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Jack Breeton 176581

RESEARCH FILE Music video essay


contents page  Hypodermic Needle Theory  Cultivation Theory   Uses and Gratifications  Reception types  Representation  Censorship debates  Demographic  Audience Types  Bobo Doll experiment  Research about affect of music  Music videos  War of the world’s broadcast  Survey results  Library research/ Male Gaze

Hypodermic needle theory


[ CITATION Hup17 \l 2057 ] https://www.utwente.nl/en/bms/communication-theories/sorted-by-cluster/MassMedia/Hypodermic_Needle_Theory/ My class notes A case study for this theory is mainly the 1938 war of the world’s broadcast which caused many people to believe that the world was being invaded and overrun by aliens due to the way that the book was read as it sounded like a live radio broadcast. This source explains that mass media can have great effect on the public and they can be directly persuaded and influenced by it through its images and text and the people viewing are seen as passive. However, most people seem unaffected by the propaganda. How this relates to my debate: This relates to my debate as it can show how people can be susceptible to messages from people that are popular in the media and how they can be affected by them. Cultivation theory


[ CITATION Uni17 \l 2057 ] https://www.utwente.nl/en/bms/communication-theories/sorted-by-cluster/MassMedia/Cultivation_Theory/ This theory explains that repeated exposure to something in the media can make it become more normal to an audience or neutral, this would refer to thing such as crime violence and how if it is repeated can make it seem less powerful or not as bad if told that way. This theory as a result also has the name dripping tap theory. How this relates to my debate: This could Usesrelate and Gratification to my debate as people who grow up listening to grime type music or listen and watch a lot of offensive music videos could begin to believe that these actions are alright.


[ CITATION Uni17 \l 2057 ] https://www.utwente.nl/en/bms/communication-theories/sorted-by-cluster/MassMedia/Uses_and_Gratifications_Approach/ The theory of uses and gratifications originally created by Bulmer and Katz in 1974, states that there are four main reasons as to why people involve themselves within the media. Diversion- Also known as escapism this idea is that some people engage in the media in order to distract themselves from things like a journey for example or just instead of doing things such as work; this reason overall sees media as a chance to escape reality.Personal relationship- This type of viewership or engagement in media is associating with people that have the same interest within media and making relationships out of it for example a community around a game or comics or anything similar.Personality- This form of engagement in media is how people build themselves off of How this relates to my debate: This relates to my debate as it can explain how people can use music the media for example looking up to certain characters and aspiring to be like them. Surveillancevideos as an escapist and not actually carry any negative traits or lessons from it. This form is using the media to found out what is going on in the world for example through the news or documentary.

Reception types


[CITATION Rev07 \l 2057 ]

https://revisionworld.com/a2-level-level-revision/media-studies-level-revision/reception-theory This theory could be useful for my essay as it could explain people’s reaction to seeing things in music videos such as women being objectified or the use of drugs money and violence and then take from it how this could be acceptable under certain circumstances and how children would be more susceptible to these messages.

How this relates to my debate: This could be useful for my debate as it could explain whether people agree or disagree with a certain music video or certain lyrics and how they go about seeing what is Representation being portrayed or brought forward.


In the media people are presented differently in order to better their image whether that be physically or in the eyes of the people. For example, in the media there is a big thing for women being sexualised in the media in order to sell products whether it be perfume or a movie.

As well as this certain genres of music for example try and show off and represent different things such as hip hop sexualising women and genres like grime glamourizing things such as stabbings and crime.

BugzyMalone’s song ‘make or break’ talks about children that are always fighting ‘'Cause now when he kicks, he doesn't feel pain and he could take somebodies face offHe won in the second round but by then his mum would just ruin the make-up’ Mist song Smokey ‘Late night cruising on a graftSmoking on the lemon or the am’ ‘Man want beef rude boy bring your strallyd on You want beef rude boy bring your strally don’

This will be useful for my essay as I will be talking in it how certain genres of music try to show these things off and how they could have a potential negative impact on children their behaviour and how they grow up and what they believe is right and wrong.


Censorship debates At the time that VHS and Beta-max became more available to the public which was shortly after 1979 there was a large increase in the amount of films given the name video nasties. These were horror like movies but taken to an extreme having some horrific topics most of which being extreme gore with an example being cannibal holocaust. Due to how easy it was to attain video nasties at the time the ideal age range for them was 12-16 as they were seen as a party favourite genre of film. It wasn't until the BVA (British video association) proposed that films should be submitted to the BBFC that people began to take the films seriously. As well as this Mary White-house, despite having not seen one of the films saw them as rather horrific and companied against the mass advertisement of this new genre of film as the actual advertisement seemed to exaggerate the content of the actual film itself. Regardless the films were very gruesome and horrific. Legislation timeline: 1909- Cinematographic act giving videos the authority to be a cinema 1912- British Board of film censors BBFC 1932- H certificate (horror) first given, proves film isn't suitable for a child 1952- No children under 16 are able to see an x film 1960- Obscene publications act, Lady Chatterley act said some video nasties were art rather than porn 1970- age category on x raised from 16-18 1982- intro of pg, 15, 18 and R18 first pg film was return of the soldier 1984- Videos recording act (VRA) BBFC becomes authority to rate films for their suitable audience and becomes British Board of Film Classification 1989- Tim Burton's Batman becomes the first movie to receive a 12 1994- An amendment is made to the URA after the Jamie Bulger case, BBFC are asked to pay special regard that could be caused to potential viewers 2002- Invention of first 12A, parent advisory film This could be useful for my essay as it can show how censorship has been achieved before and how things have slowly been more maintained and made less graphic and influential. As a result, this could be shown in order to explain that if censorship were to be implemented it wouldn’t need to be a large thing that happens straight away but maybe a bit shorter and over a longer period of time.


Demographic Demographic is your basic information for example age gender location etc. Geo-demographic is things such as where you live as in town. socioeconomic this targets people based on their social status Social status A- Upper middle class -High pay job e.g. lawyer Surgeon B- middle class - teachers DentistsC1- Lower middle class office jobC2- Skilled working class- e.g. a bakerD- working class- Fast food for exampleEThose at the lowest level of sustenance -e.g. Benefits

https://www.thebalancecareers.com/demogra phic-data-is-critical-for-media-2315179 [ CITATION Gle18 \l 2057 ]


Audience types Mainstream- mainstream media is the group of people that keep up with the most popular things at the time and only keep up with things related with big companies such as Disney or marvel. An example of mainstream music artists would be people like Adele or post Malone. Alternative- this would be forms of media that are less well known such as smaller budget movies or specific genres within cinema. Artists which would fit into alternative would be those that are new or a little less well known such as Joji Niche- This is a very small and specific group of people with a similar interest an example of this being early 1900’s western films. Someone in a niche group of artists would be people interested in a very small and not well known group such as Headspace. Phsyco-graphic is your personality values, attitudes, hobbies, interests essentially a phsyco graph is your mental state and what you think about Psychometric audience profiles- essentially a test to know what a person’s phsyco-graph is, this is a test to determine a person’s phsyco graph

[ CITATION Joh17 \l 2057 ] This information will be useful for my essay as i can have insight as to why people might be interested into certain types of music and as a result why they may not want it to end up being censored https://simplicable.com/new/target-audience


Bobo Doll experiment

(Mcleod, 2014) https://www.simplypsychology.org/bobo-doll.html This case study would help my essay as it would show how children can be influenced by what they see in the media as they tend to copy what is in front of them and this experiment would be a shining example of such.


Research about affect music has According to Oneworldeducation.org, rap music with positive messages is often overlooked by the majority of society because of the language involved in the songs they hear. Many artists bring awareness to social and global issues through their lyrics. For example, after the devastation caused by the Haitian earthquake, rappers like Lil Wayne and Kanye West collaborated with artists from various genres like BeyoncĂŠ Knowles and Celine Dion to record We Are the World 25 for Haiti. They were able to raise approximately 8 million dollars for Haitians affected by the tragedy. [ CITATION Hai16 \l 2057 ] https://thegnainsider.com/7582/editorials/does-rap-music-negatively-impact-the-youth-culture/ Listening to lyrics that involve guns, violence and aggressive behaviour can have a negative influence on youth. According to a 2003 study published in the "Journal of Personality and Social Psychology," violent lyrics increase both aggressive thoughts and aggressive feelings. The study also warns, "Repeated exposure to violent lyrics may contribute to the development of an aggressive personality." Drug and alcohol use is often glamorized in song lyrics and in music videos. John Hopkins Children's Centre reports that alcohol is portrayed in music videos once every 14 minutes. According to a study published in the journal "Paediatrics," "Increased television and music video viewing are risk factors for the onset of alcohol use in adolescents." Music often portrays substance use as cool without showing the negative consequences of addiction. Most song lyrics don't discuss dangers of sexual activity, such as unplanned pregnancy or sexually transmitted diseases. Instead, music often glorifies promiscuity and promotes gender stereotypes. According to a study published by the journal "Paediatrics" titled "Exposure to Degrading Versus No Degrading Music Lyrics and Sexual Behaviour Among Youth," adolescents who listen to degrading sexual lyrics are more likely to engage in riskier sexualized behaviour. Degrading lyrics tend to objectify both genders and portray men as sex-driven and women as sexual objects. Research about whether music can increase a teen's suicide risk is mixed. When song lyrics focus on death and suicide, the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry warns that it can make suicide seem like a good solution to problems. According to an article published by the journal "Paediatrics," "Heavy metal and some rock music have been associated in some studies with an increased risk of suicide." However, a more recent study published by the "Journal of Youth and Adolescence," states, "It seems that listening to music to express uncomfortable emotions could be a rather effective coping mechanism for girls since it reduces the risk for suicidal behaviours."[ CITATION Amy \l 2057 ] https://www.livestrong.com/article/1000832-can-music-bad-influence-kids-teens/


Music Videos

Blurred Lines

Milkshake- Fergie

Billy- 6IX9INE

This Is America- childish Gambino

Smokey- Mist

Listen up freestyle- Mist

Make or Break- Bugsy Malone

Stressed out- OG Mano

Punk (dishrack)- Yungen

Slow dancing in the dark- Joji


War of the worlds broadcast The war of the worlds broadcast was a radio show on October 30th 1938 where the book the war of the worlds was read over the radio. However, the way that the broadcast was presented made people believe that aliens had invaded planet earth and were attacking as it went on causing many people to become fearful and take extreme precautions such as boarding up windows and stocking on food and water. This is an example of hypodermic needle theory and people can be affected by mass media on a large scale causing them to take extreme measures.

[ CITATION Dav16 \l 2057 ]


Survey results For my essay I did a survey to gain my classmates opinions about my essay topic and what the general public think about music videos. The results that I have gained I am actually satisfied with as I found out that most people do believe that music videos show off a lot of things such as money, sex and drugs and some named particular artists and genres where they think this is most apparent. Even though people did see this as an apparent thing within music videos and people think it can have a negative impact on children and people in general the large majority did not think that censorship was necessary as they saw music as an art form. Also when asked what affect censorship would have on the community most people either said it would be somewhat positive or neutral.

Library research Some other research I have conducted is looking at the mistreatment of women in music videos as well as general media as in the early thirties and forties there was something called 'the woman's


film' and this is a creation for women 'At the lowest level the woman's film fills a masturbatory need' This therefore tells us that women had been mistreated in the media as far back as the early 1900's and as a result there treatment in modern day music videos seems rather objectifying as you would of thought as a community we would've grown out of this habit of treating women poorly. [ CITATION Has87 \l 2057 ] Laura Maulvey Maulveys theory- Laura Maulvey is a British feminist that originated the theory of the male gaze, this theory states that males only see women as something to look at and something that can be gazed upon and only use them for their own pleasure.

https://www.fil minquiry.com/ film-theorybasics-lauramulvey-malegaze-theory/

[ CITATION Rac15 \l 2057 ]

This will be useful in my essay as it will show how women can be seen by men and therefore why more sexual music videos have become more popular.


Bibliography Ermery, D. (2016, October 28). Did the 1938 Radio Broadcast of ‘War of the Worlds’ Cause a Nationwide Panic? Retrieved from Snopes: https://www.snopes.com/fact-check/war-of-theworlds/ Halbrooks, G. (2018, October 6). Demographic data is critical for media. Retrieved from Careers: https://www.thebalancecareers.com/demographic-data-is-critical-for-media-2315179 Haskell, M. (1987). From Reverance to Rape. Chicago: The University of Chicago press. Hendricks, H. (2016, April 16). Does rap culture negativley impact the youth culture. Retrieved from The GNA insider: https://thegnainsider.com/7582/editorials/does-rap-music-negativelyimpact-the-youth-culture/ Hupodermic Needle theory. (2017, Febuary 27). Retrieved from University of Twente : https://www.utwente.nl/en/bms/communication-theories/sorted-by-cluster/MassMedia/Hypodermic_Needle_Theory/ Mcleod, S. (2014). Simply Phsycology. Retrieved from Bobo Doll experimant . Morin, A. (n.d.). Can music be a bad influence on teens and kids. Retrieved from Livestrong.com: https://www.livestrong.com/article/1000832-can-music-bad-influence-kids-teens/ Revision world. (2007). Retrieved from Reception theory: https://revisionworld.com/a2-level-levelrevision/media-studies-level-revision/reception-theory Sampson, R. (2015, October 27). Film Theory 101: Laura Maulvey the Male Gaze. Retrieved from Film Inquiry: https://www.filminquiry.com/film-theory-basics-laura-mulvey-male-gaze-theory Spacey, J. (2017, August 25). 12 Tyopes of Target Audience . Retrieved from Simplicable: https://simplicable.com/new/target-audience Twente, U. o. (2017, February 27). University of Twente. Retrieved from Cultivation theory: https://www.utwente.nl/en/bms/communication-theories/sorted-by-cluster/MassMedia/Cultivation_Theory/

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