THE BREATHING ORGANISM PERISTALTIC PAVILION PROCESS BOOKLET BY JAX TAN
Year four final project by Jax Tan in Joseph Lim Studio Semester 2 AY 2012-13 For enquiries, contact Jax Tan firstname.lastname@example.org
MATERIAL: Air filled latex balloons INTENT: 1 Model continuous surface 2 Resist buckling 3 Resist bending 4 Resist torsion
OBSERVATION: Buckling occured at pin-joints in the balloon models where balloons were twisted to join from one to another. STRATEGY: To overcome the instability of a self supporting wall, entire surfaces were woven in opposite directions to resist toppling and buckling. Base cells were modified into larger â€˜feetâ€™
PHYSICAL TO CONCEPTUAL
Balloon model that was resolved to counter buckling, bending and torsion was further conceptualised into a 3-dimensional cell with interesting implication on cell function; Cells could now be modified to form seats.
> MEDIUM: (above) Rhinoceros 3d modelling programme +VRAY plugin render (right) 3DStudio Max Render
ITERATIONS OF THE CONCEPTUAL CELL
MEDIUM: Rhinoceros 3d modelling programme + VRAY plug in render ITENT: 1 Three primary cells were multiplied to form a sample wall 2 Cells were studied in two states; i.e. deflated (d), and inflated (i) 3 Render of an instance at sunâ€™s hightest point in the sky was simulated to observe shadow growth with inflation.
CRITERIA: The best cell is picked based on 1 Structual logic 2 Detail logic (how cells connect from one to another) 3 Shadow logic (where inflation correspondingly allows for more shadow coverage) best cell couple (d01 + i01, page left & center) was picked based primarily on structural and detail logic.
D01 SIMULATION STUDIES
MEDIUM: Autodesk Ecotect Analysis ITENT: 1 D01 surface performance was analysed in two conditions, summer (top) and winter (bottom) 2 Illuminance on interior floor surface was simulated using Radiance rendering 3 5 visualisations were simulated (from left to right) a. true rendering of light conditions in space b. human sensitivity visualisation c. colour bands d. daylight factor e. false colour
RESULTS: 1 In the summer solstice, illuminance on the envelope surface of 750 - 950 cd/m2 (orange and red bands) is reduced to a light level of 250-350 cd/m2 (green bands). This means the space is illuminated to a comfortable level of 250-350 lux, comparable to standard home lighting . In the winter solstice, illuminance on the envelope surface of 650-750 cd/m2 (orange and green bands) is reduced to a low light condition of 50-150 cd/m2 (green and blue bands). 2 Space is also sufficiently lit such that light but at some risk of thermal heat gains.
I01 SIMULATION STUDIES
MEDIUM: Autodesk Ecotect Analysis ITENT: 1 I01 surface performance was analysed in two conditions, summer (top) and winter (bottom) 2 Illuminance on interior floor surface was simulated using Radiance rendering 3 5 visualisations were simulated (from left to right) a. true rendering of light conditions in space b. human sensitivity visualisation c. colour bands d. daylight factor e. false colour
RESULTS: 1 In both the summer and winter solstice, illuminance on the envelope surface of 750 - 950 cd/m2 (orange and red bands) is reduced to an acceptable level of 50-150 cd/m2 green bands). 2 Space is less brightly lit with minimal risk of thermal heat gains, however reliance on electric light is increased. DESIGN TAKEAWAY: 1 Cell inflation can mitigate entry of excess light into space, and so can be controlled to attain ideal lighting effect for purpose of dramatising spaces. Peristalsis of cells allows for climate modification within the space, as the cells move between deflation and inflation. 2 Shadow generated by cell has a unique character of varying degrees of opacity. Even more interesting is the possibility of witnessing the shadow transformations between inflation and deflation of the surface within the space.
Typical segment of the surface cells as the inflation of cell follows the direction device-sensored sun. In attaining rigidity through air pressure maintained in its convoluted cells, heat and light sensors can dynamically vary the air pressure to create â€˜involuntaryâ€™ peristaltic waves over discrete parts of the envelope as the sun strikes its surface. Shadows transform along the time of day, shifting the intensity of its shade along the sun path. At night, coloured shadows patterns can be created with LED fixtures on the interior shining through the exterior skin of the pavilion.
OBSERVATIONS: Intensity of shadow coverage moves along the surface through time. red box indicates maximal shadow intensity.
1. sunpath across 1. sunpath across plot plot
Positioned at the end of the designated Childrenâ€™s Park at the Milan Expo, the pavilion anticipates the excited arrival of its young visitors. The pavilion is sited at the Northern tip of the Expo Site surrounded by a waterway allowed into its interior as an oasis for visitors seeking respite from the heat. Formwise, the cells on the skin of the pavilion are positioned according to the sun path in Milan in order to maximize daylight exposure within the interior the pavilion form is an asymmetric vault of varying curvature in plan and in section.
1. sun path across plot
3. resultant surface 3. resultant surface
2. using highest and lowest sun points in May-July to capture sun for optimal shadow making 3. resultant surface 3. resultant surface potential
2. using highest and lowest sun points 4. mapping cellintoMay-July surfacetousing capture sun for optimal Grasshopper shadow making potential
3. resultant surface
4. mapping to surface 4. mapping cell tocell surface usingusing Grasshopper Grasshopper
4. mapping cell to surface using Grasshopper
The openings are formed as protected orifices with pouting outer lips. Openings may be constricted between distended cells in the event of rain or extreme heat. On the sides facing away from the sun, the openings may be maximised to release hot air from being trapped inside the pavilion during the hotter months of Milan.
STRUCTURAL DIAGRAM & MATERIAL CHOICE
The project attempts to break away from the known typologies of pneumatic structures which can be broadly classified as long span domical or vault forms or discrete beam and column elements kept stable with cable stays ( as in the Festo Y- shaped pneumatic columns). The pneumatic element is reduced into atypical cells which are interwoven to achieve stability in x, y, z-directions capable of resisting buckling tension, bending and torsion The structural envelope is conceived as layers of pneumatic cells with independent air chambers in varying degrees of distortion. Where the cells forming the base of the pavilion need to have thicker reinforced walls as they are subject to the loads of the upper layers of cells and to visitor impact, these are made of opaque fibre â€“ glass-reinforced nylon.
STRUCTURAL LOAD DIAGRAM
1.1 1.2 1.1 1.2
MATERIAL OPACITY DIAGRAM 1.1 Transparent fibre-glass reinforced nylon (FRN) 1.2 Opaque FRN 2 Multi-layer vinyl fabrics with independant air chamber layers.
2 PROPERTIES 2MATERIAL 1.1 Highly transparent for sensitivity to light rays.
Highly flexible for movement due to peristalsis.
1.2 Opaque as not directly relative to climatic consideration, but still lightweight and flexible. 2 Structurally most stable and hardy. Material is less flexible but highly durable
600mm square pebble tile water proofing layer 100mm drainage pipe linking wading pool water to man-made river on site 300mm cast-in-situ concrete wading pool structure
wading pool and cladding detail
SECTION PERSPECTIVE & DETAIL
150mm reversible Nylong belt to fasten structural cells to floor Bolt locking the Nylon fastener Bolted steel plate for securing the Nylon fastener
PAVILION ANATOMY B
CELL COMPONENTS welded seams between fibre-glass nylon cells.
INTESTINE DETAIL continuous skin formed of welded interlocking parts.
E GULLET DETAIL interlocking cells for continuous structural integrity optimises cell flexibility and deformation for structural support buttress members.
BENEATH THE SKIN
The pavilion is a cool and wet climate, a respite from the hot summer weather. On the interior, buttresses form cushions for rest and relaxation, while LED fixtures accentuate the voluptous surfaces on the interior.
CLIMBING THE GULLET
The gullet is a sensual shadow play of soft bouncy surfaces. Depths of spaces created between cells are intriguing for the curious to explore.
At night the cells scatter light from LED fixtures creating coloured layered shadows to complement those formed during the day.