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The Barrier of Time

J.R. Silva Bittencourt


The Barrier of Time J.R. Silva Bittencourt

When you look at the sky during the day and see the sun strolling over the ecliptic, you do not notice any variation in its volume and brightness. The image of the Sun (not the Sun itself) performs an apparent circular motion in the sky that, actually, results from an extrapolation of the motion of the planet itself. That is, it’s the Earth that moves towards the star, because the Sun remains relatively still in relation to the planet. Possible variations in the density of the solar mass would be obscured to us, by the time barrier. This barrier expresses itself in the delay to which the light of the star would be subjected to travel the distance of 150 million kilometers that separate us, with its fixed and limited speed. This detail forces us to see the Sun always outside its true position. These questions seem to be philosophical in nature, since they involve the observer's point of view. Those who work with science find this a waste of time. When I took the risk of delving


deeper into the introspective path, contrary to what science usually does, I noticed that the point of view of the observer should not even directly influence the reality of the universe. However, it could lead us to understand how some forces act in spacetime, such as gravity. As a secondary or restorative force, it cannot be added to the other forces. The behavior of gravitational potential energy is compared, by physicists, to that of a spring. The force would be zero when this spring was in its resting position, and would tend to decrease negatively, once the spring was compressed. There would not be, in space-time, a supposed phase in which this spring had been stretched beyond its resting position. In this official model, the expansion of the universe would be in difficulty. What caught my attention early on was the observer's dependence on cosmic radiation. That is, without it we could not describe what would happen to the stars, placed light years away. Our dependence on the constant


presence of light, to see the stars, meant that astronomers could no longer treat space and light as independent entities. For example, if space bends light does the same, and vice versa. Because of this apparent fusion between the two, the behavior of space itself is compared to that of an elastic strip. In fact, an elastic band or a spring are analogies commonly used to describe the simple harmonic movement, performed by light. Realizing these details, I felt as if I were at the entrance to Theseus' maze in Greek legend. In front of me was one end of the ball of yarn handed by Ariadne to Theseus, so that he would not get lost in the maze. After killing the minotaur, Theseus would have used the wire to safely return to the exit of the maze. I thought I should follow my intuition, and slowly pull the thread of the ball of wool into the cave. From there followed the texts that I posted on the ISSUU website and the videos released on youtube, which address the reflexes that the observer's views would have on the interpretation of reality; not over reality itself. I noticed that in


assuming this atitude, I would not necessarily have to confront the laws of physics. Also, it would be important to try to scale the role of each of us, in the way we interact with the reality around us. What was not my surprise when I came across some evidence, that suggested that our memory might influence the sense of action of some forces we see acting in spacetime, such as gravity. To illustrate, I will next suggest an unpublished model for describing the influence between the Sun and its planets. Since it is an essay, it would be advisable for the reader not to take the model so seriously, at least until further evidence could corroborate it. Circles and Ellipses When we look at the open sky, during the day, we see the Sun moving over the ecliptic from east to west, forming a perfect circle. This circular movement is known to result from the observer's transfer of the planet's own movement. In fact, despite its own motion the Sun remains still, relative to the Earth. The


observation of the sky gives us the distinct feeling that we would be in the center of the universe, because everything seems to revolve around us. Johannes Kepler managed to escape the yoke of sunlight, which always shows us the Sun with the same mass and volume and, by indirect calculations, proved that the actual movement of the planets forms an ellipse over time, not a circle. Without Kepler, we could not have succeeded in sending probes to the other planets. In any case, the illusion of circular motion is part of our physical reality, which suggests that light is not a good advisor. Even considering that, without the light, we would have no way of knowing about the existence of the stars and planets in the solar system. Time makes sense to us when we find ourselves already looking toward our own past. It represents a real prison for our physical body, for our memory is inseparable from time. Time is the basic tool that underpins our interaction with the universe. All that exists is what can be remembered, or what is already in


our past. You have already seen what Alzheimer can do to us, in the later stages of the disease. There is a moment when the patient is totally disconnected from reality, because memory suppression removes from him the only tool, that allowed him to interact with his loved ones. Trying to escape the yoke of cosmic radiation, I collected data from science that points to a series of events that would be taking place in the sky above our heads, that would escape our most sensitive assessment methods. Besides the impossibility of describing the elliptical motion of the planets directly, since the ellipse would result from the sum of the positions occupied by a planet at independents moments of time, there are other incongruities. For example, as the Sun would maintain the same mass and volume over time, it would always shed the same amount of light and heat into space, acting as if it were an incandescent light bulb. The gaseous (or ice) planets are placed so far from the Sun that they should be


inert or frozen, due to the fact. However, the Voyager ships have noted a noticeable incongruity between the albedo of these planets and the amount of light and heat, coming from the Sun, which they reflect into space. In the case of Jupiter and Saturn, they reflect up to three times more light into space than expected at those distances. If the energy radiated by the Sun were decreasing proportionally with the distances, there should not be enough energy to justify the high winds of up to a thousand kilometers per hour, found on Saturn. Without understanding why, scientists attribute the excess radiated energy to the planets themselves, which would have an internal source of heat. There are controversies. Another incongruity noted in the solar system is that, having its mass and volume preserved over time, the Sun would still have to be associated with a unique and constant curvature in the space around it. This is what leads us to think that the Sun's energy would have to dissipate in proportion to the increase


in distances. That is, if the Sun functioned as an incandescent lamp, unlucky on the planet that was too far from the center. In my video “Recipe for Putting a Static Universe in Motion�, posted on Youtube and the text of which can be found on the ISSUU website, I proposed a curious solution to the puzzle that planets seem to travel in an apparent circular orbit around the Sun, not an ellipse. It is based on the thesis that, while conserving its mass over our normal scale of life time, the Sun could be going through different densities throughout the year. Although it is a fictional event, since we have no non-light-dependent measuring instruments, the transient variation in star density would justify its connection with different curvatures of space, at independent moments of time. This led me to conclude by the existence of a two dimensional and static universe, but one that could only be observed and remembered in three dimensions, when time let us to place this universe in continuous and relative motion. The reason for thinking like this is that if the motion of the planets


obeyed the variation of solar density, that motion would not have to be real in space. However, the motion of the planets would be real in time. This is the case of the elliptical orbit, which cannot be caught in isolation in a snapshot or photo. So to improve the proposed model, I would need to do two things: A. Separate light and space and, in the process, bend it. The solution to the puzzle would be to quantize the light energy, or to package it in the form of photons. B. Retain or suppress time, during the packaging or quantization process. That would result in the fusion of light and space, which would form one whole or one thing only. Thus, even if space curved in practice, it would remain virtually twodimensional at the level of its messenger, the cosmic radiation. This happens now without my interference, because quantizing energy takes no time, as Bothe-Geiger first demonstrated in


1925. The photon package is delivered to us ready by the nature. Note that, in this second step, quantization would be virtually leveling the energetic extremes of radiation, promoting the retention of time and preventing the direct recording of any movement in the future. This includes the existence of waves, which motion is necessarily linked to time. I noticed that this would go meet the concept of cone of light of the future of any event, such as the case of the Sun. If there were light waves emitted by it, which could not be demonstrated in practice due to the virtual energy leveling of these waves, the waves would have to move on the surface of a twodimensional space, having just width and length. This is the case of waves produced by a stone, thrown into a lake. The eight minutes of retention of the light of the Sun, within its cone of the future, would result from the hypothetical overlapping of waves in time. Since time does not exist in the future, these eight minutes would be questionable. It turns out that they are


always measured indirectly, or after the photons spread and the information projects into our past. It is in this context that our memory is inserted. We have a tendency to extrapolate information, gathered from our past, in the direction of the future. It is as if, for our memory, the future was a kind of mirror image of our own past. If we paid a little more attention to these eight minutes, we would see that they would not depend on the approaching or moving away of the Earth from the Sun. They are constant, and point to circular motion as the apparent ruler of the Earth's orbit. This "leveling" of the extremes of the Earth's orbit (aphelion and perihelion) and the conservation of eight minutes suggests that time zero would have migrated, virtually, to the position of the observer on Earth, allowing him to have instant observation of the entire celestial vault at night. That is, time would be contained in the observer himself, by a principle of exclusion of direct


access to the cone of light of the future of any events. The main consequence of what has been said so far is that the leveling of radiation would be behind the apparent conservation of solar volume over time, as well as maintaining its constant brightness. The quantization or packing of light, finally, would not allow us to directly measure variations in solar density, even if they existed, and the Sun's mass remained the same over time. I decided to bet on the thesis that there would be veiled variations in the density of the Sun's mass that would be influencing, in a variable way, the curvature of the space around the star. In order not to risk making unsubstantiated conclusions, I sought support in the behavior of forces acting at the level of the atomic structure. Unless better judged there should be no incompatibility between what is observed in the microscopic universe and in the macrostructure since, when it comes to observation, the two levels follow the same principle of remote


tracking of light. Scattered light, after previous leveling (polarization), is still the only real measuring instrument that our memory has, for instantaneously determining both the position of the electrons and the position of the stars. Just as planets appear to rotate around the Sun in apparent circular orbits, electrons do the same around the nucleus of the atom. The messenger of space is the same on both levels, that is, scattered light is the instrument used to determine the position and motion of an electron or a planet. For this reason, it would be useful to draw on a particular aspect that characterizes the energy levels of the atom, which is not directly observed in planetary orbits: - The lowest energy level of the atom, corresponding to the resting state of the electron, is the most internal in relation to the nucleus. When it received a discharge and made the jump to its excited or higher energy state, the electron would move away from the center.


For a moment let us set aside the electron, nucleus and space that houses them, and focus our attention on the behavior of light, without which we could not describe the events that occur at that microscopic level. This light performs a movement called “simple harmonic”, which consists of two phases. This theme has already been dealt with exhaustively in "Images of the Universe", so let's just point out that in the first phase of this harmonic movement, there would be an increase in potential elastic energy over kinetic energy. The spring “stretches”, the block moves away from the fixed end and the force points in the opposite direction of spring stretching, doing negative work. Since we need light to scatter at the electron's position, in order to assess its position or velocity, this particle should occupy the fixed end of the set, where the spring force would point in this first phase of harmonic motion. The light would be retained in what would be its packaging phase (quantization). Therefore, the electron would simply disappear, and could not be found between two subsequent


energy levels. It would be going through its steady state, in which it does not emit or receive energy. Two observations could be drawn from this first phase of harmonic motion, if light acted as a messenger of space. The first is that if the force points in the direction of the electron, one might think that the nucleus would be repelling the particle, or pushing it away from the center. In fact, this would be a consequence of the negative nature of the light quantization phase, such as an intrinsic motion, or a motion contained within the electron itself. For its part, the core would remain indifferent or out of the process. Even so, repulsion suggests that the electron would have transiently assumed a positive charge, behaving like an antiparticle. The second observation is that the light quantization or packing phase (1st phase of harmonic motion) would be suggesting a forced approximation between the nucleus and the electron. That is, when condensed the light would tension the atomic structure, tightening


the bond between the electron cloud and the nucleus itself. As light would be retained at this stage, the core compression movement would not exist for the system operator. When light scattered near the electron, the particle would appear in its apparent circular motion and negatively charged, with no visual indication of what might have occurred in the space between the two subsequent energy levels. The scattering phase of the photons would be the second phase of the harmonic movement of light, in which the contraction of space in the presence of acceleration of electron motion is expected. It is important to highlight that in the first phase of this harmonic motion there would be undetectable approximation between the nucleus and the electron. This maximum approximation would be delimited by the elastic potential energy, generated by the stretching of the space spring. That is, besides the electron does not abandon its real position, since it would be the space around it that would be


stretching, there would be no way that the electron would collide with the nucleus, which would justify the stability of the atomic structure. The total size of atomic structure is known to be about four times the size of its central core. On the other hand, due to the variation of the density of the matter, the stretching of the space could be bigger or smaller. If a lower potential energy could have promoted a less significant approximation of the electron to the nucleus, this could be interpreted as if the electron was moving away from the center. Unfortunately for the system operator, quantization would also level the energetic extremes of electromagnetic radiation, by polarizing it. With the resulting fusion between the two dimensions of space (width and length) and the two of light itself, the system operator would be unable to directly record any changes, in the geometry of the space around the core.


Extrapolating the Model to the Solar System In the case of the solar system the Earth seems to run a circular orbit around our star, even though it is known that the actual orbit of our planet would be the elliptical one. This circular orbit would be passed on by the observer to the star, as its image (not the Sun itself) seems to move across the ecliptic, from East to West, in circular and uniform motion. That is, with constant velocity and acceleration. Apart from what is seen directly in the sky during the day, the planets would be being "compressed" by the potential energy against the Sun itself, to a greater or lesser extent, depending on the position or distance of the planet. Even if veiled, the planets should be transiently abandoning their circular orbit, and transiting through the ellipse-shaped orbit (Kepler). That is, the solar system, outside of what we see, would be a dynamic and pulsating structure.


If we compared the Sun to a normal heart, we would not be able to see its phase of contraction or dilation, the effects of which would necessarily be reflected upon the planets, pushing them away from or nearing the star. The circular motion, which is observed directly in the celestial vault through the light, gives us only the resting state of that heart. It is as if you were photographing a beating heart and just taking the snapshot, an isolated moment of the heartbeat, unaware of the whole process of pumping blood. If the sunlight reflected by the Earth gave us the whole set of the planet's motion in three dimensions, we would know from the center of the solar system that the Earth's orbit would form an ellipse over time, not a circle. One of the similarities between the solar system and a normal heart is that when the solar system expands, or the space around the Sun stretches, it will bring the planets closer to the Sun. When our heart expands, the blood is drawn or pumped into its auricles. The


similarity cited is due to the harmonic movement of light, acting as a messenger of space, not space itself. When the spring stretched, in the first phase of the spring-mass assembly, of which the observer would occupy the fixed end, the force would point in the opposite direction of the stretch, doing a negative work. Just like an implosion. Since light would undergo a packaging process at this very stage, it would be held back, creating uncertainty in the position of the planet. The zero ground of the time would no longer be in the position of the Sun, as the observer would depend on the future scattering of light in his position. This would happen in the second phase of the harmonic movement of light, the scattering of photons. Regrettably, when light spreads on Earth, the apparent circular motion regains control of the situation, and everything is as before. In order for the heart of the solar system to pulse, even unnoticed, we would have to rely on a phase of contraction of its fibers that pushed


the planets out of the center. This is where the engine of the variation of solar mass density is inserted, acting on the geometry of space and forcing the planets to abandon their circular motion and their resting position. This would not require the star's own mass to change. The solar density would be related to the smaller or larger stretching of the space network, due to the transient changes promoted in its curvature. This would allow space to generate inertia independently of the masses, an argument used by Albert Einstein to try to justify Newton's absolute space (Book “How I See the World�, p.168). What I add as a novelty is the hypothetical fusion of light and space, promoted by the retention of time in the quantization phase. Thus, if the space stretched further, increasing the density of the star without depending on the direct influence of its mass, there would be a greater increase in elastic potential energy. This is due to the aforementioned virtual fusion between space


and light. If light bends, space does the same, and vice versa. This increase in elastic potential energy would compress the solar system as a whole, bringing the planets closer to the Sun. By reverse reasoning, a greater fall in potential energy would be linked to a lesser stretch of space, promoting the spacing of the planets from the star. The solar system would be less stressed or more relaxed. The heart could finally beat, even imperceptibly. When one says that the potential energy would be linked to a greater or lesser stretching of space, one does not assume that space should contract at a given moment, for the heart of the system to throb. In fact, the planets would be constantly being pushed by the Sun out of the center, even as they were passing through their perihelion. The maximum limits of approach or departure of the planets would be dictated by the generation of potential energy, to a greater or lesser extent, or only by the stretching of space. It must be remembered that in this case light and space would have to form a single


whole. Whatever happened to light would be reflected in space. In fact, there would be no approximation of the planet to the Sun by direct contraction of space. The planet should approach the Sun because of a "smaller distancing". This would have a remarkable agreement with the prediction of astronomical science, which holds that intelligent life could not arise in the contraction phase of the universe, due to the entropy problem. That is, the disorder of the system would always be increasing, which would be a characteristic only of the inflationary phase. It’s that old story of the cup falling to the ground and shattering. If variations in the density of total matter in the universe were dictating the relative nature of motion, observed in spacetime, there would be no contraction phase acting in isolation. It could coexist with expansion in the form of a force of secondary nature, or "restoration force". That would be the case with gravity. The role of this second phase of the harmonic movement of light would be to allow the


observer to assimilate time. Time would assume the condition of being the third dimension of space, allowing the virtual overlapping of waves and the formation of the cone of light of the future of events. Without this secondary accommodation of space and light, whose greatest expression would be the force of gravity, information could not be accessed. That is, even if the expansionary phase of space existed, it could not be remembered. Time would “unfold� the two-dimensional universe into three dimensions, so that it could finally exist as a product of our memories. When information was accessed by the observer this would always be late, showing the celestial vault out of its own time, or as it would have been in the past. In acting on all these forces, the observer's point of view would be decisive. Because light is the support for our instruments for measuring the position of the Sun and the other stars, when sunlight scattered on Earth it would shift the time zero to the position of the observer.


This is what would determine the correct direction of potential energy action. That is, in describing the harmonic movement of the light used, the observer would occupy the fixed end of the mass-spring assembly. The block would be represented by the Sun, occupying the free end of the spring. Thus, when the spring tensed the force would point to the fixed end of the assembly, or to the Earth. Normally, we chose the thesis that the mass of the Sun would bend space directly, generating gravity. That is, the Sun would be placed in the position of the observer, or at the fixed end. As we do so, we often forget that light, the messenger of space, would be held for eight minutes within the Sun's future cone of light, which would prevent direct communication of the curvature event. This should attribute to gravity the secondary nature of a positive restoring force, since it would arise out of real-time events that would have given rise to it. Santa Maria, RS, Brazil,10/19/2019.

Profile for J.R. Silva Bittencourt

The Barrier of Time  

Cosmology; Universe. The Barrier of Time We know that the Sun, when seen during the day, would already be in another real position in space....

The Barrier of Time  

Cosmology; Universe. The Barrier of Time We know that the Sun, when seen during the day, would already be in another real position in space....

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