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Fall 2012

ANIMALS OF AFRICA

NAMIBIA • BOTSWANA • ZIMBABWE • SOUTH AFRICA • ZAMBIA

Dedicated to my Mom and brother for bringing and accompanying me on one of the most amazing experiences of my life

Designed, written & photographed by Jacqueline Hull


Fall 2012

CONTENTS

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AFRICA

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ANIMALS A–M Antelope, Baboon, Common Warthog, Dragonfly, Elephant, Fish Eagle, Giraffe, Hippopotamus, Ibis, Jackal, Kudu, Leopard & Malachite Kingfisher

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BIG CATS

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ANIMALS N–Z Nyati, Ostrich, Painted Dog, Quail, Roller Bird, Square-Lipped Rhinoceros, Topi, Umber Bird, Vervet Monkey, Wildebeest, Xerus Squirrel, Yellow Billed Stork & Zebra

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WONDER


AFRICA

1 Where the animals in this book were photographed

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ZAMBIA NAMIBIA BOTSWANA ZIMBABWE SOUTH AFRICA

Africa is the second largest and second most populated continent on the planet. It contains fifty-four recognized countries and about one billion people. These people speak over one thousand languages. Straddling the equator, Africa is the hottest continent on Earth. Around 60% of African land is drylands or desert. This continent most likely has the largest population of wild animals especially those that are megafauna. 3


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Village in Livingstone, Zambia

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A–M Antelope Baboon Common Warthog Dragonfly Elephant Fish Eagle Giraffe Hippopotamus Ibis Jackal Kudu Leopard Malachite Kingfisher

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A–M ANTELOPE

Aepyceros melampus

DESCRIPTION This African Antelope or Impala, is an elegant creature whose beauty is often overlooked due to its abundance. It is the most common antelope on the savannas of east and southern Africa. Impalas are normally redish-brown in color thus Africans call it rooibok. The male impala weighs around ninety pounds, while the females weigh around eighty pounds. Female Impalas lack the horns the males have. Both have white bellies with and an “M” marking on their rear.

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A–M BABOON

Papio ursinus

ADDITIONAL SHOTS

DESCRIPTION Baboons are old world monkeys. There are five known species ranging in size and weight. They have long dog-like muzzles, heavy powerful jaws and sharp canine teeth but are omnivorous. They are most known for the nerveless, red callosities on their butt. Shown here is the Chacma Baboon. It is one of the largest monkeys, found in southern Africa in a variety of habitats. Typically this baboon lives in troops of twenty to one hundred baboons.

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A–M COMMON WARTHOG Phacochoerus africanus

DESCRIPTION The Common Warthog is a wild pig that lives in the grassland, savanna, and woodland areas of Sub-Saharan Africa. The name Warthog comes from the four wart-like protrusions found on the animal’s head that are actually fat reserves. They also have two pairs of curved tusks that jut out from the mouth, the lower pair far shorter than the upper. They use their snout and feet to dig quickly. Natives call this animal “vlakvark” which means “pig of the plains.”

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A–M DRAGONFLY

Member of the Odnoata Order

DESCRIPTION There are around 5,680 species of dragonfly in the world today, and some 750 of them reside in Africa. South Africa is home to 158 species of dragonflies and damselflies. Dragonflies are larger and stockier in shape than damselflies. They have multifaceted eyes that are joined on top of the head, two pairs of transparent wings, and a long body. They have six legs but do not walk well, instead they are one of the fastest insects in the world. They can be found in wet areas because their larvae are aquatic.

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Dragonfly found in marsh of South Africa


A–M ELEPHANT Loxodonta africana

DESCRIPTION The African bush elephant is the largest living terrestrial and therefore doesn’t have predators other than humans. They are most recognized by their massive ears which radiate excess heat. They are also known for their trunk which is an extension of the elephant’s upper lip and nose. The trunk is used for handling objects such as food, and serves as a means of communication. This species of elephant is herbivorous and the plants consumed are broken down by their four large molars.

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A–M FISH EAGLE

Haliaeetus vocifer

DESCRIPTION The African Fish Eagle is the national bird of both Zimbabwe and Zambia. The adult, shown here has a brown body and massive black wings. The male has a wingspan of approximately six feet, while the females wings spread about eight feet. Their yellow face stands out against their breast, head and tail which are pure white. The beak is yellow with a black tip. These eagles feed mainly on fish, but will also occassionaly devour other birds. Their cry has been known to embody the spirit of Africa.

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A–M GIRAFFE Giraffa camelopardalis

DESCRIPTION The giraffe is the tallest living land animal, due to its extremely long neck and legs. On average, they stand at eighteen feet tall. Features to distinguish the giraffe include patches of color in the fur and “ossicones” or horns. Their primary food is the acacia leaves that reside high in the trees. Male giraffes, like those on the right, frequently establish their dominance in a behavior called necking where they use their necks as weapons.

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A–M HIPPOPOTAMUS

Hippopotamus amphibius

DESCRIPTION Also referred to as the “river horse,” the hippo is massive and very aggressive towards humans. They are considered one of the most dangerous animals in Africa. Adults can move up to five mph in water, where they spend most of their time in order to keep their temperature down. Baby hippos are even born underwater. They mainly eat the terrestrial grasses. Potentially the strangest fact about hippos is that they urinate backwards!

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A–M IBIS

Threskiornis aethiopicus

Ibis was found flying over South Africa

DESCRIPTION The Ibis shown is also referred to as the African Sacred Ibis, for many myths are associated with the bird. This species of Ibis can be recognized by the all-white body accented with dark colored rumps, legs and wing tips. The head and neck are bald and they have a thick curved bill. This bird is typically silent however they do occasionally make croaking noises. As for food, the Sacred Ibis feeds on fish, frogs, reptiles, insects and even small mammals. They can dig into the soil with their long bill for worms and other invertebrates.

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A–M JACKAL Canis mesomelas

DESCRIPTION Jackals can be divided up into three species, which are all are fantastic scavengers that feed on small to medium-sized animals. Much like the dog, they have curved canine teeth adapted to hunt many mammals, birds, and reptiles. They also have long legs with fused leg bones that allow them to run for long distances at speeds of ten mph. They can sometimes be found in small packs for scavenging but normally hunt alone or in pairs.

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The Black-backed Jackal


A–M KUDU Tragelaphus strepsiceros

DESCRIPTION The Kudu or Greater Kudu has a narrow body, long legs, and bluish-grey coats. Along the Kudu torso youll find four to twelve vertical white stripes that distinguish them from all other antelopes. Most striking on the male Kudu are the large horns that when fully grown twist two and half times and if straightened could reach around fourty-seven inches. Male Kudus also have a white chevron stripe between their eyes, and a beard. The female Kudu lacks horns, the chevron stripe, and beard.

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A–M LEOPARD Panthera pardus

DESCRIPTION The leopard is the most elusive large carnivore and lives in solidarity. They are very elegant and the best climbers among the big cats. Because of this, they typically drag their kills into trees to prevent other animals from stealing their food. Most active during the nighttime, they kill most of their prey then. As for appearance, the leopard has short legs and a broad head on top of a long body. They are most easily recognized by their coat, which is covered with black, irregular circles called rosettes.

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A–M MALACHITE KINGFISHER Alcedo cristata

DESCRIPTION Shown above is the Kingfisher, a mere five inches in length typically. Both males and females have vibrant, metallic blue heads that can be spotted during their rapid flight. They have short, round wings and bright orange legs. They are mostly found on reeds and aquatic vegetation, where they search for food. Most of their diet consists of small fish that are lifted and carried by their middle. In addition they will eat insects.

This Kingfisher is perched on a reed with his freshly caught dinner

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BIG CATS The lion is one of the four big cats and the second-largest living cat in the world. Wild lions reside in sub-Saharan Africa, where all of these were photographed. A vulnerable species, they have been declining in number over the last two decades. Socially, lions are typically found in prides which consist of six related females, their cubs, and one or two males. Lionesses do the majority of the hunting, communicating with eacb other to circle large mammals before attacking. The male lion will hunt alone and will not share his kill with the rest of the pride. Each lion consumes as much food as possible, fighting other pride members for meat.


After crossing water, two cubs and a lioness stare at distant Cape Buffalo in Botswana


N–Z Nyati Ostrich Painted Dog Quail Roller Bird Square-Lipped Rhinoceros Topi Umber Bird Vervet Monkey Wildebeest Xerus Squirrel Yellow Billed Stork Zebra

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N–Z NYATI Syncerus caffer

ADDITIONAL SHOTS

DESCRIPTION The Nyati or Cape Buffalo, is a member of the “big five” in Africa and considered to be one of the most dangerous animals. Commonly referred to as “Black Death” they kill over 200 people annually. They are successful grazers and can eat grass quicker than any other African herbivore. With only a few predators they can defend themselves against the rest, such as lions who are their biggest threat. Strangely, Cape Buffalo are susceptible to many diseases, including bovine tuberculosis as well as foot and mouth disease. They require water daily 40


N–Z OSTRICH

Struthio camelus

DESCRIPTION Ostriches are native to Africa and are the largest living species of bird. They are flightless but have the ability to run up to fourty-three mph, thus making them the fastest bird in the world. They live in nomadic groups that typically consist of five to fifty birds. When threatened the ostrich hides by laying flat on the ground, running away and kicking. Unfortunately they are hunted for their feathers which are used for decoration or for feather dusters. They lay the largest egg of any living bird

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N–Z PAINTED DOG Lycaon pictus

DESCRIPTION The painted dog is also referred to as the spotted dog, African wild dog, or African hunting dog. Tall and lean, they pursue their prey in long and open chases. They hunt in packs and vocalize to coordinate their movements. Nearly eighty percent of hunts end in a kill, compared to lions that only succeed thirty percent of the time. Afterwards, the hunters will regurgitate meat for those that remained in the den.

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Their jaws contain fourty-two teeth


N–Z QUAIL

Pterocles burchelli

DESCRIPTION This species of bird is found in arid regions of southern Africa. It is commonly referred to as the Burchell’s Sandgrouse. A round bird about the size of a pigeon, it has a small head and short legs. The eye of this bird is framed by bare yellow skin. The body is light brown while the cheeks and throat are pale grey. Clearly identifiable characteristics of this bird are the white speckles and darker shades that cover it’s entire body. This bird is common and widespread but can be found most easily in areas of rough grass.

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N–Z ROLLER BIRD

Coracias caudatus

The national bird of Botswana

ADDITIONAL SHOTS

DESCRIPTION The Lilac-Breasted Roller Bird is on average fifteen inches long and extremely colorful. They are found alone most of the time and perch on top of trees or other high vantage points where they can be on the lookout for prey. They eat other small birds and critters. The Roller bird nests in tree holes and lay two to four eggs at a time.

Perched on the highest branch 48


N–Z SQUARE-LIPPED RHINOCEROS Ceratotherium simum

DESCRIPTION The square-lipped or white rhino is one of five rhino species left in the world. They are the largest land mammals after the elephant, the biggest one recorded at about 10,000 pounds. This rhino has a large head with two horn-like growths made of keratin that are located one behind the other. A distinctively broad, straight mouth gives them their name and allows them to graze with ease. They also have four feet each with three toes.

Half of their day is spent eating 51


N–Z TOPI

Damaliscus korrigum

DESCRIPTION The Topi have short coats that are reddish brown in color, with dark purple patches on their upper legs. Their heads are long with ringed horns. A hump at the base of their neck is distinctive to this antelope. They can reach fifty mph easily and are one of the fastest in Africa. As selective eaters, they forage for fresh plants and take small bites very quickly. When they do acquire fresh green vegetation, they don’t have to drink water.

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N–Z UMBER BIRD Scopus umbretta

DESCRIPTION The Umber Bird or Hamerkop is a medium-sized wading bird. The shape of its head resembles a hammer and it has a long, flat bill. Their feet are partially webbed and they shuffle one foot at a time in water to find food such as amphibians and fish, during the day. Their wings are big and round tipped while their tail is short.

The top umber bird is performing a “false mount” on the other

Most unusual is “false mounting” or the action where one bird stands on top of another and pretends to mount it, but does not copulate.

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N–Z VERVET MONKEY

Chlorocebus pygerythrus

DESCRIPTION The Vervet Monkey has a grey body, black face and white-fringed hair. They inhabit the savannas, woodlands, forests, and mountains. Here they eat fruits and seeds as well as leaves and flowers. Interestingly, they will destroy a competitor’s food source instead of stealing or consuming it. They themselves are prey to leopards, eagles, baboons, and pythons. Upon spotting one of these predators the monkeys give off a corresponding alarm call to the rest of the group.

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N–Z WILDEBEEST

Connochaetes taurinus

DESCRIPTION There are two species of Wildebeest, one blue and one black. Shown here is the blue version, which is the bigger of the two and has a dark grey or shiny blue colored coat. Their horns protrude to the side and curve down before they curve back up. They are found in grasslands and migrate long distances during the winter. They will group together with zebras in open environments to reduce the risk of attack by predators.

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N–Z XERUS SQUIRREL

Xerus inauris

DESCRIPTION The Xerus is an African ground squirrel only found on the African continent. They live amongst open woodlands, grasslands, or the rocky terrain. They live in burrows and eat roots, seeds, fruits, insects, small vertebrates and bird eggs. These animals do not hibernate and live in social groups with around three females and three males. A band of squirrels can contain up to twenty of these animals. Oddly enough, some African people actually keep this squirrel as a house pet, similar to a cat.

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N–Z YELLOW BILLED STORK

Mycteria ibis

DESCRIPTION Adult Yellow-Billed Storks are considered to be medium-sized storks that are pinkish-white in color and have black wings and tail. Their bills are bright yellow, hence their name. Before their adulthood, these birds look very different. In body color they are grayish-brown with grey bills and pale orange faces. They are carnivores and eat crustaceans, small fish, frogs and worms.

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N–Z ZEBRA

Equus quagga

DESCRIPTION There are three known species of zebras. Considered social animals they walk, trot and gallop like horses but slower. They outpace predators by running in a zig-zag formation. In addition, zebras have excellent senses and are believed to see in color. The black and white stripes unique to each zebra make them one of the most identifiable animals. The stripes are typically vertical on the head, neck and main body of the zebra. Horizontal stripes can be found at the rear and legs.

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WONDER Victoria Falls

Located on the border between Zambia and Zimbabwe you can spot one of the seven wonders of the world. The biggest waterfall in existance, Victoria Falls gets it’s water from the Zambezi River.


Locals call the falls Mosi-Oa-Tunya



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