DĒMOS THE SECOND ISSUE
MAGAZINE OF THE 9TH ISTANBUL YOUTH FORUM 2014
! ! DEAR PARTICIPANTS, ! Since the general assembly is in its full swing and today will probably be the most demanding and intense day of the session, we thought it would be the perfect time for our second issue. Prepare yourself for a whole bunch of informative and enlightening articles that are ideally read during coffee breaks. With the session coming to its close, every last moment of enjoyment counts. Today is the day that you have been working so hard for during committee work. It is time to defend the opinions that you and your team have successfully concluded on and it is time to work as one for the greater good. Today is a memorable day, the progressive climax of all your ideas and ideals unified in a general and inclusive sharing. Today is a beautiful day, go live and love today.
Your editresses, Bircan & Louise
TABLE OF CONTENT
LIGHTS ON, INSTRUMENTS SET, PERFORMERS READY- by Elif Aksoz & Berksu Gunduz GLOBAL WARMING- REALITY OR FUTURE PERSPECTIVE?- by Nina Danelia WHY ERASMUS+ ? - by Christina Abdulahad THE FUTURE BELONGS TO…- by Anna Hagarova SOMETIMES I FEEL LIKE…- by Panagiotis Chatzistratis 1ST OF MAY: THE HISTORY OF TAKSIM- by Murat Alper Ozkan MASTERS OF SLAVERY- by Berksu Gunduz THE SHOULDERS OF GIANTS- by Berk Manav PEACEFUL PROTESTS: THE KEYSTONE OF DEMOCRACY- by Elif Aksoz THE FIGHT GOES ON- by Panagiotis Chatzistratis LET’S BE RANDOM- by Ani Meskhidze DECISION-MAKING CORNER- by Anna Hagarova BUT FIRST…LET ME TAKE A ‘SELFIE’ -by Elif Aksoz BRAINTEASERS- by Berk Manav & Christina Abdulahad EYPUZZLE- by Ani Meskhidzide & Murat Alper Ozkan TAKE A MOMENT- by Nina Danelia
contributors Anna Hagarova|Berksu Gunduz|Ani Meskhidze|Christina Abdulahad| Elif Aksoz|Irem Ersoy|Murat Alper Ozkan|Nina Danelia|Panagiotis Chatzistratis| Yasat Berk Manav
LIGHTS ON, INSTRUMENTS SET, PERFORMERS READY! BY ELIF AKSOZ & BERKSU GUNDUZ
“Music expresses that which cannot be said and which it is impossible to be silent” said Victor Hugo. The time had come for the music taste of delegates from all over Europe to meet in the same point; in the Atakan Demirseren Hall for the Euroconcert of the 9th IYF. Not only did it consist of different kind of songs and performances, but also of unique and talented performers. The Euroconcert on the10th of May has proven to be an unforgettable part of 9th IYF. We would like to give you some details about the Euroconcert so that you won’t have the chance to forget the cosmopolite recital. Journo Berk now is not only the Ninja Warrior and the Pressteam’s hero but also one of the best performers with the mash up “Smooth Dreams Hotel”. Finja made the audience a part of her show by the magnificent Austrian story and the EYPers had the chance to yodel on a mountain top high.Maybe the most creative show of the night was “The ITRE song” which included many different (!) lyrics.
It was a bit surprising not seeing any other talents than singing but it’s sure that there are hidden talents in you fellas! There is no doubt that as the host said, there are always rumors going around in the sessions and the three girls showed as that “Rumor Has It”. Orga Beyza really impressed all of us by writing her own songs at this age. Last but not least, chairs Fotis and Vassilis literally rocked the stage.
Now it’s our turn to take the stage with our lyric performances:
“I should've seen it glow, But everybody knows That a broken heart is blind”
“Baby we both know that the nights were mainly made for saying things that you can't say tomorrow day”
“You can check out any time you like, but you can never leave!”
GLOBAL WARMING: REALITY OR FUTURE PERSPECTIVE? BY NINA DANELIA
Global warming is not an opinion, it is a scientific reality and this science tells us that human activity has enormous impacts on our planet, which affects our wellbeing and even our survival as a species. According to the official statistics, glaciers are melting ten times faster than previously thought, greenhouse gases have reached levels never measured before and various species of animals are threatened by extinction as a result of climate change. When talking about global warming I should mention the Greenhouse gases which are known to be the major cause of global warming. Greenhouse gases come from all sorts of everyday emmissioning activities and they do not just stay in one place. As they move around the world, greenhouse gases become globally mixed, which means the concentration of a greenhouse gas is roughly the same, no matter where you measure it. In July 2006, severe heat waves in North America contributed to the death of at least 225 people. Scientists report that some polar bears are drowning because they have to swim longer distances to reach ice floes. Unless we take effective action now, the polar bear will likely become extinct in Alaska by 2050.Here comes the question: What is the EU doing to decrease the climate change? Well, preventing the climate change is a strategic priority of the EU. The EU is leading global action on climate change, both by setting out what needs to be done internationally to limit global warming to 2째C and by committing to very significant cuts in its own greenhouse gas emissions. Plus this, GEEREF - an innovative global risk capital fund by the European Commission - announced in 2006 to mobilize private investment in energy efficiency and renewable energy projects.
Currently, EU is successfully reducing greenhouse gases but still there are many important issues waiting to be solved. Going beyond the borders of the EU, it should be mentioned that the first world countries are responsible for 75% of the greenhouse gases in the atmosphere today. These nations have the most financial resources and the greatest technological capacity to cut their emissions. They should therefore be the ones to make the greatest effort to tackle climate change over the next decade. We should mention that reining in climate change carries a cost for sure, but doing nothing would obviously be far more expensive in the long run.
WHY ERASMUS + ? BY CHRISTINA ABDULAHAD â€¨
Erasmus+ is an EU Programme for education, training, youth and sport, during the period 2014-2020 with a budget of 14.7 billion euros. The EU has clearly prioritised young people by increasing the budget, despite the economic crisis. How come? About 6 million young people are unemployed in the EU and at the same time 36% of employers are having difficulties finding people with appropriate skills. Nearly 20% of the 15 year olds have poor reading skills and as many as 73 million adults are less educated or have no education at all. Erasmus+ will seek to address the aforementioned challenges and thus benefit the European economy as whole. EU has clearly demonstrated that youth, education, training and sport are areas worth prioritising and investigating in, despite difficult economic times, or more accurately, especially in economically difficult times. These fields can make
a major contribution to help tackle the key challenges that Europe is facing both now and in the next decade and have moreover been recognised as key drivers within the Europe 2020 Strategy to overcome the socioeconomic crisis affecting European countries, to boost growth and jobs and to foster social equity and inclusion. The increased budget will give over 4 millions of young Europeans the opportunity to participate in Erasmus+ programmes. This is of course not all young Europeans and it takes undoubtedly more than just funding to make the aims of the youth policy a reality. Erasmus+ is a programme that seeks to go far beyond with goals to reach more than the participating individuals and thus have an impact on both an individual, local, national and international level. Countries, communities, schools, businesses and organisations interact and affect each other in our global world and Erasmus+ encourages institutions to work side by side in order to create the best opportunities for young people.
THE FUTURE BELONGS TO… BY ANNA HAGAROVÁ “When the people saw the thunder and lightning and heard the trumpet and saw the mountain in smoke, they trembled with fear. They stayed at a distance and said to Moses, “Speak to us yourself and we will listen. But do not have God speak to us or we will die.”!
The Code of Hammurabi is one of the oldest and longest consent texts in the world. Dating back to 1750 BC, this Babylonian law code consists of treasures, such as the lex talionis (an eye for an eye, a tooth for a tooth), but also grandly depends on the sex or social status. One of the first ‘codes’ that recognised humans so-so equal was the Christian version of Biblical Decalogue. Fourteen centuries ago, Islam gave mankind an ideal code of human rights. These rights aim at conferring honour and dignity for mankind and aim to eliminate exploitation, oppression and injustice. The very first people having human rights written black on white signed that all humans are equal. This was the Declaration of the Rights of Man and of the Citizen, approved by the National Assembly of France, on August 26, 1789. Its seventeen articles were the basis for the current thirty articles of the Universal Declaration of Human Rights, adopted by the UN General Assembly, on December 10, 1948. This establishment was a logical step, made by people in a world that was shaken by the terrors of two world wars. People had just got a dagger in their heart and craved for certainty, for some guarantee that they will never ever
need to go through that horror again. Therefore, as the UN was established, the Commission on Human Rights was made up of 18 members from various political, cultural and religious backgrounds, with Eleanor Roosevelt chairing the UDHR drafting committee. The entire proclamation of the UDHR was composed in less than two years. Keep in mind that at that time the world was already divided into Eastern and Western blocks. Finding a common ground on what should make the essence of the document proved to be a colossal task. The result passed with eight nations abstaining and no votes raised against. “Nothing in this Declaration may be interpreted as implying for any State, group or person any right to engage in any activity or to perform any act aimed at the destruction of any of the rights and freedoms set forth herein.” Article 30, Universal Declaration of Human Rights
SOMETIMES I FEEL LIKE…
BY PANAGIOTIS CHATZISTRATIS In a highly competitive society with a demanding labour market, there are some certain skills that have been developed which exceed a common percentage of smartness and capacity. Therefore, today, it is not enough for someone to be smart or hard-working in order to be successful in their work, but one has to also possess some types of social abilities that will allow him to rise in the hierarchy of his work, while being socially acceptable. The clash between IQ (Intelligence Quotient) and EQ (Emotional Quotient) has been a subject of scientific and psychological research. However unlikely it may sound, emotional intelligence proves to be more effective for various circumstances of our life and career. According to psychologists, among the ingredients for success, IQ counts for roughly 10% (at best 25%); the rest depends on everything else, including EQ. Knowing how to handle your emotions, to control yourself and to influence your environment can easily help you reach your goals, even when one's natural intelligence is not special. With this in mind the following question comes up: "Who is really smart?" or to express it more correctly: "Who is really smart today?". As history has shown, great philosophers, scientists and intellectuals have been rather introvert persons, without a special social life. Still, today's standards, as they have shaped through the needs and the form of the third sector, introduce a new kind of difference. Yet, it would be thoughtless of someone to consider EQ as something simple and easily understandable. In fact, emotional intelligence includes a great variety of social and emotional behaviours and strategies. A basic element of emotional intelligence is self-awareness, which means the ability to recognise
emotions and to be confident. Someone must be able to control his feelings and also be able to have a positive attitude towards things and be committed in his task. Lastly, empathy, which means recognising other people's feelings and responding accordingly, in combination with common social skills, or the so called "people skills", such as influencing, communicating, leadership or the ability to solve disagreements form the fundament of the meaning of EQ. All in all, it can be understood is that EQ does not only mean "being nice", but it is a whole and complex strategy with many stages that requires that someone can psychologically transform and actually overcome his feelings. How smart is that?
1ST OF MAY: THE HISTORY OF TAKSIM BY ALPER OZKAN The 1st of May, International Workers’ Day. Some people might perceive it as a normal holiday, but the notions represented by the day are more than that. 1st of May is right, 1st of May is justice, above all, 1st of May is the counterpart of the workers’ labour. In an order without workers, the capitalism wouldn’t be able to make money, the liberalism would be meaningless and the life we would live wouldn’t be same as today. May 1 is officially celebrated in Turkey as Labour and Solidarity Day since 2009. In 1899, during the time of the Ottoman Empire, Workers’ Day was first celebrated in İzmir. Unfortunately, in 1924 and 1925, the demonstrations were intervened by arm floats by a decree. In the following years the National Parliament declared the 1st of May as a holiday. On May 1, 1977, during the events leading to the 1980 coup d’etat, the biggest crowd yet in Turkish workers’ history, approximately 500,000 people
were marching to Taksim Square. After the start of the celebration unknown people opened fire on the crowd. The day was turned into a massacre. 32 citizens got killed mercilessly and many more got injured. The Workers' Day holiday was cancelled once again. Still, demonstrations continued with small crowds and in 1996 three people were killed by police bullets, and a man dressed in plain clothes who spied on the crowd was revealed and lynched by workers. In 2007, leftist workers’ unions planned a commemoration of the massacre in Taksim Square. Since the government wouldn’t let people into the square, the demonstrations ended with 580 people under custody and unfortunately 1 dead. Because of the results, the 1st of May was declared as “Work and Labour Day”. Even though the day was recognised by the National Parliament it wasn’t an official holiday. In 2010-2012 the people could enter Taksim Square and stacked so far forward that there were nearly half a million demonstrators at Taksim square. It is really hard to think no more of the days when people could celebrate their official holidays where they want. Taksim is important because of the Bloody Sunday (the aforementioned massacre) and it has to be allowed to commemorate the people who died in Taksim, while celebrating their own rights as workers. Revolutionary greetings.
MASTERY OF SLAVE
BY BERKSU GUNDUZ “I need to post it on Instagram”, “I should check my tweets”, “I have a new notification from Facebook”. These are the sentences which we have been hearing a lot lately. People live in a cyber world as if there is none out there. With the invention of smartphones, everything has become “computerised”. We now carry our world in our hands. We are even arranging our relationships through social media. Technology is a door that opens to brave new worlds. It is a great opportunity to gain knowledge and to make life easier. Seeing the influence it has on our daily life, technology is now becoming a monster that occupies all areas of life. We can’t even stand one minute without checking our phones to see if we have got new messages, calls or notifications. Every social activity includes smartphones or social media sites in which we have the privilege to share all the private and even unnecessary stuff, but actually not creating new memories. On the positive side, it makes it so much easier to connect with friends, family or random people through certain applications. It gives an opportunity to people, who are not very comfortable with friends, to find
new pen-pals and socialise. There are countless positive effects of those on our lives but the things we have started to lose in the hands of technology are much effective than them. Recent research show that 41% of the Facebook users are just addicted to it and do not necessarily need to use it. Also, 82% of the people spend more time online than anticipated. The same study shows that 65% of the people are using the Internet to avoid their problems. Finally, the sad truth is that we are getting more obsessed with our phones and technology day by day. We are enjoying actual moments less and we choose not to reflect our emotions and feelings in the real life. If things continue like this, the world will turn into a “robotic cage” that consists of a species that has a heart and a brain, but chooses to act like it has none.
THE SHOULDER OF GIANTS BY BERK MANAV
The American writer Will Durant, author of “The Story of Civilization”, beautifully puts the sentence: “There is nothing in Greek civiliza- tion that doesn’t illuminate our own.” Ancient Greece was a time and a place in which human ideals were held up high, and con- stant inquiries lead to great developments in art, aesthetics, philosophy and science. One could say that the basis of our artistic advances today is the human effort and work from Classical Greece, the Hellenic Pe- riod itself. Yep, you guessed it right: this was the time of our demos. As we take a closer look into their arts, we can also find ourselves gorged in the philosophies and ideals that their pieces embellish. Athens acted as the capital of the Western world: of the arts and civilization. The demos congregated in fora, in the city adorned with sculptures. ‘Discobolus’ (the Discusthrow- er), was one of those sculptures. He has stretched his body to the limit, frozen right at the moment of maximum potential: a sports- man
with the idealized human body. When we look closer, we notice his stoic, emotion- less face. What fascinates me is the way in which he is the depiction of an idea rather than a person. He could be anybody. This is where the philosophical values of demos come in: idealism, humanism and ra- tionalism. Discobolus is the idealized human; he has the perfected, well-built body – much like those in the paintings of the Renaissance man, Michelangelo. The Hellenic Classics and ideas also inspired Da Vinci’s Vitruvian Man, where he rationalized the body with mathematical proportions. Finally, human- ism dominates artwork: mankind in considered paramount, and able to reach its ide- als. The trust in one’s self, therefore, made the Ancient Greeks strive, and achieve.
An old man with sandals comes in. Quirky and witty, Socrates was the one who ques- tioned these ideals. Comparing his city to a horse, in Plato’s Apology, he called himself the “gadfly of Athens”: constantly whizzing around the tail, provoking thought. Only in time were we able to understand and ap- preciate his motives. The perception of no- bility changed, traditions have evolved, but ideals kept driving human creation.
! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! !
Peaceful life brought free, beautiful self-ex- pression. Ancient Greeks fed on aesthetics and art. And today, as Newton said, we keep growing even more and see further, as we “stand on the shoulders of giants.”!
PEACEFUL PROTESTS: THE KEYSTONE OF DEMOCRACY BY ELIF AKSOZ ! Peaceful protest, as a reassurance, consists of the combination of the right to freedom of expression, right to freedom of assembly and right to freedom of association. A government’s approach to nonviolent protests is hence a gauge of its commitment to human rights in general. Regarding this point, the European Member States’ approach to the question of whether having a peaceful protest is a fundamental human right or not, appears as the key conflict.
According to Jacob Mchangama and Aaron Rhodes, the answer to the aforementioned question depends on who is being protested against. After French police banned members of Falun Gong from demonstrating outside in March 25, 2014, the French court quickly decided that the ban against the peaceful protest violated the right of expression and association. Not only France but also Belgium, Ireland, Denmark and Hungary stand up for the right to have a peaceful protest too. Thinking beyond the European countries’ borders with regards to the promotion and protection of human rights within peaceful protests, the United Nations urges states to facilitate peaceful protests by providing protestors with access to public space and protection whenever necessary and without discrimination: against any form of threat and harassment, and underlining the role of local authorities in this regard.Considering the fact that the United Nations generally and European countries specifically with their instruments have a major role in protecting the right to peaceful protest, guaranteeing it with regulations, Turkey appears to be the contradicting member country with the Gezi Demonstrations which just happened in June. Although Turkey’s constitution has provisions for the right of demonstrations and assemblies, the nonviolent protest which started with the aim of pulling attention to environmental issues, turned out to be a violation of fundamental human rights. Regarding this, Turkey should ensure that human rights and peaceful protests are protected not only through the legislation, but also through concrete implementations.
THE FIGHT GOES ON… BY PANAGIOTIS CHATZISTRATIS In the case of illegal immigration, human rights prove to be of direct relevance, not only as a reason for the former’s occurence, but also as the purpose of it. People in countries of regions like Africa, who live under dictatorial regimes, choose illegal immigration as a way to escape from this situation and pass to Europe where they can possibly find asylum and start a new life with better prospects. Illegal immigration includes illegal border crossing. Reaching Europe from the sea by its shores or issuing fake ID's and passports are also ways for people to be able to cross country borders. Of course, behind these procedures there is a whole system that supports and lets them flow. That's why illegal immigration is closely linked to human trafficking and organised crime. The traffickers who take advantage of some people's poor living conditions and their need to escape from their current situation give them the hope of a better life and convince them to enter the trafficking procedure. However, most of
the times, these people are victimised. The traffickers take full advantage of them and by threatening them with their lives, subject them to many types of exploitation. These can be prostitution, forced labour or even slavery. A characteristic example of a tragic outcome of illegal immigration is the one of Lampedusa, a large island very close to Italy. Nearly 500 immigrants from Eritrea and Somalia were on a boat which caught fire very close to the island. Some of them were rescued, however most did not make it. Such incidents are numerous in countries which are approachable by sea. Security measures that have been taken for such cases have proven to be insufficient, indicating that the protection of human rights is not enough. Human life depends substantially on human rights. They are the solution, both for the prevention of illegal immigration and human trafficking and for their tackling. Incidents such as the previous one, however, show that the fight for human rights is far from over.
LET’S BE RANDOM BY ANI MESKHIDZE
Most of the EYPers know a lot of things about politics, social life, current problems and so on… but how about some random facts? Mostly us EYPers focus less on general knowledge because we think they are useless. They might unexpectedly come in h a n d y . We l l I h a v e s o m e random facts for you. Enjoy ! Did you know that: Euro isn't made out of paper actually it's made out of cotton.
Butterflies taste with their feet. Banging your head against a wall burns 150 calories an hour ( please don’t try to get skinny doing this) Men can read smaller letters than women do but women can hear better (Indeed) Right-handed on average people live nine years longer than left-handed. The milk of a hippopotamus is pink.
DEMOCRACY VS. DICTATORSHIP BY ANNA HAGAROVA Our world is based on comparisons and competition. With this serial, we will provide you with a few interesting and useful ones to help you make up your mind and help you during the session and afterwards. We will provide you the facts and let you do the math. “The difference between a democracy and a dictatorship is that in a democracy you vote first and take orders later; in a dictatorship you don't have to waste your time voting.” Charles Bukowski autocracy, oligarchy, absolutism, dictatorship
no free choice
Person directly responsible for any failure
everyone and no one
“one who has absolute power or authority” + ship
“rule of the people”
Percentage of the world’s population (rather democratic x dictator regime )
In a trial version since
Zimbabwe, Cuba, North Korea, Belarus, Cameroon, Sudan…
Ancient Greece (administratively) Norway, Sweden, Iceland, Denmark, New Zealand, Japan, Switzerland… (according to Democracy Index 2012) Want, can not Just one 1% czeched
Voting balances The length of administrative procedure Need of education in order to ensure smooth process Complaint boxes full
direct, representative, demarchy, non-partisan permitted within legal limits
Can, do not want Lots of tables and people 100% czeched
BUT FIRST… LET ME TAKE A ‘SELFIE’ BY ELIF AKSOZ
Isn’t everyone taking selfies’ too serious? Including psychologists, artists, researchers, politicians, charity workers even the dictionaries too! Oxford dictionaries really have a definition for the world trending topic with exactly these words: “A photograph that one has taken of oneself, typically one taken with a smartphone or webcam and uploaded to a social media website.” When looked at the definition, I actually see how a weird and self-centered thing it is. Don’t you too? When looked at the history of it, self-portraitures have been an invention in the past but it became popular in the early 21th century and actually exploded in 2013 as “selfies”. It became an obsession for everyone in schools, college dorms, diplomatic and users in social media of course. So we can call it a “Selfie disease” from now on. Some of the experts believe that it is a mental illness and some people taking selfies have a form of Body Dsymorphic Disorder that involves checking one’s
appearance. Besides to that, some claims selfie as an extension of modern narcissism. So now, to be honest I’m scared; but don’t be so hopeless, you can continue having selfies because some social psychologists see it as a positive thing too, yay! For them, selfie is an identity formation and an important way of presenting and reinforcing a personal image; so it is more an artificial point of view than a unfortunate one. A research center believes that having your static photograph attractively rather than having your photo in the mirror passively. For us, exactly for the participants in this session, taking a selfie means more than disorders, egoism and even a photograph. As the committee, it is being more united and blended, for the journalists it is always “taking a moment”, and for all the participants in the session, it means the EYP spirit. Don’t give up taking selfies, don’t lose the EYP spirit!
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EYPUZZLE BY ANI MESKHIDZE & ALPER OZKAN
ANSWERS Hereby the answers of the puzzle in the first issue!
TAKE A MOMENT! BY NINA DANELIA
! “Some moments are nice, some are nicer, some are even worth writing about”
First, Take a moment to read this article!
Our lives are not lived by day or per hour, life is a chain of moments and some of them are very defining: graduation, falling in love, experiencing failure, getting married, finding money in jeans you didn’t use for ages, going on an ice cream date with your kid or passing the last exam, no doubt that for all of us EYP is definitely one of them. If you’re reading this article it means that you’re part of 9th IYF – this is it, the big one! The one we’ve all been waiting for and finally the 9th IYF is upon us. Definitely during the session here are some moments that you should definitely: Take a moment to go up to people that you do not know yet, even if it might seem a bit frightening. Don’t be shy to start a conversation with anyone crossing your path, with anyone sitting next you on the bus, with anyone with you’ve had a very heated debate in the committee, it can be done by simply starting with “Hello”, because you never know where a little hello may lead you! Take a moment to make a wish! It is said that when crossing the bridge from Europe to Asia one should make a wish and it will come true. Make sure that you’ll manage to do it during the Boat Tour. Wish whatever you want to, it might be a for safe trip back home, for fun at the Farewell Party or to get your resolution passed. Whatever you wish, make sure that you wish it hard! I truly believe that dreams to come true, if we only wish hard enough! Take a moment to academically prepare for the General Assembly by making a thorough research. You should definitely take this chance to
debate with the others, attack and defend other resolutions in order to have your say in the shaping of Europeâ€™s future! You must immerse yourself in all aspects as this will ultimately enrich your experience. Take a moment to make the most out of the session, no matter how tired you are! All you have to do is have absolute control over your choices right now, at this very moment. Be prepared to tear up, count your blessings and simply celebrate being here! I hope that after the session youâ€™ll say: Yay! Well done, I took each and every moment of it!
! ! !