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ENGLISH TENSES 1. Present Simple a) Form:

+ Subject + verb+s (if it is 3rd person singular) - Subject + don’t / doesn’t (if 3 person singular) + verb ? Do / Does (if 3 person singular) + subject + verb rd

Example: + She lives in Edinburgh - She doesn’t live in Edinburgh ? Does she live in Edinburgh?

rd

b) Uses - Usual actions, routines or things we do repeatedly. - Universal truths (things that are always true – or that the speaker believes to be true)

c) Time expressions. Frequency Adverbs: - They are always placed before the main verb – except with the verb TO BE. In this case they follow the verb. Always – Siempre Often – A menudo Usually – habitualmente Sometimes – A veces Rarely – Rara vez Seldom/hardly ever – casi nunca Never - Nunca

Every +

day week month year …

Todos los/las

Días Semanas Meses Años …

Once Twice Three times Four times Five times

a

Una vez Dos veces Tres veces al Cuatro veces a la Cinco veces

day week month year … día semana mes año …

By José Ángel Ballesteros Lorenzo


2. Present Continuous a) Form:

+ Subject + am/is / are + verb - Subject + am not/isn’t/aren’t + verb ? am/is / are + subject + verb

Example:

+ing

+ She is reading a magazine - She isn’t reading a magazine ? Is she reading a magazine?

+ing

+ing

b) Uses -Actions in progress (unfinished) at the time of speaking. Now

The action starts

The action finishes

- Arrangements for the future (planes fijados para el futuro)

c) Time expressions. - Now  ahora - At present  en el presente, actualmente - In this moment, at the moment  en este momento - Today  hoy - This week/month…  esta semana/mes…

By José Ángel Ballesteros Lorenzo


3. Past simple a) Form: Example:

+ Subject + verb - Subject + didn’t + verb ? Did + subject + verb +ed*

+ She worked in a factory - She didn’t work in a factory ? Did she work in a factory?

* verb+ed  Represents the verb + the past morpheme. With regular verbs, the past morpheme adds the suffix –ed to the verb. With irregular verbs, it causes a change in the form of the verb.

b) Uses -Actions that happened at a specific time in the past.

c) Time expressions.

Last

Week

One

hour(s)

Yesterday

Month

Two

day(s)

In 1492

Year

Three

week(s)

Weekend

Four

month(s)

Summer/winter…

Five

year(s)

AGO

In the 15th century …

By José Ángel Ballesteros Lorenzo


4. Past Continuous a) Form:

+ Subject + was/were + verb - Subject wasn’t/weren’t + verb ? Was/Were + subject + verb

Example:

+ing

+ She was reading a magazine - She wasn’t reading a magazine ? Was she reading a magazine?

+ing

+ing

b) Uses -Actions in progress (unfinished) at a specific time in the past. Yesterday at 7 o‘clock

The action starts

Now

The action finishes

c) Time expressions. -Yesterday at 7 o’clock… -WHEN + sentence with verb in the past simple  Susan was watching T.V. when Jack arrived.

When Jack arrived

She starts Watching TV

Now

She finishes watching TV

By José Ángel Ballesteros Lorenzo


5. Present Perfect a) Form:

+ Subject + have / has (if 3rd person singular) + verb past participle* - Subject + haven’t / hasn’t (if3rd person singular) + verb past participle ? have / has (if 3 person singular) + subject + verb past participle

Example: + We have studied English - We haven’t studied English ? Have we studied English?

rd

* past participle  regular verbs = verb +ed ; Irregular verbs = 3rd column of list.

b) Uses 1- Actions that started in the past and last up to the present.  With time expressions 1 2- Actions that happened at an unspecified in the past.  With time expressions 2 3- Actions that have happened in a very recent past. With time expressions 3

c) Time expressions. 1

2

3

For + time span (periodo de tiempo)

Yet: always placed at the end of the sentence

Just: Always placed before the main verb.

Since + the time when the action started (el momento en que comenzó la acción)

In negative sentences  todavía

I have just seen Mary.

In interrogative sentences ya

Acabo de ver a Mary.

I have lived in Guildford for five years

I haven’t finished my homework yet. No he terminado mis deberes todavía.

I have lived in Guildford since 2007.

Have you eaten breakfast yet? ¿Has desayunado ya?

Already: Always placed before the main verb In affirmatives ya I have already called Joe. Ya he llamado a Joe. By José Ángel Ballesteros Lorenzo


6. THE FUTURE a) Form WILL

BE GOING TO

+

Subject + will + verb (base form)

Subject + am/is/are + going to + verb (base form)

-

Subject + won’t + verb (base form)

Subject + am not/isn’t/aren’t + going to + verb (base form)

¿

Will + subject + verb (base form)

Am/Is/Are + subject + going to + verb (base form)

b) Uses Predictions

Plans or Decisions

General predictions

Spontaneous decisions

Predictions based on present evidence

Previously made.

WILL

BE GOING TO

Promises

Offers

X

X

c) Time expressions

NEXT

Week

In the future

Month

In 2031

Year

In July, in August…

Summer/ Winter… Christmas …

By José Ángel Ballesteros Lorenzo


ENGLISH TENSES