey-toned coloured paper, the bnght · ness was lowered . With the base palette of the ent"e sketch set. the next step was 10 add some highlight streak s along the metallic surface 01 the car. The 1m· age was token into Painter, where the FX/g/ow brush With the default sellings (except for a small tweak on the space setting) wa s used . Selected areas were carefully lit whilst keeping Ihe focal pOints m mind to make sure that light was ptaced to emphaSize pomts 01 Interest to the vle The sketch was taken back mto Photoshop, and placed In a layer above the one contamlng the sketch pnor to the application of hIghlights. Masks were created and some of the top layer was ernsed to show the layer underneath , thu s sharpening edges and making th e lIght streaks more controlled. The lifeless Dnd artllically perfec llook devoi d 01 defects wa s Improved by first adding .. mId grey layer, and then manipulating It a number of times. A 400% NOIse filler, a brush s rro~ es or sp.!rrer hiler, and fmally a blur IIIter were ap· plied. The blend mode 01 the layer wa s set to Ol e/lay, and th e opacIty was reduced 10 3 ·5%. thiS removed th e lIawless appearence, and added a non·dlgltal finish to the Image, The deSigne r commented Ihat fol lOWin g step· by·step tutori als may very well help you acqUire many skills and give helpful tips, bulthe only way to excel in sketching IS to practi se dl1lgently and develop your own unique style!

, 6 N~ tix. ra" marlo er sl<.etch wa'!o hmshed. II was Import ed 10 PhOt"shOp lor 110011 digital adjustments. Masks were used to precl!oely manipulate sect ions such as wheels. windows and matte I'I\4I I ~r lals $e-.'!ral lajers were used to tw eak con trast . hue and satu rallOn 01 dlll~ r ent areas Paths Wefe used and stroked to


~rea t e sharply defmed pa rt lines.

he deSIgner comments t hat at thiS sta ge, any and all types 01 digital manipulatIOn can and should be used In ord er to lurther express t he concep t to the cli ent.

f.1lkael lugnegMd. Bachelor Programme

Sit P by stl'P Tut\


Jonathan Hicks, Goggles (Black hard pencil. Painter)

1 A Ime art sketch was created usmg a hard black pencil. The design IS stilt loose and nol fully resol ved. leavmg the desisner room to explore design dlrec· tlOns In Pamter 2 The preYlous sketch was Imported to Painter, where baSIC greyscale shading was apphed. To create the clean.edged shadows. brush strokes were flfst applied 'over.spraymg ' the lines of the object. An eraser 1001 .... as then used to remove all unnecessary areas of shading. The deSigner mentions that no specifiC light source was used. Instead. the object's shape would be communicated Just as elleetlve uSing this mlulhve nuanced shading. In reality, so much reflecting liShl ....ould hIt th iS object that render ing It true-to-hfe .... auld be too complex .



/ 4 A tactile and rubberized surlace was created USing a 'honeycomb' texture. The bright red 'mlcrOinJected ' adornment IS an Imporlant detaillhat was added to mak.e the product seem more defined and reahstlc. thiS deSigner doesn't use 100'4 opacity. In order to achieve a more painted look. For thiS reason, the rubbenzed red area was lett white In the prevIous step; had grey parts been present. they ..... ould appear through the trans· lucent red . making II appear 'dlrty' 5 The look of the glass was achieved by flrSl filling the space With translucent yellow. follo .....ed by a layer on top In a graded translucent orange. 6 Highlights are added to the glass and along the part lines: The deSigner would like to stress thai adding highlights along part lines IS very Significant \0 Ihe overall effect. since they reinforce the illUSion that the oblect 15 constructed of different parts.

3 A lealh~ leonure was applied around the nose The main shape of Ihf: straps Has created uSing a large brush and the Hifq tt.ture Has formed With a smaller brush. Notice thai the le.lure fades !oHard the edges of the slr.etch. addmg dynamics.

~tt'.&., 11,,-,

In thiS lutorlal , no paths were used to delineate areas - Instead, the whole sketch was finished USing layers of colour where edge sharpness has been achieved With an eraser.

M •.a1lQd PrOduct Des-"-"--'-~S"I" ~by step TutOrials


Jona th an Hicks. Adv;)nted Product DeslSn

Step· by step Tutoflals


--, (

- -


". \



- /' ,

\• •





MaUriCIO Bedoli" Ga~c.:J Tr.ln&portill on






Trill porlahon Ot

Ma uricIo Beodolla Gasca. Transportation DeslI;;"

Thanks to First of all, we want to thank the students contrlbutmg to this proJect. Many of them have devoted several years to develop their skills. but unfortunately the layout and structure of this book cannot fully do their designs Justice. Because thi s IS a book solely concerned with sketchmg technique. It offers no more than a glimpse of their incredible work. Intelligent solutions, pioneering Ideas. or all of the thoughts behind the sketches. You not only trusted us to show your work. but also supported us throughout the whole proJect. We owe you all many thanks, and Wish you the best of luck for the future ! We also want to thank all the students and personnel at the Umea Institute of Design, ou r families and friends. Umea University and Umlnova Innovation for the guidance and encouragement you have given us. You have been an invaluable help and Inspiration!

Erik and Klara

Thanks to

Index and Literature Tip Index Page

Name Alexander Nemtsov

44-45 6 (top). 24·25. 464 7. 85. 88 7 (top right), 8, 9 (bottom right), 12 (bottom). 17 (bottom right)

Enc Gunnarsson Erik Ololsson Floris Wlegennck Fredrik NIlsson Hlrash Razaghl Ida Ristner

305. 68·69. 91 ·92 21 6 (middle right). 36·37. 64, 74·75

56 29. 80·81 38.70·71

Jarno Sundell Jens Andersson Joaklm Saltberg John Andersson Jonathan Hicks Jonas Samreliu5 Karl Forsberg Karolina Rantfors

6 (bottom). 13 (bottom), 14 (middle). 18 (bottom). 22·23, 48·50

65 6 (midd le centre) 28. 60·61. 73, 96·97

57 54·55 51. 72

Klara SJo'~n

19 (middle and bottom lett)

ladlslao Camarena linda Bagren


Maria Balthammar

82 15 (bottom). 18 (m,ddl ,). 39·41. 66·67. 7P9. 98· 102

7 (bottom left). 20

MauricIo Bedolla Gasca Mlkael Lugnegard Pontus Unger Robin Hedman Sten Haggblom Stlan Sorlie

3 , 17 (middle nght). 63. 86·87 , 93 ·95

19 (top). 42·43 . 53. 89·90 6 (1,1t). 32·33 7 (bottom nght). 10 (bottom right), 14 (bottom right), 30·31. 58. 84



Ozgur Tazar

Other Ill ustratIOns by Enk Ololssan and Klara SJah~ n

Literature Tip Creative Perspective for Artists and Illustrators Watson , E. W ISBN: 0486273377 Presentation Techniques Powell. D. ISBN: 0316912433 Creative Marker Techniques: In combinatton With mixed media Shimizu O. ISBN: 476610580X Sklssteknlk: En handbok I vlsualisenng av deslgnfor slag. Andersson. N. (Written 10 Swedish. available fr om the Umea Institute 01 Design) Perspektlvlara: En handbok I perspekttvlara. Andersson. N. (Written 10 Swedish, available from the Umea Inslttute 01 Design) ProfeSSional TralOlOg DVDs lor Visual Effects Artists

More IOforma tlon about the Umea Instttute of DeSign can be foun d on the Internet Info@dh .umu .se

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