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Citations, Plagiaism & Copyright

Citations, Plagiarism & Copyright In this pamphlet, we will discuss some of the issues of intellectual property: plagiarism and copyright. Then we will demonstrate how you can avoid misunderstandings and their consequences in your research by showing how to understand and make citations. Plagiarism and Copyright page numbers Intellectual Property and Copyright Making Citations Understanding Citations Automatic Book Citations Automatic Journal Citations Citation guides Writing guides

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Plagiarism

P

lagiarism has been very a popular topic in the news

lately. Many people have been accused of committing plagiarism, reporters from the New York Times, to Harvard professors, to members of the British government, to famous writers and movie producers such as James Cameron. Students get severely punished or even expelled for plagiarism. Obviously, plagiarism is a serious matter. But what is plagiarism anyway, and how can people avoid charges of plagiarism?

What is Plagiarism? Plagiarism is using the ideas and words of others without clearly acknowledging their source. For example, using: • • •

another person’s idea, opinion, or theory; any facts, statistics, graphs, drawings—any pieces of information—that are not common knowledge (see below); quotations of another person’s actual spoken or written words;

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or •

paraphrase of another person’s spoken or written words.

Let's look at a specific case. From: Friedman, Jerome. "Their Name Was God: Religious Charlatans in the Seventeenth-Century English Popular Press." Journal of Popular Culture 25.1 (Summer 1991): 55 One of the earliest periods providing abundant information about charlatans are the two chaotic decades of the English Revolution. From 1640 to 1660 a relatively uncensored press in London published for the mass market of newly literate readers shocking accounts of religious entrepreneurialism. These publications were chapbooks, or penny-book pamphlets, published by the thousands and distributed all over England. Along with ballads and almanacs, these publications appealed to the broad mass of English commoners who in later ages would read the Reader's Digest, The New York Post, and the New York Daily News, and even the National Enquirer. One of the earliest periods that provides a great deal of information about swindlers are the twenty years of the English Revolution. These years saw a relatively uncensored press in London published for the new readers who could now read shocking accounts of a religious business. These publications were chapbooks that were published and sold all over England. Along with popular songs, these publications were read by many English common people who would later read the Reader's Digest, The New York Post, and the New York Daily News, and even the National Enquirer. The earliest time we have records that discuss swindlers and charlatans comes from the troubled period from 1640 to 1660 in England. Compared to the earlier years, the media in London was mostly free to print what they wished, and they decided to provide their fledgling readership with scandalous stories of religious frauds. These stories appeared in the popular form of the day, chapbooks. These were printed by the thousands and sent all over England. The common people enjoyed these publications, alongside their ballads and other helpful books. These people are the same as those who would later read the Reader's

Plagiarism? Is this plagiarized?

Plagiarism? Is this plagiarized?

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Digest, and the National Enquirer. ANSWER Of course they are! The main ideas were taken, in some cases even copying the actual words, without a citation.

How do I avoid plagiarism? By using CITATIONS. One of the earliest periods that provides a great deal of information about swindlers are the twenty years of the English Revolution. These years saw a relatively uncensored press in London published for the new readers who could now read shocking accounts of a religious business. These publications were chapbooks that were published and sold all over England. Along with popular songs, these publications were read by many English common people who would later read the Reader's Digest, The New York Post, and the New York Daily News, and even the National Enquirer.

With the citation, this is not plagiarism, but a waste of time. You might as well quote.

(Friedman 55) The earliest time we have records that discuss swindlers and charlatans comes from the troubled period from 1640 to 1660 in England. Compared to the earlier years, the media in London was mostly free to print what they wished, and they decided to provide their fledgling readership with scandalous stories of religious frauds. These stories appeared in the popular form of the day, chapbooks. These were printed by the thousands and sent all over

This is a paraphrase. This shows at least some understanding of the original source.

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England. The common people enjoyed these publications, alongside their ballads and other helpful books. These people are the same as those who would later read the Reader's Digest, and the National Enquirer. (Friedman 55) To avoid Plagiarism: •

accurately relay the information in the original: o o

either use the original words (quotation), or your own words (paraphrase)

AND •

always let the reader know the source of your information

How do I let the reader know the source of my information? By using CITATIONS. OK. I get the point. So, what do citations do? • •

they give credit to the author or creator and they enable a reader to locate the source you cited The American University of Rome Library March 2008

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How do I make citations? • •

Use quotation marks (“”) for quotations (words copied from the original) Do not use quotation marks for paraphrases (restating the idea in your own words), although you can use quotations and paraphrases together. To continue our example:

The earliest time we have records that discuss swindlers and charlatans comes from the troubled period from 1640 to 1660 in England. Compared to the earlier years, the media in London was mostly free to print what they wished, and they decided to provide for their "newly literate readers shocking accounts of religious entrepreneurialism." These stories appeared in the popular form of the day, chapbooks. These were printed by the thousands and sent all over England. "Along with ballads and almanacs, these publications appealed to the broad mass of English commoners who in later ages would read the Reader's Digest, The New York Post, and the New York Daily News, and even the National Enquirer."(Friedman 55)

In both cases, cite your source using the method your instructor wants, e.g. Modern Language Association, American Psychological Association, Chicago Manual of Style, Turabian, and so on. Citing web sources is different. Even if you are using the electronic version of a printed journal, you must cite the electronic version. Sometimes there are differences between the two versions. Always check on how to cite an electronic version of an item.

What is Common Knowledge? Common knowledge are the parts of a paper where we do not have to use citations. •

facts that can be found in numerous places and are likely to be known by a lot of people

e.g. Abraham Lincoln gained the Republican nomination for US President in 1860 or Few people in the poorest parts of the world have ready access to good medical supplies. The American University of Rome Library March 2008

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What is not Common Knowledge? •

Interpretations

Few people in the poorest parts of the world have ready access to good medical supplies, but it is due entirely to their own internal political conflicts. •

Facts that are not generally known

King Louis IX of France banned the game of chess in 1254.

What About Internet Term Paper Mills? •

If you turn in a paper from a paper mill, it is definitely a case ofplagiarism and you will be punished.

For information on AUR policies concerning plagiarism, see page 15 of the Student Handbook. It’s Never been Easier to Plagiarize Cut and paste is a cinch with just a change of a few words

It’s Never been Easier to Catch Plagiarists The American University of Rome Library March 2008

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there are all kinds of new tools coming out constantly, some of them very powerful

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Intellectual property and Copyright

W

hen we discuss copyright, we are discussing an area of law related to Intellectual property. This law has been

undergoing various changes as the Internet develops. Undoubtedly, there will be more changes in the future There are several parts to this law. This is from the definition of intellectual property law from the Encyclopedia Britannica: "the legal regulations governing an individual's or an organization's right to control the use or dissemination of ideas or information. Various systems of legal rules exist that empower persons and organizations to exercise such control.Copyright law confers upon the creators of “original forms of expression� (e.g., books, movies, musical compositions, and works of art) exclusive rights to reproduce, adapt, and publicly perform their creations. Patent law enables the inventors of new products and processes to prevent others from making, using, or selling their inventions. Trademark law empowers the sellers of goods and services to apply distinctive words or symbols to their products and to prevent their competitors from using the same or confusingly similar insignia or phrasing. Finally, trade-secret law prohibits rival companies from making use of wrongfully obtained confidential commercially valuable information (e.g., soft-drink formulas or secret marketing strategies)." Intellectual property law is highly complex and deals with many issues: copyrights, patents, trademarks and trade secrets. The part we will discuss will be copyright law. Not everything is subject to copyright, but many of the materials you will use as a student come under this law. To succeed as a student, it is important to understand the difference between copyright violations and plagiarism. They are not the same. P.A. Bruegel. Misanthrope, 1568

G

enerally speaking, copyright gives the owner of the copyright various legal rights.

(Incidentally, the owner of the copyright does not have to be the same as the creator of the content. For example, it is normal practice for scholars writing in scholarly publications to be required to assign copyright to the publisher) The American University of Rome Library March 2008

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These rights give the owner of the copyright the exclusive right to do and authorize others: • • • • • • •

To reproduce the work in copies or phonorecords; To prepare derivative works based upon the work; To distribute copies or phonorecordsof the work to the public by sale or other transfer of ownership, or by rental, lease, or lending; To perform the work publicly, in the case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and motion pictures and other audiovisual works; To display the copyrighted work publicly, in the case of literary, musical, dramatic, and choreographic works, pantomimes, and pictorial, graphic, or sculptural works, including the individual images of a motion picture or other audiovisual work; and In the case of sound recordings,to perform the work publicly by means of a digital audio transmission. Copyright is automatic. You do not need the © symbol.

Not all items are under copyright. These are the materials in the Public Domain. What are these materials? For materials in the public domain: you do not have to ask permission of the author to do the things listed above. • •

expiration of copyright: the copyright has expired or was not renewed no copyright protection available: copyright law does not protect this type of work.

dedication: the owner deliberately places it in the public domain.

Items may be originally in the public domain (e.g. US Government documents), or go into the public domain after a specified period of time after an author’s death. For example, you don’t have to ask Homer for permission to publish his Iliad, but if someone has published a translation of the Iliad within the last 70 years or so, you need permission to publish or use the translation.

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BUT HOMER CAN STILL BE PLAGIARIZED! Legal Concept: Protects the Expression NOT the Idea

COPYRIGHT

You can be fined and/or sued

Moral Concept: Deals with the Expression AND the Idea You can be legally right, but morally wrong You can be punished by the University and: you may even be guilty of Fraud

PLAGIARISM

If you copied an entire article AND gave the citation, you would NOT be guilty of Plagiarism, but it could be a Copyright violation. How do I know if something is in the Public Domain? • •

Originally in the Public Domain, e.g. U.S. government documents, or materials published under Creative Commons (see below) Determining if the copyright has expired can get very confusing. A lot is determined by when the item was published and/or when the author died. It changes by country, also. To get an idea of the complexity, look at: Flowchart to determine Public Domain status of a work in the U.S.

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Remember that this is based primarily on date of publication. As a result, books first published recently by authors who died long ago, (because a manuscript was rediscovered) will be under copyright. There are many details concerning whether something is in the public domain.

Are There Any Exceptions to Copyright? A very important one: FAIR USE Fair Use allows copyrighted works to be used for purposes such as criticism, news reporting, teaching, scholarship, research for nonprofit, educational, or even forpurposes of parody that do not affect the potential market for or value of the copyrighted work. The purpose of the Fair Use exception is to allow for free criticism. If authors could forbid any use of their work for commentary, they could stop any negative comments about their work. There has never been a precise determination of how much someone can take before it ceases being Fair Use, but there are "general rules." For example, one article from a magazine, one chapter or 10% of a book, NEVER the complete item! The same guidelines apply for pictures or movies.

I

n reality, Fair Use is a big fight today, and must deal with some strange issues on the Internet. As one example, some web sites do

not want you to link to them! This may seem strange, but the main reason is that many times, a web site has a series of advertisements that they want users to see, and if someone links directly to an internal page, they may not see the advertisements. Obviously, things are changing with the introduction of the internet, just as they are with everything else. The easiest rule to use is: if you are writing something for class and quoting something, you should be OK. If you are publishing something, and/or placing it on the web, be much more careful. • •

Photocopying books and other materials are subject to copyright! See the copyright notice placed above the copy machine in the library.

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For more information on copyright, see Stanford University Library's Copyright and Fair Use page. The Internet and Copyright A genuine problem has appeared with the internet. The way the internet works is by transferring files from one machine to another. Then, the file opens on your own machine, and you read the file or watch the movie, or so on. This means that a copy is automatically created and sent to your machine. Many people believe that this is a violation of copyright law. Peer-to-peer programs also come under suspicion in this regard. See also: A Short History of the Internet : A Digression New Trends in Copyright: Copyleft and Creative Commons Many people find the current copyright standards too restricting and are turning to other methods. Since few scholars make substantial amounts of money on their articles anyway, there is a movement among scholars to make their materials available for free. (See Open Archives: What They Are and How to Search Them). An important aspect of this movement is copyright: authors still want to have some control over their work. How do they let others know how they can use the author's material?

This initiative complements Open Archives. With Creative Commons, authors can let people know in advance how they can use the materials people find on the web. How it works is the author decides how he or she wants the material to be used. The author does this bychoosing one of the Creative Commons licenses. , which allows someone to: One very interesting choice is copyleft "Share Alike. If you alter, transform, or build upon this work, you may distribute the resulting work only under the same or similar license to this one." In this way, someone who finds an item on the internet that he or she wants to use, they know in advance what they are allowed to do with it, and they do not have to ask permission. The American University of Rome Library March 2008

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Making Citations Understanding Citations There are several different ways to get citations. • •

You can create them yourself You can get them automatically from different databases: o Automatic Book Citations o Automatic Journal Citations

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Understanding Citations There are essentially two types of citations: those that utilize a separate bibliography, and those that do not. 1. The first typedoes not utilize a separate bibliography, so the reference must contain the entire description of the item being cited. 2. The second type does refer to a separate bibliography where the entire citation will be, so less information is needed.

We'll see examples of each.

BOOKS It is very important that you understand how to read citations. There are several standard formats to create citations for others to use. Each one is different and has its own format, but the information given in the citation should be essentially the same. It should give some idea as to the creator of the item, the titles and subtitles associated with it, the publication information (place, publisher, date) and not least important, the page numbers of the text you are citing. In most cases, the reference from the text you are citing is just a number set above the rest of the text. This is the method that has been used for a long time, and is an example of the first method mentioned above: it does not rely on a separate bibliography, so the entire information must be in the reference.

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At other times, the reference is not a number, but a special character, such as * or ยง. In our example, the citation itself is at the bottom of the page (bibliographical footnote), but it may be at the end of the entire text (bibliographical endnote). MLA and other footnotes work slightly differently and will discussed below.In the Journal of Philosophy illustration, the citation for note 2 would be something like (Fuller, B.A.G 123), since it would refer to a citation at the end of the text. This would be an example of second type mentioned above, where the reference relies on a bibliography. As we see, there is less information. In any case, the final product amounts to the same thing: the reader gets enough information to have an idea of who is responsible for the information, and how it can be found. How do I Read Book Citations? Here are some examples of how to understand the information in a book citation.

Page Numbers We can see that in some formats, the page numbers are included in the citation (e.g. Chicago and Turabian), but in other formats, they may be included in the bibliographic reference shown above. For example, to cite a specific page from the MLA example above, you would do something like [text referenced from page 123 of J.C. Rolfe's book]. (Rolfe 123) This lets the readers know that when they go to the Works Cited page, they can find Rolfeand read the citation.

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For more information and examples of specific formats, refer to Citation Guides. [page number] How do I Cite Individual Papers from a Collection of Papers in a Book? Here is an example of a single paper from a collection of papers in a book. We want to cite article by Prof. Snowden. Table of Contents Aftoasiatic CARLETON T. HODGE 2 Egypt and Nubia: Old, Middle, and New Kingdom Eras 3 Egypt and the Kushites: Dynasty XXV EDNA R. RUSSMANN 4 The Kingdom of Meroe STANLEY M. BURSTEIN 5 The Ballaia Kingdom and Culture: Twilight of Classical Nubia WILLIAM Y. ADAMS 6 The Berbers of the Maghreb and Ancient Carthage REUBEN G. BULLARD 7 An Archaeological Survey of the Cyrenaican and Marmarican Regions of Northeast Africa DONALD WHITE 8 Attitudes towards Blacks in the Greek and Roman World: Misinterpretations of the Evidence FRANK SNOWDEN, JR. 9 Some Remarks on the Processes of State Formation in Egypt and Ethiopia KATHRYN A. BARD AND RODOLFO FATTOVICH 10 Colonizing the Past: Origin Myths of the Great Zimbabwe Ruins MAYNARD W. SWANSON List of Contributors

the 1

M.

The citation is handled normally, but additional information is given for the entire book, so that readers can find the article. Without that information, no one could find it.. Is There Any Help to Make Citations? Yes, take a look at Automatic Book Citations [page number]

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JOURNALS How do I read Journal Citations? Journal citations are similar to book citations, and are especially similar to the single paper from a collection. With journal citations though, you must include the name and issue number of the journal (otherwise, no one can find the article). In the following example, we see that the information is very similar to a book citation, except the Title and volume number(s) of the Journal have been included, and the publication information has been left out. (This is because the publication information of an entire journal can change, so such information is of little importance for journals). Also, be aware that journal titles are often abbreviated.

If you neglect to add the v. 222 no. 2, it would be very difficult to find this specific article, you would be left with the date and it could be difficult to find the issue. How do I find Abbreviated Titles? This can be complicated. The best way is to ask a librarian. What about electronic journals?

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This is very simple. You make the citation for the print item, and then add the information concerning how your accessed the item electronically. Here is an example article and its citation.

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Is There Any Help to Make Journal Citations? Yes, take a look at Automatic Journal Citations [page number]

How Do I Read Other Citations? Article from a Database: No page numbers because there are none on this webpage. Schrader, A. (1999). Internet censorship: Issues for teacher-librarian. Teacher Librarian, 26 (5). Retrieved November 1, 2001, from Academic Search Premier database.

Article from an Internet Journal with no Print Equivalent Foster, S. K., Paulk, A., & Dastoor, B. R. (1999). Can we really teach test-taking skills? New Horizons in Adult Education, 13 (1). Retrieved February 7, 2000, from http://www.nova.edu/~aed/newhorizons.html

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Citations Example: Working with the Bibliography As we have noted, many times the references work in conjunction with the bibliography. Here is an example. The references, marked in red, refer the reader to the bibliography, located at the back of the item. Let us turn to the critique of the specific lists under consideration by the Department. It is in their nature to be conservative, and this naturally implies certain biases. The five lists are strongly inclined to favour English as the language of academic discourse and publication. This recognises what is clearly an objective reality in the world of scholarly communication. The Minister of Education, indeed, has stated that he 'acknowledges the current position of English and Afrikaans as the dominant languages of instruction in higher education and believes that in the light of practical and other considerations it will be necessary to work within the confines of the status quo until such time as other South African languages have been developed to a level where they may be used in all higher education functions' (Department of Education 2002: 10). While we reluctantly accept this as realistic policy, we suggest that the Department may be missing an opportunity for the active promotion of multilingualism. This is a declared policy objective, yet there is no reference to possible support for publication in South African languages anywhere in the Policy and procedures for measurement of research document. Similarly, the overseas lists and citation indexes are understandably biased in favour of the so-called 'international‘ journals (i.e. predominantly those published in the United States or the United Kingdom).2We shall return to this point below, but we want to emphasise that we are most emphatically not advocating a crude 'local is lekker' philosophy at all costs. Of course South African researchers must publish internationally; and of course the communities of referees doing peer review must remain as diverse as possible. But the lists as they are made up at present are skewed. A subtle but important point is that journals that are marginally included and excluded in citation lists as the result of ranking by citation impact are vulnerable to 'noise and random effects' that may lead to considerable fluctuations in their rankings over quite short time periods (Rousseau 2002: 428). Thus the inclusion or exclusion of low impact journals from citation lists does not necessarily reflect significant differences in quality. The lists also tend to favour recognition of print or print-plus-electronic publication as a medium, rather than embracing new means of scholarly

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communication such as purely electronic journals or scholarly open archives. Adherence to the use of these simple indexes may be predicated on a (perhaps rapidly) disappearing model of scholarly communication. ----------------------------------------------------------------------------1. The importance of this insight becomes even clearer when we consider that in 1995, ISI was indexing about 3,300 scientific journals from the 70,000 or so published worldwide - or about 4.7 percent of the literature (Gibbs, 1995:76). This level of participation, as Christopher T. Zielinski of the World Health Organization has commented, 'is simply too little to account for the scientific output of eighty percent of the world' (cited by Gibbs, 1995:79). 2. Rousseau argues, citing Garfield, that there is no 'scientifically valid definition of bias' but does not seem to argue against the truth of the charge (2002: 429).

Now we can see the citations for Department of Education, Rousseau and Gibbs. References Bradford, S. C. 1948. Documentation. London: Crosby Lockwood. Brittz, J. J. & Lor, P. 2003. A moral reflection on the information flow from South to North: an African perspective Libri 53f3V 160-173. Dept.. of Education. 2002. Language policy for higher education. November. [PDF file] Available: http://www.ched.uct.ac.za/offee/ldg/doelanguagepolicy.pdf [site visited 7 March 2004]. Dept. of Education. 2003. Policy and procedures for measurement of research output of public higher education institutions. [PDF file] Available: http://education.pwv.gov.za/content/documents/307.pdf [site visited 7 March 2004]. Garfield, E. 1979. How do we select journals for Current Contents! Current Contents 45 (5 November):5-8. Garfield, E. 1990. How ISI selects journals for coverage: quantitative and qualitative considerations. Current Contents 22 (28 May): 185-193. Garfield, E. 1993. Despite problems with peer review, science publishing is healthier than ever. The Scientist, 7(18): 12. [Web page] Available: http://www.thescientist.com/yr1993/sep/comm_9309Z0.html [site visited 11 August 2003]. Gibbs, W. W. 1995. Lost science in the Third World. Scientific American. 273(2):76-83. Jacobs, D. 2001. A bibliometric study of the publication patterns of scientists in South Africa 1992-96, with particular reference to status and funding. Information Research 6 (3). Available: http://informationr.net/ir/6-3/paperl04.html [site visited 11 August 2003]. Milloy, S. 2002. Freaky frog fraud. PestFacts.org. [Web page] Available: http://www.pestfacts.org/freakyjrog.html [site visited 11 November 2002]. Moya-Anegon, F. & Herrero-Solana, V. 2002. Visibilidad internacional de la produccion cientffica iberoamericana en biblioteconomia y documentacion, 1991 -2000. Ciencia da Informagao [Brasilia], 31 (3): 54-65. Romanos de Tiratel, S. and others. 2003. Las revistas argentinas de filologfa, literatura y linguistica: visibilidad en bases de datos internacionales. Ciencia da Informagao [Brasilia], 32 (3): 128-139. Rousseau, R. 2002. Journal evaluation: technical and practical issues. Library Trends 50(3): 418-439. Scheven, Y. 1977. Africana in the indexes. History in Africa 4: 207-227. The American University of Rome Library March 2008

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Sturrock, J. 1998. Le pauvre Sokal. London Review of Books 20 (14) (I6july). Available: http://www.lrb.co.uk/v20/nl4/sturOI _.html [site visited 11 August 2003]. Theoretical physics: publish and perish. 2002. Economist. 365 (16 November):82. Warner, J. 2000. A critical review of the application of citation studies to the Research Assessment Exercises

There are many other possibilities for citing sources, and things are changing. It is best to refer to the Citation Guides, which will provide many more examples and formats.

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Citation Guides How to Make Citations The style for your citations may vary depending on the requirements of your department, lecturer or supervisor! The main thing is to cite your references in a consistent manner. Other libraries have made some excellent guides for citations. Below are the best ones that we have found. • • •

Duke University's Citations page RMIT Citation page University of Michigan-Flint

Specific styles: • • •

AIP (American Institue of Physics) APA (American Psychological Association) Chicago (Chicago Manual of Style) o Quick Guide

• • • • •

Harvard IEEE Computer Society (IEEE Citation Style Guide) Turabian Vancouver MLA (Modern Language Association)

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Specifically for Citing Electronic Resources: • •

From Online! A reference guide to using internet sources The Columbia Guide to Online Style (examples)

Specifically for Citing Images: • •

University of Cincinnati Dartmouth University

See also: • •

Style manuals in the AUR collection Writing Guides

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Automatic Book Citations Book citations are available through the largest catalog of books in the world: WorldCat. When you click on Get a Citation, the catalog automatically searches WorldCat for the ISBN and/or the author and title. You may have a few records to select from, but when you have selected the correct one, look inside the record and click on Cite this Item. You will get a window with the different formats of citations for your item.

Example: When you click on Cite this Item, you will get a list of different formats. Be aware that the citations may not be 100% complete and you may have to complete them! Citations are ultimately your responsibility! • •

Also, a citation will probably change if an item is electronic. Do not simply copy and paste!

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Automatic Journal Citations Most electronic databases allow you to get citations automatically, but unfortunately, there are different methods. The most common method is, once you have your article 1. save the article(s) to a folder 2. go to the folder 3. select Print and/or Email, att this point there is normally an option for you to select your format. Be aware that the formats may not be 100% complete and you may have to complete them! Citations are your responsibility! Here is an example from Academic Search Premier: Step 1: Find the article and select or add it to your folder

Figure 1:

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Step 2: Go to your folder and select Email and/or Print.

Step 3: Select the format you want and send.

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Making and Understanding Citations  

A user guide for making and understanding citations