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Graphic Design III Spring ‘13 Jordan Bai, Jacqueline Hull, Alex Leonardo & Andrea Sherlag


The following pages contain four lesson plans for a teacher to follow while teaching about HIV/AIDS. Each lesson coincides with a class activity, such as an art project or an engaging skit.


Teaching HIV Guide Lesson 1 : What is HIV? Lesson 2 : How do you get HIV? Lesson 3 : What does HIV do? Lesson 4 : How do you treat HIV?


Lesson 1 : What is HIV? Objective

Explain on a basic level what HIV is and the parts of the body that HIV encounters.

Notes for the Teacher

Making sure the students understand each character’s role is crucial to the success of all subsequent lessons.

Lesson Plan

1/ Ask the students if they have heard of HIV, and if they know anything about it. 2/ Discuss what a virus is: • A tiny, non-living organism • Weakens the immune system (which keeps us healthy) 3/ Ask the students if they have ever had a virus. Explain that a virus can be the common cold (everyone has had a virus before)! 4/ Discuss what the HIV virus is: • A type of virus, called a “retrovirus” • It is found in your blood • It mutates, mutiplies, and grows • The HIV virus doesnt make you sick, it weakens your body so that your body can’t get rid of other things that make you sick • You have it forever, but can live a healthy life with proper treatment • There are two types of HIV virus (HIV-1 and HIV-2) but the second is uncommon 5/ Introduce the characters and read their description out loud

Class Exercise

This hands-on exercise will force the students to blindly select a character and remember their character through the action of coloring. The characters can then be displayed for the entire class to see during the subsequent lessons.

Materials Needed

Character sheet, crayons, hole puncher and string OR popsicle stick and glue

Final Discussion Questions

These are some possible questions you can ask students to make sure they understand the lessons. • How is an HIV virus different from a virus? • If you have HIV can you ever get rid of it? • What is (show them a character) this body part called? • What does (show them a character) this body part do?


Lesson 2 : How do you get HIV? Objectives

Discuss the ways someone can and cannot get HIV. Explain how one can prevent HIV.

Notes for the Teacher

HIV is transmitted through bodily fluids: blood, semen, pre-seminal fluid, vaginal fluid, rectal mucous, and breastmilk. Given the age of your students, use your own discretion when discussing sexual transmission of HIV.

Lesson Plan

1/ Ask the students how they think HIV can be spread. 2/ Discuss the following three ways of getting HIV: • Babies can get HIV from their mothers in the womb or when drinking their milk • People can get HIV if they have unprotected sex with someone who has it • People can get HIV if the blood of someone else with HIV gets into their blood. This would happen with open cuts or if someone uses the same blade or needle of an HIV-infected person 3/ Discuss the ways one cannot get HIV: • Urine, feces, nasal fluid, saliva, sweat, tears, urine, vomit (unless these fluids contain blood or someone has significant and direct contact with them, HIV cannot be transmitted) • Kissing, hugging, holding hands, sitting on a toilet, coughing, sneezing, touching objects, insect bites 4/ Discuss ways to prevent HIV: • Be absintent or practice safe sex by using condoms • Be cautious around cuts and blood

Class Exercise

This short exercise will physically depict how the HIV virus can get in and out of the body.

Materials Needed Skit 1

Final Discussion Questions

These are some possible questions you can ask students to make sure the objective of the lesson is accomplished. • What are the ways you can get HIV? • What are the ways you cannot get HIV? • Can you get it by hugging or kissing someone? • Can you get it through an open cut? • How can you prevent HIV?


Lesson 3 : What does HIV do? Objectives

Explain what HIV does once inside the body on a biological level.

Notes for the Teacher

Depending on the age of the students and their level of understanding, you can simplify some of the more scientific portions.

Lesson Plan

1/ Explain how the HIV virus infects the body: • The HIV virus attacks and destroys a specific type of white blood cell called T-cells or CD4+ cells • The HIV virus invades and “hijacks” CD4 cells to survive • The HIV virus changes CD4 cells by giving them instructions to make more HIV virus • The HIV virus causes CD4 cells to make copies of the HIV virus, which are then released into the blood 2/ Explain how infected bodies experience Stage 1: Acute HIV syndrome • Approximately 2-4 weeks after infection • Flu-like symptoms: fever, chills, headaches, night sweats, rashes, swollen glands • Large amount of HIV in blood because body can’t fight virus yet • Might test negative for HIV test even though you are infected • Approximately 6-12 weeks after infection body produces antibodies to fight virus 3/ Explain how infected bodies experience Stage 2: Chronic HIV infection • Approximately 10 years, but varies with individual’s overall health and immune system • No symptoms at the beginning • HIV virus is still slowly multiplying, infecting, and killing CD4 cells • HIV levels continue to rise at steady rate while CD4 cells continue to drop • One can spread HIV to others • Mild symptoms towards end (after approximately 5 years): rashes, fatigue, weight loss, blisters, diarrhea 4/ Explain how infected bodies experience Stage 3: AIDS • CD4 cell count has dropped below 200 cells/mm3 • Life threatening symptoms • Body begins to lose battle with HIV

Class Exercise

This short exercise will physically depict what the HIV virus typically does and interacts with after entering the body. Students will play the characters they colored in for the first lesson, and either wear or hold up their character during.

Materials Needed

Skit 2, previously colored character pieces

Final Discussion Questions

These are some possible questions you can ask students to make sure the objective of the lesson is accomplished. • What does the HIV virus attack in the body? • How many stages of HIV are there? • Do you feel sick after being infected with HIV? • When does HIV turn into AIDS?


Lesson 4 : How do you treat HIV? Objective

Discuss how someone with HIV can treat the disease and live a healthy life. Explain how we can still be friends with people who have HIV.

Notes for the Teacher

It is important to dispel the myth the HIV is a death sentence, while maintaining that HIV is still a disease that you do not want to get. While we should treat friends with HIV the same, it is important to stress that one still has to be careful to stop the spreading of HIV by being careful around cuts and sexual fluids.

Lesson Plan

1/ Explain to the students how to treat HIV medically: • ARVs are more effective the sooner you take them • ARVs reduce HIV in the blood • ARVs restore and protect the immune system by allowing CD4 cells to copy themselves • If you take them everyday at the same time, you can live a long, healthy life 2/ Explain to the students how to treat HIV personally: • If you have HIV, you should be careful about open cuts and making sure you cover them so you do not infect others • If you have HIV, you should be abstinent or tell your partner you have HIV and practice safe sex by using a condom • If your friends have HIV, just treat them like you would treat other friends and show that you love and support them • Whether or not you or your friends have HIV, it’s always good practice to be hygienic and healthy by taking care of yourself, going to the doctor when you feel sick, taking care of wounds, and practicing safe sex

Class Exercise

This short exercise will show how one with HIV lives with the disease, the need to always practice good hygiene, and the importance of treating everyone with love and respect.

Materials Needed Skit 3

Final Discussion Questions

These are some possible questions you can ask students to make sure the objective of the lesson is accomplished. • What does someone with HIV do treat the disease? • What do ARVs do inside the body? • What is life like for someone with HIV? • Should we treat people with HIV differently? • How can we be healthy and practice good hygiene?


The following pages contain specifics on all the graphics used in conjunction with lesson plans and skits that will be used to help teach HIV/AIDS in school classrooms throughout Africa.


Character Guide Materials Needed Full Character Set Character Specifics Character Templates


Materials Needed Assembly Required

The students will blindly pick a character to play throughout the four HIV/AIDS lessons. They will have to cut out their character, color it, and then assemble it so that it can be worn throughout each of the lessons. These should not be thrown out after the first lesson!

Assembly Option #1

The character labels can be made by gluing the edges of each folded flap together around a popstick stick to make a sign.

Assembly Option #2

The character labels can also be made by punching or cutting a hole in the dotted circles, and then using rope to make a hanging necklace.


Full Character Set The Group

The lesson plans incorporate eight main characters, as seen below. The group includes four human characters, one character that represent a part inside the body, and three characters that enter the body.


Character Specifics

Henry

The Teacher

The Doctor

Henry’s Mom

C: 73 M: 28 Y: 3 K: 0 human

C: 2 M: 100 Y: 22 K: 0 human

C: 28 M: 0 Y: 74 K: 0 human

C: 50 M: 10 Y: 6 K: 0 human

The Germ

The HIV Virus

The ARV

The CD4 Cell

C: 2 M: 65 Y: 67 K: 0 enters body

C: 55 M: 0 Y: 50 K: 0 enters body

C: 63 M: 90 Y: 4 K: 0 enters body

C: 4 M: 11 Y: 76 K: 0 inside body

The Characters

These colored versions of the characters are to show students how they should color their personal template.


Main Job: to help the sick feel better

What: is a person taught in school how to identify and treat sick

The Doctor Henry What: is a regular child and student living in South Africa Main Job: to stay healthy and happy

The Teacher What: is a person taught in school how to educate students Main Job: to teach their class life skills

Main Job: to ensure her children’s safety

What: is the mom of Henry who takes care of him everyday

Henry’s Mom

Character Templates

Templates

The following templates are to be cut out and constructed by the classroom students.

Thick solid lines = cut Dotted lines = folded Dotted circles = hole punched


Main Job: to infect and kill CD4 cells

What: is a special kind of virus that causes HIV

The HIV Virus

The HIV Virus What: is a special kind of virus that causes HIV Main Job: to infect and kill CD4 cells

The HIV Virus What: is a special kind of virus that causes HIV Main Job: to infect and kill CD4 cells

The HIV Virus What: is a special kind of virus that causes HIV Main Job: to infect and kill CD4 cells

The HIV Virus What: is a special kind of virus that causes HIV Main Job: to infect and kill CD4 cells

The HIV Virus

What: is a special kind of virus that causes HIV

Main Job: to infect and kill CD4 cells

The HIV Virus

What: is a special kind of virus that causes HIV

Main Job: to infect and kill CD4 cells


Main Job: to help kill infection & viruses

What: is a white blood cell and part of the body’s immune system

The CD4 Cell

The CD4 Cell What: is a white blood cell and part of the body’s immune system Main Job: to help kill infection & viruses

The CD4 Cell What: is a white blood cell and part of the body’s immune system Main Job: to help kill infection & viruses

The CD4 Cell What: is a white blood cell and part of the body’s immune system Main Job: to help kill infection & viruses

The CD4 Cell What: is a white blood cell and part of the body’s immune system Main Job: to help kill infection & viruses

The CD4 Cell

What: is a white blood cell and part of the body’s immune system

Main Job: to help kill infection & viruses

The CD4 Cell

What: is a white blood cell and part of the body’s immune system

Main Job: to help kill infection & viruses


Main Job: to weaken the human body

What: is a microorganism and there many different germ types

The Germ

The Germ What: is a microorganism and there many different germ types Main Job: to weaken the human body

The Germ What: is a microorganism and there many different germ types Main Job: to weaken the human body

The Germ What: is a microorganism and there many different germ types Main Job: to weaken the human body

The Germ What: is a microorganism and there many different germ types Main Job: to weaken the human body

The Germ

What: is a microorganism and there many different germ types

Main Job: to weaken the human body

The Germ

What: is a microorganism and there many different germ types

Main Job: to weaken the human body


Main Job: fight the HIV Virus in the body

What: is a medicine that comes in many different forms

The ARV

The ARV What: is a medicine that comes in many different forms Main Job: fight the HIV Virus in the body

The ARV What: is a medicine that comes in many different forms Main Job: fight the HIV Virus in the body

The ARV What: is a medicine that comes in many different forms Main Job: fight the HIV Virus in the body

The ARV What: is a medicine that comes in many different forms Main Job: fight the HIV Virus in the body

The ARV

What: is a medicine that comes in many different forms

Main Job: fight the HIV Virus in the body

The ARV

What: is a medicine that comes in many different forms

Main Job: fight the HIV Virus in the body


The following pages tell the story of Henry—who gets infected with HIV by accident. The students will learn about what HIV does to the body by acting, and also gain empathy for Henry.


Student Skits Directions Skit 1: Henry’s Contraction Skit 2: Henry’s Infection Skit 3: Henry’s Treatment


Directions Skit Purpose

The purpose of the following skit is to inform students about HIV, ways the virus can be contracted, what the virus does to the body, and how the virus can be treated. You will read the lines marked “Teacher”. Your students will act out the parts of Henry, Henry’s Mom, Nurse, CD4 cells, Germs, and HIV viruses based on the character that they have selected and colored on the previous day. Each line is indicated by the name of the character as well as an icon, to make for easy transitions between each speaking part.

Correlated Activities

In addition to speaking parts, each skit has a correlating activity indicated by an exclamation point icon. The activity encourages students to move around, acting out parts of the lesson in order to keep them engaged and focused on the material. Take note of the Teacher’s notes, highlighted in purple. These notes will help you carry out the activity portion successfully.


Skit 1: Henry’s Contraction Teacher

Welcome to today’s journey through Henry’s human body! It’s going to be a rocky ride so please buckle up and remain seated for its entirety. (Teacher straps an imaginary seatbelt and encourages the students to do the same.)

Teacher

In order to get through the skin’s tiny openings, called pores, we have to squeeze or bodies into the tightest ball possible. Close your eyes as a safety precaution because we’re going to move very quickly through Henry’s pores. (Students curl their bodies into balls and close eyes.)

Teacher

Are you ready, class? Let’s go! (Teacher makes a zooming noise, simulating the sound of a fast moving class.)

Teacher

We have just entered one of Henry’s pores in his arm. Uh-oh! Do you feel that? Looks like Henry’s arm is moving pretty fast. Let me look outside his pore and see what’s going on. (Teacher puts arm over her forehead, as if she is looking into the distance from outside a window.)

Teacher

Henry is in a fight with his classmate, Dominick. They keep hitting each other. Oh no! Henry just got cut. The cut made a big opening in his pores, making it possible for blood to be released and germs to get through. Do you know how viruses enter your body?

Activity


Skit 1: Henry’s Contraction Teacher

Let’s do an activity in order for you to better understand. Raise your hand if you are a germ. (Germs raise hands.)

Teacher

Now, germs stand up. (Germs stand.)

Teacher

You are going to try to break through the skin by running through the skin’s linked arms. When I say 3, you run. Ready? 1, 2, 3! (Germs try to run through the skin. Some will get through and some will not.)

Teacher

Some of the germs passed through the skin, but others did not. When your skin is unharmed and clean it is very difficult for germs to get through. This is a good example as to why we wash our hands and put Band-Aids on our cuts. Now, germs, come back and circle around me, and skin, link your arms again. (Germs circle around teacher. Skin link arms.) *TEACHER WILL ASK 4 STUDENTS ACTING AS SKIN TO UNLINK THEIR ARMS

Teacher

Henry has a cut. So what does this mean for his skin? Henry has a larger opening in his skin. [Skin 1], [Skin 2], [Skin 3], and [Skin 4], unlink your arms from the person next to you. Germs, when I say 3, try to run through the skin again. Ready? 1, 2, 3! (Germs run through arms. All should get through.)

Teacher

This demonstrates how easy it is for us to get sick when we don’t take care of our bodies. Let’s make sure to always wash our hands and take care of our cuts and scrapes so we stay healthy.


Skit 2: Henry’s Infection Teacher

So where were we? Henry was fighting with his friend, Dominick, and got very beat up. Do you see that cut on his arm? What do you think Henry should do in order to stay healthy? (Teacher calls on student. Student explains that he should clean it and put on a Band-Aid.)

Teacher

That’s right! Henry should clean it up and cover it quick before... Oh-no! What is that? (HIV 1 and HIV 2 crawl into the center of the circle.)

HIV 1

HIV 2, I found an opening! Hurry, we have to mix with Henry’s blood so that we can move into our new home.

Teacher

If Henry had covered his cut with a bandage, it would have been less likely that the virus be able to enter. It’s very important that we all take care of our wounds properly so that HIV and other viruses will not infect us. Unlike other viruses, such as the flu, HIV stays with you for your entire life. See how quickly the virus has gotten comfortable inside Henry’s blood.

HIV 2

Home sweet home! Once you unpack all of your things let’s start creating our plan of attack on Henry’s CD4 cells. I think they will be coming this way soon.

Teacher

HIV attacks to your body’s immune system by attaching to CD4 cells, or disease fighting cells. These cells are found in your blood stream, protecting your body from bad viruses, like the flu. They are not strong enough to defend the body against HIV, making it one of the most dangerous viruses someone can have.


Skit 2: Henry’s Infection HIV 1

Okay, I’ve mapped out a plan. I’ll come from the front and you come from behind. That way there will be no place for the CD4 cells to escape to. (HIV 1 and HIV 2 crouch down. CD4 cell 1 and CD4 cell 2 stand up and walk into the circle.)

CD4 cell 1

Did you see me wipe out that flu virus today? I felt like nothing could stop me! Thanks to us, Henry is a healthy boy.

CD4 cell 2

Hey! I helped too! You couldn’t have gotten rid of the flu virus so quickly if it weren’t for me. Together, we CD4 cells make an amazing team. (HIV 1 and HIV 2 jump like a frog, scaring CD4 cell 1 and CD4 cell 2. HIV 1 grabs on to CD4 cell 1 and HIV 2 grabs on to CD4 cell 2.)

CD4 cell 1 and CD4 cell 2 Oh no!

CD4 cell 1

I never thought this would happen! Henry even learned about taking care of his cuts in school! Did he forget what his teacher taught him?

HIV 1

We got them!


Skit 2: Henry’s Infection HIV 2

We did it! We have effectively destroyed Henry’s CD4 cells. Now nothing can stop him from getting sick. (CD4 cell 1 and CD4 cell 2 fall to the ground. All actors go back to their seats.)

Activity

Teacher

All CD 4 cells go into the center of the circle. Walk, do not run, in a random path inside of the circle. (Teacher pauses a few moments.)

Teacher

Now jump up and down in place. (Teacher pauses a few moments.)

Teacher

Now walk again. HIV stand up, and walk in a circle around the CD4 cells. (Teacher pauses a few moments.)

Teacher

Raise your hand if you are HIV. When I say go, find a CD4 cell and tag them. Raise your hand if you are a CD4 cell. CD4 cells, when a HIV tags you, go sit back down around the outside of the circle. (Students participate in activity.)


Skit 2: Henry’s Infection Teacher

This is an analogy for HIV infecting your CD4 cells. When HIV damages your CD4 cells, it remains attached to them so that the virus can continue to flow through the blood stream. This attachment also allows HIV to use other parts of your body to replicate, or copy itself. The copies act exactly like HIV 1 and 2, attacking more CD4 cells.


Skit 3: Henry’s Treatment Teacher

Henry has been infected by HIV for 2 weeks now. He is in Stage One of HIV. Henry has a fever, is constantly coughing and sneezing, and has an occasional headache. Because he is not showing any symptoms of HIV, his mom thinks that he has a cold. (Henry coughs.)

Henry’s Mom

Sweetie, you look sick. I think you should stay home from school today.

Henry

Mom, I want to go to the clinic. I need to get proper treatment so that I can get better.

Teacher

Henry just did a very responsible thing, something that may change his life forever. He told his mom to take him to the clinic. We have clinics to help us get better. If we do not go to them when we are sick we may never recover. (Nurse stands. Henry and Henry’s Mom walk over to the nurse.)

Nurse

Hello how can I treat you today?

Henry

Well, I’ve been feeling very sick. I’ve had a fever and a headache. I’ve been sweating a lot at night too.


Skit 3: Henry’s Treatment Nurse

It sounds like you have the flu, but I need to ask you a few questions in order to better treat your condition. How long have you been feeling like this?

Henry

I started feeling sick about two weeks ago, but I didn’t feel this bad until the beginning of last week.

Nurse

Do you exercise regularly?

Henry Yes.

Nurse

Do you eat healthy? How many meals do you eat?

Henry

I normally eat 2 to 3 meals a day.


Skit 3: Henry’s Treatment Nurse

Are you sexually active?

Henry No.

Nurse

Have you ever been tested for HIV?

Henry No.

Nurse

Okay, let’s go ahead and do that just to be sure. Is that okay with you?

Henry

Yes. But I’m a little scared. Will it hurt?


Skit 3: Henry’s Treatment Nurse

Only a teeny bit and it will only last a second. There is nothing to be afraid of. I’m going to prick your finger just so I can get a little sample of your blood. I will test the blood and give you your results.

Henry

Okay, that doesn’t sound too bad. And if it will help me get better I’m willing to do it.

Nurse

Can you please hold out your finger for me? (Henry holds out his finger. Nurse touches it.)

Nurse

All done. That wasn’t so bad, was it? Let me go test this really quickly. (Nurse sits back down in the circle.)

Teacher

It is very important to get checked for HIV every six months. The sooner the virus is detected and treated, the more likely you are to live a normal healthy life. (Nurse stands back up and approaches Henry and his mom.)

Nurse

Henry, you are HIV positive. But don’t worry, this is not a death sentence. By taking pills, called ARVs, you can keep the amount of the virus inside of you low. Although ARVs don’t cure your body from the virus, they give your CD4 cells time to rebuild themselves. I’m going to give you three pills. Make sure you take them once daily.


Skit 3: Henry’s Treatment

Activity *THERE MUST BE LESS ARVs THAN CD4 CELLS FOR THIS ACTIVITY TO BE SUCCESSFUL

Teacher

Remember the activity we did on Day 2? Let’s try this again, but with ARVs. Raise your hand if you are a CD4 cells. All CD4 cells go into the center of the circle. Walk, do not run, in a random path within the circle. Now, raise your and if you are a ARV. ARVs enter the circle and latch on to a CD4 cell friend. Continue walking around the circle. CD4 cells, raise your hand if you do not have a ARV attached to you. Class do you see these cells. These cells are the ones that cannot recover. HIV go into the center of the circle and switch places with an unattached CD4 cell.

Teacher

Class, do you remember how many CD4 cells were sitting down on Day 2? There are fewer sitting down today, aren’t there? This demonstrates the effectiveness of ARVs on your CD4 cells. Some will get damaged by HIV, but others will be able to defend your body against other viruses because ARVs help them keep working in the body. Henry is going to be ok as long as he keeps taking his ARVs. Ok, class let’s sit back down. (All actors sit down around the circle.)

Teacher

There are 3 Stages of HIV. As I mentioned before, Henry is in Stage One. Had he not gotten tested by the nurse, he would eventually progress into Stage Two. Stage Two last about 8 years. During this time, an infected person may not show many symptoms, but the virus is still damaging the person’s CD4 cells. A person in Stage Two of HIV may develop rashes or blisters on his or her body or lose lots of weight. Eventually a person’s CD4 cells become so damaged that they can no longer fight other viruses, like the flu, allowing them to take an intense toll on the body. The infected person is then in Stage Three, called AIDS. Symptoms of AIDS include fever, weight loss, and rashes on the skin. At this point, viruses take over the body because there are not enough CD4 cells to protect it. This person will soon die. But let’s get back to Henry. He’s been taking his ARVs every day and seeing the nurse at least once a month. Class, based on what you’ve learned about the medicine, how do you think he’s doing? (Class may answer as a group or Teacher will call on a student.)


Teacher

That’s right! He’s living a healthy life and doing great! He still goes to school and gets to play with his friends just like you did today. *TEACHER WILL WRAP UP THE LESSON AS HE OR SHE CHOOSES. THIS MAY BE WITH FOLLOW UP QUESTIONS OR A QUIZ FOR THE STUDENTS IN ORDER TO REINFORCE THE MATERIAL.

Education Beyond Books  

South Africa Spring Break 2013

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