Issuu on Google+

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Highlands Highveld – Drakensberg – Eastern Cape Mountains

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Comprehensive maps include all the larger parks, reserves and tourist destinations with indigenous trees. These offer Tree Spotters specific locations for birding, wildlife watching, picnics, hiking, walking and fishing while looking for trees.

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Sappi Tree Spotting Highlands follows the simple system of looking for the Right Trees in the Right Places. Most indigenous trees in the Highlands are found in rocky areas, on ridges, in kloofs, or along stretches of natural unspoilt rivers. Highlands successfully explores the wonder of trees and shrubs from the high-lying grasslands and scrubby Karoo plains, to the Drakensberg and the Eastern Cape Mountain ranges.

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◆ The terminology is simple.

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SAPPI_TREES_HIGHLANDS_COVER 1

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ISBN 978-1-77009-561-8 www.jacana.co.za

Highveld Drakensberg Eastern Cape Mountains

Highveld Drakensberg Eastern Cape Mountains

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9 781770 095618

“If this is the quality of all the Sappi Tree Spotting guides, then we are lucky… I bought a copy and have been bowled over by the quality of the layout, pictures, and sheer depth of information it contains. I found that it worked – and I am a person with no real knowledge of trees and shrubs.” – Veld and Flora, Sandy Smuts

Highlands

Highlands

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Sappi Tree Spotting Highlands has been updated as one of a series. The other books in the series include Sappi Tree Spotting Lowveld (3rd edition 2006), Bushveld (2nd edition 2005), KwaZulu-Natal & Eastern Cape (2nd edition 2004), Cape (1st edition 2008), as well as the Lifer List and What’s in a name?

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◆ It focuses on the striking features of each tree – highlighting details that are easy to spot, without complex keying.

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◆ It shows you the Right Places to look for the Right Trees, basing tree identification on the link between vegetation regions (Ecozones) and the woody plants that grow there naturally.

sappi tree spotting

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The Sappi series makes a difference to Tree Spotters:

sappi tree spotting

sappi tree spotting

Val Thomas Rina Grant

sappi 2011/09/12 9:57 AM


sappi tree spotting Highlands

Highveld Drakensberg and Eastern Cape Mountains

Val Thomas and Rina Grant Illustrations - Joan van Gogh Photographs - Jaco Adendorff

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Sappi Tree Spotting Series Lowveld (2006) Highlands (2011) KwaZulu-Natal & E. Cape (2004)

Bushveld Lowveld

Bushveld (2005) Cape (2008)

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Published by: Š Jacana Media (Pty) Ltd, Johannesburg 1998, 2008, 2011 PO Box 291784, Melville 2109, Johannesburg, South Africa Tel: 011 628 3200; Fax: 011 482 7280 Email: marketing@jacana.co.za www.jacana.co.za

Created and developed by High Branching Tel: 011 728 6937 Email: val@highbranching.co.za

Printed by: Fishwicks Printers, Durban Front cover artwork of Wild-peach, Kiggelaria africana, by Joan van Gogh Title page artwork of Wild-peach, Kiggelaria africana, by Joan van Gogh?? No part of this publication may be reproduced, by any means whatsoever, without the prior written permission of Jacana Media. The publishers welcome any comments. All rights reserved. Sappi Tree Spotting Highlands body text has been printed on Triple Green Mat 115gsm and the cover on Magno Star Gloss 400gsm

Third Edition 2011 ISBN: 978-1-77009-561-8 001552

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Dedications Trent, you will be forever woven into the roots and branchings of our lives, and this book. Val and Pete

Thanks to my family for their support, and to Val and the enthusiastic High Branching team with whom I was honoured to work. Rina

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Contents Foreword Sappi acknowledgementS national parkS, reServeS, wilderneSS areaS conServation and tree SocietieS Sappi tree Spotting

iS

the

6 8 9 13

diFFerent

Trees Greet You – Identify a Specific Tree by a Distinguishing Feature You Find Trees – by Understanding the Highlands You Find Trees – with Accessible Information You Find Trees – using Simple Language to Create Search Images You Find Trees – by Making the Most of Pages 170 to 304

underStand

5

18 18 19 20 26

highlandS

Highlands Definition and Altitude Highlands Climate Combination of Altitude and Climate Highlands Geology and Soils Combination of Geology, Altitude and Climate

32 34 36 37 40

habitatS

oF the

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highlandS

Grassland Plains 50 Karoo Plains 52 Cool and Warm Rocky areas, outcrops, and ridges 54 Besem Karee Koppies 56 Warm North- and West-facing Mountain and Hill Slopes 58 Cool South- and East-facing Mountain and Hill Slopes 60 High and Lower Altitude Mountains 62 Rivers and streams 64 High and Lower Altitude Kloofs 66 Highlands Wetlands – including Salt Pans 68

oF the

highlandS

NED – Northern Escarpment of the Drakensberg – Ecozone and Habitat Tree Lists TD – The Drakensberg – Ecozone and Habitat Tree Lists WFD – Western Foothills of the Drakensberg – Ecozone and Habitat Tree Lists EFD – Eastern Foothills of the Drakensberg – Ecozone and Habitat Tree Lists ECR – Eastern Cape Ranges – Ecozone and Habitat Tree Lists DP – Dry Plains – Ecozone and Habitat Tree Lists LRP – Low Rainfall Plains – Ecozone and Habitat Tree Lists RRP – Rocky Ridged Plains – Ecozone and Habitat Tree Lists HRP – High Rainfall Plains – Ecozone and Habitat Tree Lists KP – Karoo Plains – Ecozone and Habitat Tree Lists

indigenouS, exotic

the Sappi tree Spotting waY Highlands Ecozone Highlands Habitats Habitat and Ecozone Diagrams Ecozones and Habitats – Tree Lists Ecozones and Habitats – Tree Distribution You Find Trees by Ecozone or Habitat – A Five Step Guide

ecozoneS

and invaSive

70 72 75 77 79 81 83 85 88 90 93 95 97 99 101 104 107 109 112 114

alien treeS

Indigenous Trees are Easier to Find in Conserved Areas The Highlands Invasions Exotics and Invasive Aliens - their Roles in South Africa

116 116 117

treeS greet You diStinguiShing FeatureS - FlowerS Striking and Unusual Various Flower Forms Proteas Large and/or Clustered Heads Flowers by Colour Red, Pink, Purple to Blue Orange, Yellow and Dark Cream White to Pale Cream Greenish-yellow Greenish-white to Greenish-cream

120 120 120 121 122 122 123 124 125 126

engliSh nameS

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South aFrican treeS

treeS greet You diStinguiShing FeatureS - Fruit Striking and Unusual Relatively Large or Showy Cones Proteas Smaller – Including Yellowwood Cones Smaller – Woody, Dry or Papery

128 128 128 128 129 129

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diStinguiShing FeatureS - Fruit

compariSonS

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Capsules Small – Look Dry or Woody Various Shapes Ferns Pods – Various shapes Round and Oval Fruit with Skin Grow Directly on Trunks, Stems and/or Branchlets, not on Twigs Ripening Dark Purple to Black Ripening to Red and Pale Purple Ripening to Red and Bright Orange Ripening to Yellow, Orange and Brown

129 129 130 130 131 131 131 132 132 133 133

treeS greet You diStinguiShing FeatureS - leaveS Striking Leaves Large or Unusual Simple Leaves by Leaf Shape Relatively Round Narrow Elliptic Simple Leaves by Attachment Whorls of Three Alternate and Spiral Opposite Clustered and Whorled Simple Leaves Special Features Each Pair at 90º to Next Pair – Decussate Latex Present Pink to Purple Twigs, Stalks and/or Young Leaves Three Veins originating at the Leaf Base Bi-coloured Small Thorns or Prickles on Leaves/Leaflets Hairy Deeply-lobed: Butterfly Compound Leaves by Leaf Shape Three-leaflet Compound Five- to Seven-leaflet Compound Hand-shaped Compound Twice Compound

134 134 134 134 135 135 135 136 138 139 140 140 140 140 141 141 141 142 142 143 143 143 143 143

treeS greet You diStinguiShing FeatureS - bark Striking and Unusual Bark – Smooth Corky Bark Thorns/Prickles on Main Trunks/Stems Rough Bark Furrowed, Fissured and Grooved Bark Peeling Bark Bark with Bumps

thornS, SpineS

and

prickleS

144 145 145 146 146 147 147 148

treeS greet You compariSonS Acacia Comparisons Paired: Hooked thorns Paired: Straight thorns Both Straight and Hooked thorns Sickle-bush

149 150 151 151

cont

Sickle-bush Aloe Comparisons Cabbage-tree Comparisons Coffee and Gardenia Family Comparisons Bitter-apple Comparisons Nuxia Comparisons Protea Comparisons Rhus, Searsia species Comparisons GIFF of Rhus in this book Karee-rhus Comparisons Currant-rhus Comparisons Kuni-rhus Comparisons Spikethorn Maytenus Family Comparisons Koko-trees and Drip-tip Silky-bark Spikethorns Ancient Trees Tree Fern Comparisons Cycads Yellowwood Comparisons Cape-cedar Eastern Species of the Highlands Trees often grown in Parks and Gardens Bottlebrush Comparisons

151 152 152 153 154 154 155 156 157 158 159 160 161 161 161 162 162 162 163 163 164 166 167

treeS greet You - unique treeS Aloe Family Asphodelaceae Bitter Aloe Aloe ferox Mountain Aloe Aloe marlothii Ivy and Cabbage-tree Family Araliaceae Common Cabbage-tree Cussonia spicata Mountain Cabbage-tree Cussonia paniculata Milkwood Family Sapotaceae Stamvrug Milkplum Englerophytum magalismontanum Protea Family Proteaceae Highveld Protea Protea caffra Silver Protea Protea roupelliae Tree Fern Family Cyatheaceae Grassland Tree Fern Cyathea dregei

170 170 172 174 174 176 178 178 180 180 182 184 184

You Find treeS - keY treeS Borage Family Boraginaceae Deurmekaar Puzzle-bush Ehretia rigida Buddleja Family Buddlejaceae Olive Sagewood Buddleja saligna Quilted Sagewood Buddleja salviifolia Buckthorn and Jujube Family Rhamnaceae Buffalo-thorn Jujube Ziziphus mucronata Carrot and Parsley Family Apiaceae Peeling-bark Parsley-tree Heteromorpha arborescens Cheesewood Family Pittosporaceae Cheesewood Pittosporum viridiflorum Daisy and Thistle Family Asteraceae Camphor-bush Tarchonanthus camphoratus

188 190 192 194 196 198 200

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Contents You Find treeS - keY treeS

You Find treeS - general treeS

cont

Ebony Family Ebenaceae Bladder-nut Diospyros whyteana Blue Guarri Euclea crispa Quilted Bluebush Diospyros lycioides Small-leaved Guarri Euclea undulata Grape Family Vitaceae Cape Bushmans Grape Rhoicissus tridentata Mallow Family Malvaceae Cross-berry Raisin Grewia occidentalis Velvet Raisin Grewia flava Mango Family Anacardiaceae Common Currant-rhus Searsia pyroides Nana Currant-rhus Rhus dentata Olive Family Oleaceae African Olive Olea europaea Spikethorn Family Celastraceae Pioneer Spikethorn Gymnosporia buxifolia Thorn-tree Mimosoideae; Sub-family of Legume Family Fabaceae Sweet-thorn Acacia Acacia karroo Wild-peach Family Achariaceae Wild-peach Kiggelaria africana

202 204 206 208 210 212 214 216 218 220 222 224 226

You Find treeS - along riverS Bushwillow Family Combretaceae River Bushwillow Combretum erythrophyllum Holly Family Aquifoliaceae Cape Holly Ilex mitis Mango Family Anacardiaceae Karee-rhus Searsia lancea White-stinkwood Family Celtidaceae African White-stinkwood Celtis africana Willow Family Salicaceae Small-leaved Willow Salix mucronata

230 232 234 236 238

You Find treeS - in klooFS Cape-beech Family Myrsinaceae Cape-beech Rapanea melanophloeos Citrus Family Rutaceae Cape-chestnut Calodendrum capense Dogwood Family Cornaceae Assegaai Curtisia dentata Yellowwood Family Podocarpaceae Broad-leaved Yellowwood Podocarpus latifolius Small-leaved Yellowwood Podocarpus falcatus

cont

Citrus Family Rutaceae Small Knobwood Zanthoxylum capense Coffee and Gardenia Family Rubiaceae Mountain Wild-medlar Vangueria parvifolia Velvet Wild-medlar Vangueria infausta Daisy and Thistle Family Asteraceae Mountain Silver-oak Brachylaena rotundata Hard-pear Family Oliniaceae Mountain Hard-pear Olinia emarginata Jacaranda Family Bignoniaceae Three-leaved Rhigozum Rhigozum obovatum Litchi and Soapberry Family Sapindaceae Jacket-plum Pappea capensis Mallow Family Malvaceae Wild-pear Dombeya Dombeya rotundifolia Mango Family Anacardiaceae Mountain Karee-rhus Searsia leptodictya Waxy Currant-rhus Searsia lucida Ochna Family Ochnaceae Coldbark Ochna Ochna arborea Oleander Family Apocynaceae Forest Num-num Carissa bispinosa Rose Family Rosaceae Ouhout Leucosidea sericea Sandalwood Family Santalaceae Rock Tannin-bush Osyris lanceolata Snapdragon Family Scrophulariaceae Tree-fuchsia Halleria lucida Sneezewood Family Ptaeroxylaceae Sneezewood Ptaeroxylon obliquum Sweet-pea Papilionoideae; Sub-family of Legume Family Fabaceae Cork-bush Mundulea sericea Thorn-tree Mimosoideae; Sub-family of Legume Family Fabaceae Camel-thorn Acacia Acacia erioloba Candle-pod Acacia Acacia hebeclada Common Hook-thorn Acacia Acacia caffra Paperbark Acacia Acacia sieberiana Robust Acacia Acacia robusta Wild-bottlebrush Family Greyiaceae Glossy Bottlebrush Greyia sutherlandii

260 262 264 266 268 270 272 274 276 278 280 282 284 286 288 290 292 294 296 298 300 302 304

242 244 246 248 250

You Find treeS - general treeS Buckthorn and Jujube Family Rhamnaceae Shiny-leaf Buckthorn Rhamnus prinoides Buddleja Family Buddlejaceae Brittlewood Nuxia Nuxia congesta Bushwillow Family Combretaceae Velvet Bushwillow Combretum molle

Cont

254 256 258

common invaSive alien treeS Nemba List of Alien Plants, April 2009 Category 1 Category 2 Category 3 A Highlands’ Mindshift

FamilY FeatureS, mapS, index Family Features Maps Index References

306 306 308 310 311 and

reFerenceS 314 322 328 335

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Foreword The rich Tree Flora

oF

SouTh aFrica

In any terms South Africa is blessed with an exceptionally rich flora. Here, on no more than about 2% of the global land surface, nearly 20,000 plant species occur in a vast array of habitats. In this flora a similarly divergent set of life and growth forms abound; the country is the bulb and succulents capital of the world, for example. However, in contrast to many tropical regions of the world, South Africa does not have vast forested areas. In fact, the forest biome is small in comparison to most others. But this does not mean that South Africa has a negligible tree flora. On the contrary, with over 1,400 species that qualify for recognition as a tree, South Africa, and the sub-continent beyond its borders, has a significant tree flora that has received the attention of taxonomists and biologists in general. In Africa south of the equator this number increases to over 5,000.

to learn more about our fascinating trees. The natural history book publishing industry in South Africa is remarkably well developed and visitors from abroad invariably comment on the excellent quality of the books produced locally, on virtually any aspect of the country’s biodiversity. The publisher of the Sappi Tree Spotting series, Jacana, has made significant contributions to popularising aspects of the country’s biodiversity, of which the tree flora is a good example. However, the works of publishers are only as good as the content generated by their authors, and Val Thomas and Rina Grant are to be commended on the publication of this contribution. The paintings of Joan van Gogh used in the book are artistically executed, but also satisfy the scientifically inclined reader. The artwork is bold, which speaks of a definite familiarity with the subject matter.

Trees are not evenly distributed across the South African landscape, and to most enthusiasts reference to ‘trees’ immediately conjures up images of the southern Cape Knysna forests or the moist river valleys of KwaZulu-Natal and Mpumalanga. However, even in areas where tree species are known not to occur in vast numbers, pockets of high diversity are often encountered as a result of the interplay among environmental variables. This is certainly the case on the Highveld, an area often associated with apparently endless stretches of grasslands. This book goes a long way to dispelling the notion that the often climatically severe Highveld is impoverished in terms of the variety of its tree species.

There are few greater compliments that authors of books can receive than seeing the buying and reading public lapping up their written works; this is indeed wonderful reward for one who publishes books. Instead of idly enjoying their success, Val and Rina have decided to produce yet another up-dated version of the Highveld tree spotting book. This remains an indication of the encouraging vitality and commitment of both local and international nature loving enthusiasts who remain fascinated by the South African tree flora.

For centuries trees have globally inspired a significant group of professional and amateur natural historians alike. The same is true for South Africa, where it is a compliment being labelled an ‘amateur’ dendrologist. It indicates an extraordinary appreciation for, and knowledge of, the tree flora of the country. South Africa has also been fortunate that professional and amateur botanists, including tree lovers, have a long history of close collaboration. Going back over 30 years now, the first National List of Trees, then a small pocket-sized book, was produced by Dr Bernard de Winter and Johan Vahrmeijer, of the then Botanical Research Institute (BRI), a forerunner of the South African National Biodiversity Institute. Their work took its key from the earlier work of Dr Leslie Codd, also of the same institution, who introduced the concept of numbering trees in his 1951 work on the trees and shrubs of the Kruger National Park. This initiative was eventually adopted and extended by the Dendrological Society, with Dr Fried von Breitenbach and his wife Juta, at the helm. The Tree Society has similarly played an important role in drawing together tree specialists from academia and other professional and amateur circles.

It has been claimed that there are about 60,000 known tree species in the world. To this day detailed and comprehensive information is available on the biology of only about 100 of them! And most of these are the ones that are of obvious economic importance in the food and timber industries. So, to the question ‘do we need more books on trees?’ the answer has to be a resounding ‘yes’. All efforts to popularise the local—indeed the global—tree flora and unlock their secrets must be welcomed. Professor Gideon F. Smith FLS, FCSSA Chief Director: Biosystematics Research and Biodiversity Collections, South African National Biodiversity Institute, South Africa John Acocks Professor of Botany, H.G.W.J. Schweickerdt Herbarium, Department of Plant Science, University of Pretoria, South Africa Research Associate, Centre for Functional Ecology, Departamento de Botânica, Universidade de Coimbra, Portugal

Regardless of whether preferring traditional hard-copy versions, or, increasingly, as web-based content, budding and established dendrologists invariably turn to written effusions

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sappi A poignant statement by Baba Dioum, a Senegalese ecologist, sums up what the books in the Sappi Tree Spotting series strive to achieve. “In the end we will conserve only what we love. We love only what we understand. We will understand only what we are taught.” It is with great pride that we introduce to the public the final revision in our indigenous tree book series – Sappi Tree Spotting Highlands. The area covered by the publication follows the eastern spine of mountains from Polokwane in the north all the way southwards for 1 500 kms to Stutterheim and the Amatola Mountains in the Eastern Cape. Its width is about 500 kms in the north, from Mafikeng to Barberton, where it remains Highlands and, therefore, above 1 000 m. This revision is a total update of Sappi Tree Spotting Highveld, and reflects the developments in vegetation mapping since the original book was first published over a decade ago. Trees are a wonderful resource, whether in nature or used commercially to enrich our lives through a myriad of traditional as well as new applications. Some of these are touched upon in this new publication. Sappi’s business relies on responsible forestry management to ensure that we do not overstretch this renewable resource. Our business also relies on a strong commitment to conserve and protect our natural heritage and, in particular, our indigenous tree heritage. These books are designed not only to inspire people to enjoy the pleasures of recreational tree spotting, but also to empower them with the material to understand the role that trees play in healthy ecosystems, and the rich biodiversity of this country. It has been said that the art and science of asking questions is the source of all knowledge. Sappi Tree Spotting Highlands offers readers the basic information about trees of the region to stimulate their interest and enable them to ask questions. In addition, it provides many of the answers, which range from key characteristics of leaves to medicinal uses, all in a clear, concise, easy to reference manner. Each tree is part of a fascinating inter-linkage of climate, altitude, geology and actual geography. In simple language, with colourful art and photographs, the pages seek to contextualise the relationships within this ecosystem. In the last decade, interest in, and appreciation of the environment has grown steadily, not just in South Africa, but throughout the world. This has led to a measurable increase in the number of conserved areas within our borders, and within the region covered by this book. The privilege of being able to enjoy our rich natural heritage in National Parks, Reserves, Botanical Gardens and even some of our city parks is something that we feel should never be taken for granted. Trees are often one of the most important links in maintaining the integrity of a Reserve and need to be cherished. Trees touch our lives in a number of ways, from being an integral part of this intricate web of life that is essential to the wider world, to contributing directly to our own psychological health and sense of physical well-being. Our beautiful planet is in crisis, and catch-phrases like ‘global warming’ and ‘climate change’ are now common in public discourse. We believe that the Sappi Tree Spotting series can play a pivotal role in influencing people to take cognisance of how important it is to preserve our trees – to recognise them and nurture them – as well as to enjoy their individual uniqueness and fascinating diversity as a group. Ralph Boëttger Chief Executive Officer Sappi Limited Johannesburg, 13 July 2011

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Jaco Adendorff

This spectacular Mountain Hard-pear, Olinia emarginata, grows on a Mountain Slope at Giant’s Castle, the Drakensberg.

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ACknowleDgements Sappi Tree Spotting Highveld originally took two years of intensive research and testing to reach the public in 1998, and it has enjoyed 13 years in the market with a revision and reprint in 2004. My sincere thanks still go to those people without whom the five primary books in the series would never have been possible. In particular my co-author Dr Rina Grant laid the foundation stones of the science which has ensured the success of Sappi Tree Spotting across a diverse audience. Sappi Tree Spotting Highlands is an entirely new publication, based on wonderful advances in the materials generated from scientific research, with maps and data that make the inter-relationships between geology, landform, climate and the growth of trees accessible. Added to this there is a long list of dedicated people that I need to thank for their advice, support, editing – and even their coercion – that has meant that these 336 pages are as colourful, integrated and coherent, and as accessible, as they are today. My gratitude to our sponsor Sappi is paramount, as endeavours like this one simply cannot see the light of day without some funding to pay outside costs. Jacana Media have published and distributed all the books of the series. Our thanks for the regular help with scans, maps, and outstanding data. Above all I owe an incalculable debt to my husband, Peter, without whom very little in this publication would have been possible. For the hours he has spent driving me, taking photos, listening to my dilemmas, looking for trees in forsaken kloofs, along rivers and ridges, paid my way when there were no other resources at hand, and above all patiently put our private lives on hold while I “worked on the book”, I can only trade by offering my deepest gratitude and love. The High Branching team who took on the main load of completing the work in its final months was small but the individuals are central in my thanks. Denise Raikin and Julie Sander have had a hand in compiling, checking, listing, editing and supervising every aspect of every page, and they have been superb. Joan Sibya and Obed Malobi kept us fed, clean and safe and were completely reliable in our hectic lives. Our main scientific editing has had various stages and each one invaluable, and needing acknowledgment and thanks; to Hugo Bezuidenhout at SANParks for his early, wise steering; Eugene Moll our best botanical friend; Tracy and Merwyn Lotter, who separately added essential, critical material; Roger Diamond and Nick Norman, each for their specifically geological input; Cheryl Dehning for photo resources; Christina Bredenkamp for SANBI plant data; and Andrew Deacon for the Wetlands material. But above all in the arena of science, our heartfelt admiration and sincere thanks go to Robbie (Ernest) Robinson who has given us months of his extraordinary insights and broad, careful knowledge. Primarily too, I thank my co-author Rina for her fundamentally sound input, and her thoughtful, scientific overviews. Much of our tree distribution work was fine-tuned using lists from conservation areas, along with numerous rangers, managers, botanists, ecologists and ardent Tree Spotter visitors, to whom we extend our sincere gratitude. Our maps in this publication are our pride and joy. If you are a map person they tell a most extraordinary story of how the Highlands works! The first acknowledgment has to be to Mucina, Rutherford et al who created both the book and the map – “The Vegetation of South Africa, Lesotho and Swaziland” – and on whose work the outlines of the Ecozones are largely based. However, without the added dimension of the contours provided by MetroGIS – Lourens Du Plessis and Deon de Witt, many of our extracted assumptions would not have had the solid validity of altitude that we can now claim. The maps themselves are only as good as the electronic designers who make them come alive and our thanks go to Rizelle Stander for their initial creation, Don Louw for the back-breaking middle leg and Wendy Wethmar of incolour graphics for the final few months of careful styling. The general DTP was done by these same Mac operators, ably assisted by Julie Sander. For the final design we thank Wendy Wethmar for the inspirational touches that have brought system and control to our earlier layouts, and which have added so much to the overall look and feel of the pages. General editing in the end is the backbone of any publication and this was been done largely in-house by Julie and Denise. We thank Ivor Sander for his careful eye and Vicky Bruce for her meticulous lists. Finally this book is a visual delight and an educational joy through the contributions of our two main artists – illustrator Joan van Gogh and photographer Jaco Adendorff. The standard of their work has enriched the publication in so many ways. Not the least were the hours that Jaco spent actually visiting photographic sites, and that Joan spent finding resources. For some of the artwork we owe thanks to Penny Noall. A number of the photographs are taken at roadsides by Peter or myself, as well as contributions from Rina Grant and Sanchia Breedeveld. We are grateful to Jaco for his professional work on all images, fine-tuning them for publication. At the death a few photos came from the teams at Melville Koppies and Klipriviersberg Nature Reserve. We will show our thanks to them by visiting the Koppies and the Rivier often! As we hope you will. With this book in hand. Val thomas Johannesburg 13 July 2011

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Jaco Adendorff

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sAppi tRee spotting is DiffeRent this short section lays the foundations of understanding why Sappi Tree Spotting Highlands is not like other field guides. once you have read it you will approach the fun of tree spotting with a different, more successful method and mindset. Trees Greet You – Identify a Specific Tree by a Distinguishing Feature You Find Trees – by Understanding the Highlands You Find Trees – with Accessible Information You Find Trees – using Simple Language to Create Search Images You Find Trees – by Making the Most of Pages 170 to 304

18 18 19 20 26

A Black-eyed Bulbul enjoys the autumn feast of fruits of Cape Holly, Ilex mitis, p. 232. This photograph is in the Royal Natal National Park, and like most of those in the book, was taken by Jaco Adendorff.

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sAppi tRee spotting is DiffeRent Sappi Tree Spotting is a creative way to make the most of the outdoors. We hope that it will increase the popularity of Tree Spotting, as did Roberts and Newman for Bird Watching. Seventeen years of intensive, scientific, field and market research have gone into fine-tuning this innovative method of getting to know trees in their natural environments. Until recently, trees remained inaccessible to all but the most devoted, botanically-minded, tree-key followers. Sappi Tree Spotting changes this with innovative methods of linking real trees to book theory. In most other field guides, for either animals or plants, the system is based on: • seeing a species in the wild • looking it up in the guidebook to identify it, and to gain further information. In Sappi Tree Spotting that system changes in a number of ways – essentially based on your LOOKING for specific trees in a specific area, rather than trying to Identify a tree you come across. There are five innovative methods to help you.

1 treeS greet You – identiFY a SpeciFic tree – bY a diStinguiShing Feature Here, some feature of the tree is so Distinguishing or Unique that you immediately identify it. In a similar way to the traditional method described above, you see a species in the wild, and based on pictures, you find its details in a book. Although there are well over 100 species of trees in the Highlands, and some of these are difficult to identify, there are some that are easily named. None of these needs a complex system of ‘keying’, because they are instantly recognisable, in many instances even from a distance. There are two ways, described below, of using this book recognise these distinctive trees.

Distinguishing features and Comparisions On pages 118 to 167 you will find a series of visual summaries of striking flowers, fruit, leaves and bark, as well as Comparisons between similar species. When you come across a distinguishing feature of any tree in the wild, look it up in these pages, and you should be able to identify it immediately.

Unique trees On pages 168 to 185 we have grouped eight Unique Trees, which are so unusual in their growth form that after you have browsed through the book once or twice, you should recognise them instantly when you see them in the wild.

2 You Find treeS – bY underStanding the highlandS Aiming to understand the area where a tree grows is a Sappi Tree Spotting innovation, and is based on your setting out to look for specific trees in specific places. In natural environments most trees flourish and reach maturity where soil, climate and geology suit them best. That is also the right place for you to find and learn about them first. To approach the idea from the opposite angle, wherever you are it makes sense to first find those trees that thrive there. Much of the layout and philosophy of this book series aims to make this search for, and identification of the right trees, as easy as possible. There is always a strong correlation between the place where you are, and the trees you can look for there. It is worthwhile familiarising yourself with the area where you are Tree Spotting. Use the maps on pages 322 to 327, and read the information on pages 30 to 115 to understand the various factors that make the Highlands a predictable system in which trees grow naturally. This will allow you to follow the most important Sappi Tree Spotting concept:

look

For the

right treeS

in the

right placeS.

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3 You Find treeS – with acceSSible inFormation This series helps the Tree Spotter using accessible, easy-to-understand information, such as maps and distribution squares, lists of striking features (*GIFFs) of each tree, Ecozone and Habitat Tree Lists as well as clear photos and accurate artwork. There is also information on traditional uses for trees, and their possible use in gardens. SIMPLE LANGUAGE

Pages 20 to 25: Use Simple Language to create Search Images explains the terms used in the Sappi Tree Spotting series. As this is plain English, nothing is difficult, but it is worth reading before you start identifying your first tree. Remember that the words explained in this section each mean something very specific. When you read these same terms in the descriptions of the trees, you should visualise the pictures listed on these pages. We have tried our best to make the artwork (specific to each tree) match the appropriate words.

LEAVES

SEARCH IMAGES

TO CREATE

SIMPLE LEAVES

CNTD

COMPOUND LEAVES

Once Compound Leaves (Pinnate) eg Cork-bush, p. 292

eg Wild-peach p. 226

Lateral veins

Leaf with leaflets

Central vein

Rachis

Margin

Leaf-bud

Leaflet-stalk

Leaf-stalk

Leaf-stalk Leaf-bud Twig

Twig

Twice Compound Leaves

Three-leaflet Compound Leaves

Hand-shaped Compound Leaves

(Bipinnate) eg Acacia species, p. 149 – 151

(Trifoliate) eg Karee-rhus, p. 234

(Digitate) eg Common Cabbage-tree, p. 174

Feather with leaflets Leaf with feathers

Leaflet

Leaflet

Leaf-stalk Leaf-bud Twig

Leaf-stalk Leaf-bud Twig

Rachis

Leaf-stalk Leaf-bud Twig

highlands EcozonEs

Pages 30 to 49: Understand the Highlands will explain how the Highlands area works in nature. This will add to your enjoyment, as you learn to understand why the specific trees grow where they do.

cont

In most cases you will not see a dramatic change as you cross the lines drawn on our maps. When you visit an Ecozone you will notice the different species of trees that grow there. In addition, it is a bonus for experts and a curse for beginners that the same tree species, growing under different conditions in different Ecozones, will show variations in general size and shape, as well as in leaf or branch form. One of the most fulfilling moments in Tree Spotting is to be able to recognise a familiar tree in a new environment, and understand how it has adapted, and changed visibly, to enable it to survive in different environmental conditions.

As we have described on the previous pages, Ecozones are large areas with the following relatively uniform features: – landform (landscape and range of altitude); – climate (ranges of rainfall and temperature, and to a lesser degree, wind); – geology (rocks) and soils. In Sappi Tree Spotting Highlands, the ten Ecozones each have their own name, colour and alphabetical abbreviation to ensure consistent identification. You can see these Ecozones and their respective colours on the map below, as well as on the larger maps on pages 322 to 327. It is important to remember that Ecozones are very large areas with diffuse boundaries that usually alter gradually over many kilometres.

Mountainous EcozonEs NED

27.3°

EcozonEs

of thE

highlands

See larger maps on pages 322 to 327

Northern Escarpment Drakensberg

TD

The Drakensberg

EFD

Eastern Foothills Drakensberg

A leaf usually grows on a leaf-stalk that attaches the leaf to the twig or branchlet. It snaps off the twig or branchlet relatively easily at the leaf-bud (axillary bud). You can often see this bud as a swelling at the base of the leaf-stalk – and this is the point from which a leaf, flower or twiglet grows. All leaves are described as Simple or Compound. Sometimes it is not easy to tell the difference between a Simple and a Compound leaf.

Some of the ways are: • Look for a leaf-bud. There is only one per leaf. • Compound leaves look organised on their leaf-stalk. Most Simple leaves that are grouped closely together look irregular on the twig. • The leaflet of a Compound leaf tends to tear off the leafstalk, often pulling some thin outer bark with it. It does not snap off neatly at the leaf-bud, the way the leaf itself usually does off the twig. Please note this is not true for all species, nor at all times of the year.

Once Compound leaves can end in two ways:

A pair of leaflets at the tip (Paripinnate) eg Small Knobwood, p. 260

Vein patterns on leaves vary a great deal. Two distinctive patterns are:

A single leaflet at the tip (Imparipinnate) eg Ouhout, p. 284

Herringbone eg Coldbark Ochna, p. 278

Net-veined eg Wild-pear Dombeya p. 274

22

WFD Western Foothills Drakensberg ECR

Eastern Cape Ranges

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Plains EcozonEs DP

Dry Plains

LRP

Low Rainfall Plains

RRP

Rocky Ridged Plains

HRP

High Rainfall Plains

KP

Karoo Plains

From page 168 to 305 are double-page spreads of 64 Highlands trees. Next to the distribution map for each of these trees we have placed this grid of squares. NED

High Branching

DP

TD

Pages 322 to 327: Maps will help you to pinpoint exactly where you are going to Tree Spot. This information will crosscorrelate with your reading in Understand the Highlands

WFD EFD ECR

LRP RRP HRP

KP

Any square that is coloured indicates that the tree is likely to be found in that Ecozone. Thus the tree depicted in the blocks above can be found in NED – Northern Escarpment of the Drakensberg, EFD – Eastern Foothills of the Drakensberg and HRP – High Rainfall Plains. It is less likely to occur naturally anywhere else in the Highlands.

33.7°

42

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EcozonE EFD – EastErn FootslopEs

oF thE

DrakEnsbErg

lowEr altituDE Mountains & hills – Below 2 000 masl

Pages 72 to 111: Ecozone Tree Lists will identify exactly which specific trees you should try to find in that area.

Cool, South-& East-facing Slopes Bladder-nut Diospyros whyteana Cape Bushmans Grape Rhoicissus tridentata Wild-peach Kiggelaria africana Paperbark Acacia Acacia sieberiana White-pear Apodytes dimidiata African Cape-myrtle Myrsine africana Apricot Sourberry Dovyalis zeyheri

202 210 226 300 61 82 55

Bi-coloured Currant-rhus Searsia tomentosa Cat-thorn Scutia myrtina Drakensberg Karee-rhus Searsia montana Flame-pod Acacia Acacia ataxacantha Grassland Tree Fern Cyathea dregei Hairy Turkey-berry Canthium ciliatum Healing-leaf Bitter-apple Solanum giganteum Lance-leaved Waxberry Morella serrata

159 164

Pages 118 to 148: Distinguishing Features summarise and compare any parts of the trees that are visually easy to recognise (leaves, flowers, fruit and bark). Reading through these pages before setting out into the field will increase your awareness of what to expect.

76 149

DISTINGUISHING FEATURES Striking and UnUSUal al FlowerS

oF

Striking and UnUSUal al FlowerS cntd Large and/or cLustered heads

FLoWERS

All

colours

All size trees and shrubs Various Flower Forms

All

colours

All size trees and shrubs

184

See Aloe Comparisons, p. 152 Forest Nuxia, Nuxia floribunda, p. 256

153

Brittlewood Nuxia, Nuxia congesta, p. 154

165

Krantz Aloe, Aloe arborescens, p. 152

Mountain Aloe, Aloe marlothii , p. 172

Shepherds-tree, Boscia albitrunca, p. 94

Bitter Aloe, Aloe ferox, p. 170

Forest Waterberry, Syzygium gerradii, p. 164

THORN-TREE SUB-FAMILY

OF THE

PAPERBARK ACACIA – Acacia sieberiana

Tree no 187

Where you’ll find this tree easily

NED

Paperbark Acacia normally grows in loose, widespread groups and occurs only in the northern and eastern half of the Highlands, where it is found to 1 500 masl. Find it at Lower Altitudes: – in the moist Grassland Plains; – on Cool South- and East-facing Slopes; – along the Protected Rivers of these Habitats.

DP

TD

WFD EFD ECR

LRP RRP HRP

KP

Growth form This Acacia branches into several large branches that spread out horizontally. These are visible well into the canopy, and only form smaller branchlets and twigs high up (up to 17 m).

Cabbage-tree species, Cussonia genus, p. 152

Bottlebrush species, Greyia genus, p. 167

Sacred Coral-tree, Erythrina lysistemon, p. 166

S/E

N/W

S/E

N/W

S/E

N/W

S/E

Grassland

Grassland

Grassland

Karoo

LOWER ALTITUDE PLAINS

Warm

Cool

LOWER ALTITUDE ROCKY

Warm, North& West-facing Slopes

Cool, South- & East-facing Slopes

LOWER ALTITUDE – MOUNTAIN & HILL SLOPES below 2 000 masl

Cool Kloofs Rivers

Hot, Exposed Cliffs Warm Kloofs

Cool Slopes & Kloofs

Warm Slopes & Kloofs

Rivers

LOWER ALTITUDE – KLOOFS & CLIFFS below 2 000 masl

HIGH ALTITUDE MOUNTAINS above & bleow 2 000 masl

Protected

Exposed

LOWER ALTITUDE RIVERS

DISTURBED

Sickle-bush,

Jaco Adendorff

Dichrostachys cinerea, p. 151

Bark

Thorns Thorns are not always well developed, and it may be difficult to recognise that this is an Acacia (25 – 100 mm).

The bark peels into flakes that may be large and obvious on some trees, and much smaller and almost inconspicuous on others. The branchlets are covered in golden hairs.

The flaking bark of Paper-bark Acacia is striking, even from a distance, and is intriguing to look at from close up. It is a home for many insects and this also attracts birds.

Seasonal changes

Oct Nov Dec Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun Jul Aug Sep Leaf Flower Pod

300

This tree is one of the last of the Acacias to flower in spring, but it flowers sporadically throughout the summer (Oct – Dec) (10 – 15 mm). Some trees look very similar. Check the Look-alike Trees and their distributions before setting out to find a tree.

120

Pods The pods are hairy when young (Mar – Jun) (100 – 200 x 20 – 40 x 13 mm).

Look-alike tree The Paperbark Acacia has Twice Compound leaves, as do all the Acacias in South Africa. Other than these Acacias, which in fact are all very different from one another, the only tree in this book with Twice Compound leaves is Sicklebush, Dichrostachys cinerea. All these are compared on p. 149 – 151. The most striking features of the Paperbark Acacia are undoubtedly its peeling, flaking bark combined with its flat-topped canopy.

Human uses

Links with animals

The wood is soft and easily destroyed by termites and borer beetles. The bark is highly flammable. The gum is edible and has good adhesive properties. Bark and root extracts were used to treat arthritis and tapeworm infestations. Bark infusions were administered as enemas, for pains in the back, and for chafing in the genital area. Root infusions were administered orally as antiseptics and as a wash, and to children with fevers or stomach-ache.

The fallen pods and leaves are eaten by cattle and game, and in some parts it is planted as a fodder tree. Insects eat a large percentage of the seeds. The milk of cows that have eaten the pods has an unpleasant taste. The foliage, especially when wilted, contains a large amount of poisonous prussic acid and can be dangerous to livestock. This tree attracts birds, especially the Bar-throated Apalis, which gleans insects from flowers, leaves and tree-trunks. Sunbirds such as the Malachite, Greater Double-collared and Scarlet-chested feed on insects that are attracted to the flowers or have nests in the peeling bark.

Gardening This is a fast-growing, attractive tree for the landscaped garden. Although it is not very frost-resistant, it is probably more resistant than most other Acacias.

Highveld Protea, Protea caffra, p. 180

Escarpment Protea, Protea rubropilosa, p. 155

African Protea, Protea gaguedi, p. 155 Artwork is not to exact scale

Plumbago, Plumbago auriculata, p. 166

Quilted Sagewood, Buddleja salviifolia, p. 192

Cape-chestnut, Calodendrum capense, p. 244 Artwork is not to exact scale

121

GENERAL TREES Paperbark Acacia

• This is a single-stemmed Acacia with a straight trunk and it branches low down to form a wide, moderately thick, umbrella canopy. • Thorns may not be conspicuous, but when present are straight, white, paired and joined at the base. • Corky, straw-coloured bark forms irregular flakes, revealing deeper yellow under-bark. • Twice Compound leaves are yellowish-green, and the elliptic leaflets are very narrow. • Thick, flat bean pods hang in bunches and do not open on the tree. • Conspicuous, creamy-white flower-balls are sweet scented, and grow in groups of one to four on long stems. • Flat bean pods are stout, hard and woody. They turn grey-brown when ripe.

Karee-rhus, Searsia lancea, p. 234

Silver Protea, Protea roupelliae, p. 182

Flowers

GIFF

Deciduous. This tree can be identified by its bark throughout the year. Paperbark Acacias are one of the easiest trees for a beginner Tree Spotter to learn!

The leaves have 3 – 20 feather pairs, with 12 – 40 pairs of leaflets. There is a small, knoblike gland at the base of each leaf. Young leaves are covered by thick, yellow hairs (Leaf: 60 – 100 mm; leaflet: 2 – 6.5 x 0.6 – 1.5 mm)

Cork-bush, Mundulea sericea , p. 292

Proteas

Leaves

Remember to refer to the Ecozone and Habitat Tree Lists on pages 72 to 115 to see details of where to find this tree easily. In the Cross-section Diagrams below the colours are consistent with those used in the Tree Lists. N/W

Cheesewood, Pittosporum viridiflorum, p. 198

Mountain Silver-oak, Brachylaena rotundata, p. 266

Peeling-bark Parsley-tree, Heteromorpha arborescens, p. 196

LEGUME FAMILY Mimosoideae

AFRIKAANS Papierbasdoring NORTH SOTHO Mošibihla SISWATI umNganduzi TSONGA Nkowankowa TSWANA Mokha VENDA Musaunga, Muunga-luselo ZULU umKhamba Acacia is from the Greek akis meaning a sharp point. The Greek name for the Egyptian Thorn is Acacia arabica; sieberiana is in honour of Franz Wilhelm Sieber, a Bohemian botanist, plant collector and traveller of the early 18th Century.

Olive Sagewood, Buddleja saligna, p. 190

154

301

Pages 168 to 305: All the more common trees that occur in the Highlands are described in full detail with text, artwork, photos, maps, Seasonal Grids, and Distribution Cross-section Diagrams.

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4 You Find treeS – uSing Simple language to create Search imageS uSing Simple language The Sappi Tree Spotting series highlights those aspects of the chosen trees that are easiest to visualise. Whichever area you are in, you can work out which trees you are likely to find, and build up a mental picture of their most Striking Features, or GIFF*. We have tried to make the text clear and easy to follow in non-botanical language. The average recreational Tree Spotter will never use ‘pubescence’ when ‘hairy’ will do! Learning to know and love trees need not only be for people who are scientifically trained. Nonetheless it is important to have a basic language of terms to be able to follow the information accurately. As a starting point it is worth setting the stage with the names used everywhere, to classify all living things, whether these are animals, plants or fungi. Everything that has Life – and everything we understand and know about! – is grouped into literally dozens of levels, until we reach groups that are similar enough to one another to be classified in one FAMILY. Below we follow the next steps from Family, through GENUS to Individual SPECIES. Note that the plural for genus is genera. The example here, showing both common and scientific names, is for Cape Holly, Ilex mitis, p. 232. Family – Holly, or Aquifoliaceae Genus - Holly, or Ilex Species – Cape, or mitis. In South Africa we are aiming to institute this double-name (binomial) system into the English common language names of trees, to follow the advantages offered by the botanical scientific names (see the additional note on page 127).

creating Search imageS Finding a tree that you do not know is like looking for a stranger in a crowded room. You need to have a clear Search Image of certain Distinguishing Features that you can visualise easily. For example, when looking for a specific person among many others, you may know she is a tall, red-haired woman with glasses, wearing large blue earrings. In most circumstances this should be enough information to find her easily. In the same way, most trees covered in this book have a specific form and look about them that will help you find them. Look at a number of different trees carefully and you will see many patterns. These trees do not have to be indigenous, and do not even have to be in the wild. The fascinating part is that most species do have their own pattern so strongly encoded, that it is repeated to a greater or lesser degree in each individual tree. As you learn these patterns of growth, you will learn to recognise many trees at a glance. Sappi Tree Spotting describes these patterns in this order: • Main branches splitting off the trunk/stem. • Branchlets splitting off the branches, then dividing into twigs. • Leaf-stalks attaching the leaves to the twigs, or in a few trees, the leaves attach to the branchlets. Main branches always leave the main trunk (or stem) in a generally upward or horizontal direction. However, branchlets and twigs tend to grow in their own specific upward, horizontal or even downward pattern, or this growth can be a mixture. GIFF* This stands for general information form and features and is a variation on the birding term GISS (General Information Size and Shape).

Main branch

Branch

Branchlet

Twig

Trunk or stem/s

Leaf-stalk Leaf

To find a particular tree, the first thing you need is a clear idea about its likely size. After that, you need to imagine: • the trunk or stem form; • how this splits up into branches, branchlets and twigs; • the form and density of the canopy; Finally, the shape, size and colour of the bark, leaves, flowers and fruit will help you with a positive identification. On the following pages, you will find the terms used in Sappi Tree Spotting. These will help you to create your Search Images.

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trunkS / StemS

‘trunk’ is generally used for larger trees and ‘stems’ for smaller and/or multi-stemmed trees/shrubs

multi-stemmed eg Quilted Sagewood p. 192

single-trunked, low-branching eg Highveld Protea p. 180

straight trunk eg African White-stinkwood p. 236

canopieS

Round eg Quilted Bluebush p. 206

Crooked trunk eg Mountain Cabbage-tree p. 176

single-trunked, high-branching eg Small-leaved Yellowwood p. 250

fluted trunk eg African Olive p. 220

Buttressed trunk eg Cape-chestnut p. 244

the canopy is the upper area of a tree, formed by the branchlets/twigs and the leaves

semi-circular eg Common Cabbage-tree p. 174

V-shaped eg Mountain Wild-medlar p. 262

narrow eg Tree-fuchsia p. 288

Umbrella eg Camel-thorn Acacia p. 294

irregular eg Mountain Cabbage-tree p. 176

wide-spreading eg Silver Protea p. 182

Canopy Density Descriptions in texts When looking at the canopy it is described as: dense – when you can see no sky through the leaves; moderate – when you can see some sky through the leaves; sparse – when you can see a great deal of sky through the leaves.

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Simple language

leaveS

to create

Simple leaveS

Search imageS

cont

compound leaveS

(pinnate) eg Cork-bush, p. 292

eg Wild-peach p. 226

Lateral veins

Leaf with leaflets

Central vein

Margin

Leaf-bud

once Compound leaves

Rachis Leaflet-stalk

Leaf-stalk

Leaf-stalk Leaf-bud Twig

Twig

twice Compound leaves

three-leaflet Compound leaves

Hand-shaped Compound leaves

(Bipinnate) eg Acacia species, p. 149 – 151

(trifoliate) eg Karee-rhus, p. 234

(Digitate) eg Common Cabbage-tree, p. 174

Feather with leaflets Leaf with feathers

Leaflet

Leaflet

Leaf-stalk Leaf-bud Twig

Leaf-stalk Leaf-bud Twig

Rachis

Leaf-stalk Leaf-bud Twig A leaf usually grows on a leaf-stalk that attaches the leaf to the twig or branchlet. It snaps off the twig or branchlet relatively easily at the leaf-bud (axillary bud). You can often see this bud as a swelling at the base of the leaf-stalk – and this is the point from which a leaf, flower or twig grows. All leaves are described as simple or Compound. Sometimes it is not easy to tell the difference between a Simple and a Compound leaf. once Compound leaves can end in two ways:

A pair of leaflets at the tip (Paripinnate) eg Small Knobwood, p. 260

A single leaflet at the tip (Imparipinnate) eg Ouhout, p. 284

some of the ways are: • Look for a leaf-bud. There is only one per leaf. • Compound leaves look organised on their leaf-stalk. Most Simple leaves that are grouped closely together look irregular on the twig. • The leaflet of a Compound leaf tends to tear off the leafstalk, often pulling some thin outer bark with it. It does not snap off neatly at the leaf-bud, the way the leaf itself usually does off the twig. Please note this is not true for all species, nor at all times of the year. Vein patterns on leaves vary a great deal. two distinctive patterns are:

Herringbone eg Coldbark Ochna, p. 278

net-veined eg Wild-pear Dombeya p. 274

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leaveS

to

leaF attachmentS twigS or branchletS

leaf-stalks carry leaves, and can be attached to the twigs in a number of ways. This attachment tends to be predictable species by species. Sometimes, however, you will find a variety of attachments on a single tree – perhaps Nature is doing this simply to confuse you and to make traditional keying methods using botanical criteria difficult to follow! Attachments of the leaves to the twig or branchlet can be in any of the forms shown below.

opposite eg African Olive p. 220

Alternate eg Buffalo-thorn Jujube p. 194

leaF

spiralled eg Stamvrug Milkplum p. 178

or

leaFlet Shape

there are many varieties of leaf shape. As a basis for all descriptions this book refers to them as:

Round eg Wild-pear Dombeya, p. 274

Butterfly None in this book

narrow elliptic eg Yellowwood species, p. 163

Heart-shaped eg Glossy Bottlebrush species, p. 167

Clustered eg Pioneer Spikethorn p. 222

A few species have a thin, leafy wing on either side of the leafstalk and/or the rachis.

winged Waxy Currant-rhus, p. 278

leaF marginS the edge of the leaf can be:

smooth eg Highveld Protea, p. 180

wavy eg Tree-fuchsia, p. 288

serrated eg Raisin species, p. 212 and 214

Deeply toothed eg Lance-leaved Waxberry, p. 165

Broad elliptic eg Velvet Wild-medlar, p. 264

needle None in this book

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Simple language

bark

and

to create

Search imageS

cont

trunkS

the bark texture, and/or colour, is often characteristic of a tree. However, it often differs between trunk and branches, older and younger trunks, and older and younger branches. Thinner and younger branches often have smoother and/or paler bark.

smooth eg African White-stinkwood, p. 236

Rough/Coarse eg Mountain Cabbage-tree, p. 176

fissured or grooved eg Mountain Silver-oak, p. 266

FlowerS

All flowers are made up of these parts stigma ** where pollen is received anther

ovary ** where the fruit develops if fertilisation takes place

style ** stamens # where pollen grows petals ยง together make up the corolla

Ridged eg Quilted Sagewood, p. 192

Blocky eg Pioneer Spikethorn, p. 222

flaking, peeling eg Peeling-bark Parsley-tree, p. 196

plants, including trees, are scientifically classified and named according to the shape and anatomical structure of their flowers. Most species within a family or genus share similar flower structures. Both their shapes and how they are grouped can therefore help with identification. However, this can be technical and identification is dependant on the flowers being present. In cases where there is strong genus similarity, eg Acacias, Rhus, Bottle-brush (all of them covered in Comparisons, pages 149 to 167) this could be invaluable information. Some flowers have a unique, easily recognisable shape, eg Small-leaved Fluff-bush, p. 71, while others are inconspicuous, eg Mountain Wild-medlar, p. 262. These flowers are described in detail in the specific texts. Flowers sometimes grow singly on one flower-stalk and are sometimes grouped (on one flower-stalk) as flower-heads, -spikes, -balls, or -sprays (inflorescences). It is fascinating to notice the way that flowers grow on the plant, particularly because the fruit will obviously grow in the same structure on its fruit-stalk, as the flowers did on their flower-stalk. flowers grouped together on one flower-stalk

sepals ยง together make the calyx

** the female parts of a flower # the male part of a flower ยง asexual parts of the flower flower-head eg Brittlewood Nuxia, p. 256

Acacia spike eg Common Hook-thorn Acacia, p. 298

Acacia Ball eg Sweet-thorn Acacia, p. 224

flower-spray eg Rhus species, p. 158

pincushion eg Forest Waterberry, p. 164

flower-spike eg Bitter Aloe p. 170

protea Highveld Protea, p. 180

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single flowers on a flower-stalk

star eg Rock Milk-apricot, p. 102

Fruit

tudor Rose eg Coldbark Ochna, p. 278

pea eg Cork-bush, p. 292

narrow trumpet eg Tree-fuchsia, p. 288

wide trumpet eg Bushveld Gardenia, p. 73

Bell eg Blue Guarri, p. 204

Skin

with

fruit that has pulp covering the seed/s contained within a skin. Terminology in these fruit is difficult because different people have clear ideas about the meanings of various names. We have labelled only three kinds of fleshy fruit. These are firstly Figs, and thereafter by whether or not the seeds are covered by a stoney layer. This is irrespective of the number of seeds they contain and irrespective of the size and/or outer shape of the fruit itself. The pulp may be oily, watery or dry. The skin varies greatly in thickness, texture and colour. Birds and animals are attracted to fruit and help distribute the seeds. figs

Berries – One or more seeds without stoney coverings

eg Red-leaved Fig, p. 59

eg Forest Waterberry p. 164

eg Forest Num-num p. 282

plums – One or more seeds with stoney coverings

eg African Almond p. 164

eg White Puzzle-bush p. 98

podS pods are hard envelopes that protect one or more seeds. they burst open to release the seeds, while on or off the tree.

flat eg Sweet-Thorn Acacia p. 224

Broad None in this book

Bumpy eg Scented-pod Acacia p. 151

capSuleS

!A INTROS 11 July V A T.indd 25

sickle/kidney-shaped eg Camel-thorn Acacia p. 294

SamaraS

Capsules are soft envelopes that protect one or more seeds. they burst open to release seeds while still on the tree.

oval eg Mountain Aloe, p. 172

Coiled eg Umbrella Acacia p. 99

Round eg Wild-peach, p. 226

Bumpy / pod-like eg Leafless Wormbush, p. 114

samaras are woody fruit that contain one or more seeds and that do not split open.

four-winged eg River Bushwillow, p. 230

two-winged None in this book

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0 1 2

Highlands Highveld – Drakensberg – Eastern Cape Mountains

3 5 6 7 8

Comprehensive maps include all the larger parks, reserves and tourist destinations with indigenous trees. These offer Tree Spotters specific locations for birding, wildlife watching, picnics, hiking, walking and fishing while looking for trees.

4

Sappi Tree Spotting Highlands follows the simple system of looking for the Right Trees in the Right Places. Most indigenous trees in the Highlands are found in rocky areas, on ridges, in kloofs, or along stretches of natural unspoilt rivers. Highlands successfully explores the wonder of trees and shrubs from the high-lying grasslands and scrubby Karoo plains, to the Drakensberg and the Eastern Cape Mountain ranges.

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◆ The terminology is simple.

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SAPPI_TREES_HIGHLANDS_COVER 1

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ISBN 978-1-77009-561-8 www.jacana.co.za

Highveld Drakensberg Eastern Cape Mountains

Highveld Drakensberg Eastern Cape Mountains

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9 781770 095618

“If this is the quality of all the Sappi Tree Spotting guides, then we are lucky… I bought a copy and have been bowled over by the quality of the layout, pictures, and sheer depth of information it contains. I found that it worked – and I am a person with no real knowledge of trees and shrubs.” – Veld and Flora, Sandy Smuts

Highlands

Highlands

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Sappi Tree Spotting Highlands has been updated as one of a series. The other books in the series include Sappi Tree Spotting Lowveld (3rd edition 2006), Bushveld (2nd edition 2005), KwaZulu-Natal & Eastern Cape (2nd edition 2004), Cape (1st edition 2008), as well as the Lifer List and What’s in a name?

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◆ It focuses on the striking features of each tree – highlighting details that are easy to spot, without complex keying.

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◆ It shows you the Right Places to look for the Right Trees, basing tree identification on the link between vegetation regions (Ecozones) and the woody plants that grow there naturally.

sappi tree spotting

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The Sappi series makes a difference to Tree Spotters:

sappi tree spotting

sappi tree spotting

Val Thomas Rina Grant

sappi 2011/09/12 9:57 AM


Sappi Tree Spotting: Highlands