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  Water Resour. Journal of Indian Resources Society, J. Indian Soc., Vol. Water 33, No. 2, April, 2013  Vol. 33, No. 2, April, 2013

STATUS PAPER ON WATER SHORTAGE AND REQUIREMENT OF UPPER CHAMBAL SUB-BASIN OF MALWA REGION IN MADHYA PRADESH (INDIA) Mukesh Chauhan1 and R.K. Shrivastava2

ABSTRACT For effective planning of available water in the Malwa Region of Madhya Pradesh belonging to Upper Chambal Sub-Basin, an attempt is made in the present study through water balance studies using the inflow/ run-off data in the area. The study include estimation of projections of the domestic, live stock, irrigation industrial requirements of the area along with water availability in the Gandhi Sagar Reservoir as well as the ground water resources. The water balance study defines the additional water requirement in the Sub-basin in the year 2050. It has been concluded that the Sub-basin is highly water deficient even on present day. Per capita water availability considering import and export is 212 cum and it will further come down to 121 cum in 2050. The additional requirement of water at 75% dependability in 2011 is 1016 MCM and in 2050 is 2536 MCM. Key Words: Upper Chambal Sub-Basin, Gandhisagar, Water balance, Water demand, flow series, Import of water, Export from Upper Chambal sub-basin.

INTRODUCTION The Upper Chambal Sub-Basin in Malwa region of Madhya Pradesh is one of the worst water deficit hydrological Sub-unit in India despite having a very low irrigation development in the country .Indicative location of the sub basin is given in Fig-1. It is often said that due to continuous water shortage and depleting ground water sources, as a result of continuous mining, the area may likely to face drought like situation in the near future. An attempt has been made in the present study to determine the present water balance and that in year 2050 after a thorough investigation into the requirement of water for various uses viz., domestic, live stock, industrial, irrigation and water available after considering annual inflow series at Gandhi Sagar, export and import of water from and into Subbasin respectively. The present study is significant as it aims to draw the attention of water planners, political decision makers and general public towards the grave water deficient situation prevailing in the catchment and also presents a bench mark study to provide necessary input for planning appropriate measures/schemes necessary to mitigate the water deficiency by properly addressing the problem raised in the present study.

UPPER CHAMBAL SUB-BASIN IN MALWA REGION Malwa region is a geographic sub-division situated in the North West of Madhya Pradesh in India. It is situated between latitudes 22027’N and 2505’N and beween longitudes It encompasses districts of Dhar, 74045’E and 77015 E. Ratlam, Neemuch, Mandsaur, Ujjain, Indore, Shajapur, Dewas, Rajgarh and Sehore and admeasures an area of about 35,879 Sq.km. Main river system in the region is river Chambal and its tributaries, namely, Kalisindh Parbati Kshipra, Gambhir, Chawala, Siwana Choti Kalisindh; and river Mahi. The 1.

2.

Chief Engineer, Narmada Control Authority, D-1/2, Narmada Colony, Scheme No.78, Indore452010Email: m_k_chauhan@hotmail.com, Ph.: 07312554477 Prof. of Civil Engineering, S.G.S.I.T.S., Indore. Teachers Quarters, S.G.S.I.T.S., Campus, Y.N. Road Indore 452003, Ph.: 0731-2541829 Manuscript No.: 1325

  Fig-1: Indicative Map of Upper Chambal Sub-Basin in Madhya Pradesh BOUNDARY OF UPPER CHAMBAL SUB-BASIN BOUNDARY OF MALWA drainage covered by river Mahi is only 3,133 Sq.km. River system and geographical map of Upper Chambal Sub-basin is given in Fig-2. The Upper Chambal sub-basin is formed in Malwa region due to construction of Gandhisagar hydel Project in 1960-61 which

1


J. Indian Water Resour. Soc., Vol. 33, No. 2, April, 2013  Table1: Upper Chambal Sub-basin The State wise / district wise/ Tehsil wise break up of the catchment area (in sq.km) Sl.No.

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

District / Tehsil

Mandsaur District: Mandsaur Bhanpura Garoth Malhargarh Sitamau District Total: Neemuch Neemuch Manasaa Javad District Total: Shajapur District:

Area falling % age of in the subTehsil/ district basin MADHYA PRADESH

Geographical area

1266.08 1039.18 1136.69 806.05 1273.58 5521.38

1266.08 375.00 888.00 806.00 1132.00 4467.08

100.00 36.17 78.15 100.00 88.73 80.90

855.13 1517.26 1570.26 3942.65

695 1167 83 1945

81.27 76.91 6.28 49.33%

Agar

718.10

135.00

18.60

Barod District Total: Ratlam District: Ratlam Alot Jaora Saliana District Total: Ujjain District: Ujjain Khachrod + Nagda Mahidpur Tarana Baranagar Ghatiya District Total: Dewas district: Dewas Sonkatch District Total: Dhar District: Dhar Badnawar Sardarpur District Total: Indore district: Indore Mhow Depalpur Sanwer District Total:

736.20 6178.50

508.00 643.00

69.00 10.39

1330.84 985.00 1359.46 1228.92 4865.00

635.00 945.52 1318.00 38.00 2935.52

47.71 100.00 96.95 3.09 60.33

753.20 1282.63 1131.23 1083.81 1225.31 639.65 6116.20

753.20 1282.68 1131.23 706.50 1225.31 639.65 5738.57

100.00 100.00 100.00 65.18 100.00 100.00 93.82

1004.92 1288.72 7004.00

795.00 202.50 997.50

79.11 15.71 14.24

1908.33 1064.57 1280.00 8195.00

1032.00 557.00 66.00 1655.00

54.07.92 52.32 5.15 20.19

1020.14 1027.08 1022.25 761.52 3831.00

739.00 337.00 1022.25 761.52 2859.77

72.44 32.8 100.00 100.00 74.60

Remarks

Agar was splited into Agar and Barod in 1981-82.

2


J. Indian Water Resour. Soc., Vol. 33, No. 2, April, 2013  RAJASTHAN 9

10

Chittorgarh district Nimbahera Paratapgarh District Total: Jhalawar district: Gangdhar District Total: Sub-total of M.P. portion Sub-total of Rajasthan portion Total of sub-basin Source:

853.28 2252.64 10011.89

32.00 843.00 875.00

3.75 37.42 8.75

914.55 6323.16

629.3 629.3 21241.67

68.80 9.95

1504.30 22746 1. Commissioner, Land Records (MP) 2. Survey of India top sheets of 1:250,000 scale 3. Irrigation Department, Rajasthan

 

 

  Fig. 2: River Network Map is the Northern most extremity of this sub-division. The project is at a distance of 260 km from the origin of river Chambal and has a catchment area of 22,745 Sq.km. covering almost whole or part of all districts of Malwa region except Sehore and Rajgarh. Main river in the sub-basin is Chambal and its tributaries Kshipra, Choti Kalisindh. Tehsil wise area falling in the Sub-basin are given in Table-1. Administrative boundaries of Tehsil & Districts are given in Fig-3. The area is a plateau of flat rolling land sloping from South in Vindhyas from elevation 600 m. to North in Hadauti in Rajasthan to elevation 400 m. Geologically, it is a part of Deccan plateau and various formations occurring in the region are (i) Alluvial, (ii) Laterite and Deccan taps with intertrappean beds. Deccan traps belonging to tertiary of eccene

Fig. 3: Administrative Boundaries and Upper cretaceous period cover major part of the catchment. It consists of massive, zeolites and vesicular flows of various thicknesses. The groundwater is restricted to weathered residuum, fracture zone having secondary porosity with moderate yield prospects of 5 to 20 m3/hour. The region receives its 95% of rainfall during monsoon months of July to October. The average annual rainfall is 827 mm with maximum rainfall of 1,050 mm occurring in Shajapur district and minimum of 756 mm in Mandsaur district.

Land use in the Sub-basin: Land statistics have been collected tehsil wise for year 2008-09 for Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan. Using the prorata figures of these statistics, land use statistics for Upper Chambal Subbasin has been worked out and is presented in Table-2.

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J. Indian Water Resour. Soc., Vol. 33, No. 2, April, 2013  Table-2: Land use particular in Upper Chambal basin (2008-09) Sl.

Category of land use

M.P.

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9

Forest. Barren land. Land put to non-agricultural use. Permanent pastures & other grazing land. Land under miscellaneous crops & tree. Culturable waste. Other fallows. Current fallows. Net area sown. Total Geographical Area :

150,082 108,593 153,958 108,544 320 57,846 8,882 8,234 1,527,885 2,124,344

Rajasthan

Total

21,563 16,104 6,478 11,999 9 24,515 3,891 1,906 63,801 150,266

171,645 124,697 160,436 120,543 329 82,361 12,773 10,140 1,591,686 2,274,600

Table-3: Tehsilwise Poulation of Upper Chambal Sub-basin Population Tehsil Sl.No 1 1

2

3

4

5

6

Name of Place & District 2 Mandsaur Mandsaur Bhanpura Garoth Malhargarh Sitamau District Total Shajapur Agar Barod District Total Ratlam Ratlam Alot Jaora Sailana District Total Ujjain Ujjain Khachrod Mahidpur Tarana Badnagar Ghatiya District Total Dewas Dewas Sonkatch District Total Dhar Dhar Badnawar

%age 3

Urban 4

1991 Rural 5

Total 6

Urban 7

2001 Rural 8

Total 9

100.00 36.18 78.52 100.00 88.72 80.90

101455 21308 24298 101455 6026 254542.00

214977 30611 116935 214977 83858 661358.00

316432 51919 141233 316432 89884 915900.00

124120 16494 36076 31125 12889 220704.00

272799 42051 147813 153951 205644 822258.00

396919 58545 183889 185076 218533 1042962.00

18.60 69.14 10.39

0 0 0.00

15117 57604 72721.00

15117 57604 72721.00

0 11764 11764.00

18828 70747 89575.00

18828 82511 101339.00

47.56 100.00 97.02 3.02 60.33

202473 27970 68198 11096 309737.00

87260 123648 194068 2001 406977.00

289733 151618 262266 13097 716714.00

242903 34574 72766 10888 361131.00

110211 151491 133492 2730 397924.00

353114 186055 206258 13618 759045.00

100.00 100.00 100.00 65.00 100.00 100.00 93.82

362633 114660 22536 18187 28667 0 546683.00

107008 169858 149849 159492 159371 90828 836406.00

469641 284518 172385 177679 188038 90828 1383089.00

431162 140364 35720 21453 34088 0 662787.00

133183 216410 181706 127254 202552 118568 979673.00

564345 356774 217426 148707 236640 118568 1642460.00

79.11 15.71 14.24

164364 0 164364.00

123604 15436 139040.00

287968 15436 303404.00

231672 0 231672.00

150838 19459 170297.00

382510 19459 401969.00

53.92 52.42

0 15143

38592 72852

38592 87995

0 17746

150780 92193

150780 109939

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J. Indian Water Resour. Soc., Vol. 33, No. 2, April, 2013  Sardarpur District Total 7 Indore Indore Mhow Depalpur Sanwer District Total 8 Neemuch Manasa Jawad District Total 9 Chittaurgarh Nimbahera Pratapgarh District Total 10 Jhalawar Gandhar District Total Total population in Sub-basin

5.08 20.19

0 15143.00

8536 119980.00

8536 135123.00

0 17746.00

10592 253565.00

10592 271311.00

72.64 32.91 100.00 100.00 74.60 81.27 76.91 5.28 49.33

1290905 102461 31052 5492 1429910.00 99795 34882 0 134677.00

116590 43297 133685 70796 364368.00 99951 122697 7866 230514.00

1407495 145758 164737 76288 1794278.00 199746 157579 7866 365191.00

1761689 119412 40965 19106 1941172.00 123375 40380 39215 202970.00

153131 60867 170638 169066 553702.00 121026 149891 95001 365918.00

1914820 180279 211603 188172 2494874.00 244401 190271 48715 483387.00

3.75 37.42 8.75

NA NA 1767.00

NA NA 9568.00

NA NA 11335.00

371 2522 2893.00

966 75229 76195.00

1336 88554 89890.00

68.81 9.95

0 1426.00

0 7618.00

0 9044.00

7867 7867.00

92490 92490.00

100357 100357.00

2858249.00

2848550.00

5706799.00

3660706.00

3801597.00

7387594.00

422.50

The total geographical area of the sub-basin is 22,74,600 ha. The culturable area of 16,97,289 ha. i.e., 74.62% of Geographical area indicates predominant agrarian nature of the region. Considering the figures of forest cover and net sown area of 1992-93 and of 2008-09, the % forest cover has decreased from 2,17,498 ha. (9.56%) to 1,71,645 (7.54%) and the % culturable area increased from 69.3 to 74.62%. Permanent pasture and grazing land also decreased from 1,89,082 ha. (8.3%) to 1,20,543 ha. (5.29%) which suggest expansion of agricultural/cultivable area at the cost of forest reserve and permanent pastures. The decrease in permanent pasture indicates reduction in dependence on live stock for agriculture and also that the population of live stock is not likely to sustain significant growth (State Government of Madhya Pradesh too has reduced percentage of permanent pasture to 5% and then to 2%). The land put to nonagricultural use has shown slight decrease 1,62,450 (7.14%) to 1,60,436 (7.05%). The current and other fallows are only 22,913 ha. i.e., 1.007% which suggests very intensive agriculture in the region which is likely to affect the nutritional characteristic of the soil and in turns its agricultural productivity.

WATER DEMAND IN SUB-BASIN Water is required in Upper Chambal basin for various purposes i.e., drinking for people and live stock, irrigation and industries. Present requirement for above purposes and future projections of them to year 2030 and 2050 are given as under:

Domestic purposes Civic requirement of people: Upper Chambal sub-basin is a region dependant on agriculture as its mainstay and presently more population resides in rural areas than in urban areas. But there are important industrial clusters like Indore, Dewas, Ratlam, Pithampur in Dhar which are growing very fast setting the pace of rapid urbanization. According to Census-2001, the total population in the subbasin in 2001 was 73, 87,594 which includes 36, 60,706 in

urban areas and 38, 01,597 in rural areas. Table-3 gives the tehsil wise population of urban and rural areas in Upper Chambal Sub-basin. Using the percentage growth in total population in various districts, total population in 2011 comes to 99, 67,415 of which rural population is 50, 28,354 and urban population is 49,39,060. The projections given in World Population prospects for medium variant by UNO as reproduced in Table-4 have been used to make predictions for future populations of year 2030 and 2050. Computation of population in year 2030 & 2050 are given in Table-5. Accordingly, the urban & rural population in 2030 & 2050 are given in following table. The per capita daily water requirement of 200 lit for urban area and 70 liter per day for rural area have been taken for calculation of water demand is given in Table-6.

Live Stock There is near stability in the population of live stock due to mechanism of agriculture requirement of live stock the future increase in the population of live stock will be only in milk animal. Therefore, the present livestock population of 23,58,240 (Table-7) has been assumed to grow at a modest rate of 0.1 % per annum and estimation . The per capita requirement of 50 liters of water has been considered for computation of water requirement of livestock and same is given in Table-8. The 50% water demand for rural areas and live stock is assumed to be met from the ground water resources. In view of above, total water demand for domestic & livestock from surface & ground water resources would be as given in Table-9.

Water requirement for irrigation purpose There are total 281 existing irrigation projects in Upper Chambal basin and 31 projects are under construction and 29 are proposed project. The water requirement for these projects is given in Table-10.

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J. Indian Water Resour. Soc., Vol. 33, No. 2, April, 2013  Table 4: Upper Chambal Sub-Basin Population Growth Rate (%)Medium Variant-1990-2050 Sl.No. Period Population Growth Rate* (Yearly) 1 1990-1995 1.98 2 1995-2000 1.77 3 2000-2005 1.57 4 2005-2010 1.43 5 2010-2015 1.32 6 2015-2020 1.17 7 2020-2025 1.01 8 2025-2030 0.87 9 2030-2035 0.73 10 2035-2040 0.59 11 2040-2045 0.46 12 2045-2050 0.33 (*) The population growth rate has been taken from the Publication Division of the Department of Economic & Social Affairs of the United Nations Secretariat, World Population Prospects : The 2010 Revision. Table-5: Computation of Population in Upper Chambal Subbasin in 2030-2050 District Population Decadal Populatio Population in Population in 2050 in the sub Growth n in 2011 2030(24.27 % (38.951 % growth basin (2001) rate in 2011 growth over over 2011 ) ( in % ) 2011 ) 1 Mandsaur 1042962 13 1178547 1464580 1637605 2 Shajapur 101339 17 118566 147342 164750 3 Ratlam 759045 20 911386 1132580 1266385 4 Ujjain 1642460 16 1905253 2367660 2647368 5 Dewas 401969 20 482362 599432 670250 6 Dhar 271311 26 341851 424820 475010 7 Indore 2494874 33 3318182 4123505 4610650 8 Neemuch 483387 14 551061 684805 765710 9 Chittaurgarh 89890 20 1042724 1295793 1448880 10 Jhalawar 100357 16 117483 145998 163250 TOTAL 7387594 9967415 12386515 13849858

S.No .

Table 6: Drinking water requirement in Upper Chambal sub-basin Present Urban Rural Total

Year-2030

3,660,706 3,801,597 7,462,303

6,713,491 5,673,024 12,386,515

Year-2050 7,506,623 6,343,234 13,849,857

Water demand in MCM 2011 207 97 304

2030 379 144 523

2050 424 162 586

Table-7: Live Stock Population in Upper Chambal Sub Basin ( 2008-09 ) Sl. No 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Name of District Mandsaur Shajapur Ratlam Ujjain Dewas Dhar Indore Neemuch Chittaurgarh Jhalawar Total

Percentage (100%) 80.90 10.39 60.33 93.82 14.24 20.19 74.60 49.33 8.75 9.95

Live Stock in District 554380 878049 612663 576821 706074 230330 389557 875225 166720 238514 5228333

Live Stock in Basin 448493 91229 369620 541173 100545 46504 290610 431748 14588 23732 2358242

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J. Indian Water Resour. Soc., Vol. 33, No. 2, April, 2013  Table-8: Water demand for live stock population Livestock Population 2011 2,358,240

Water demand in MCM

2030

2050

3,178,551

3,878,436

2011 43

2030

2050

58

71

Table-9: Domestic & livestock demand in Upper Chambal basin Surface water demand Ground Water Domestic Livestock Total Domestic Livestock 255 22 277 48 22 451 29 480 72 29 505 35 540 81 35

Year 2011 2030 2050

Total 70 101 116

Table-10: Water requirement through Irrigation Projects Category of projects Existing projects Under construction Proposed scheme

No. of schemes 281 31 29 341

Area irrigated 49,130 10,291 15,291 74,712

Water required in MCM 350.075 83.78 110.36 553.215

Table 11: Source-wise Irrigation in Upper Chambal Sub Basin (All unit in ha) Sl. No

Name of District

% area in Basin

Canals

Tanks

1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

2 Mandsaur Shajapur Ratlam Ujjain Dewas Dhar Indore Neemuch Chittaurgarh Jhalawar TOTAL

3 80.9 10.39 60.33 93.82 14.24 20.19 74.6 49.33 8.75 9.95

4 1739 866 390 3349 60 576 618 1535 348 26 9507

5 4307 114 911 868 221 1725 1193 355 1589 92 11375

Name of district Water requirement in MLD

Indore

Dhar

180

270

Surface (Other Sources ) 6 4348 423 1830 9275 661 566 3287 18585 2107 272 41354

Total Surface

Tube well

Wells

7 10394 1403 3131 13492 942 2867 5097 20475 4044 390 62235

8 19482 3684 47616 12357 23778 56679 104646 4790 10 273042

9 179907 16159 36384 41531 11925 4121 7150 32252 15693 17835 362957

Table-12: Industrial water demand Ujjain Dewas Mandsaur Neemuch 72

135

Assuming that all projects will be completed by 2030, the water demand in 2011 is 350 MCM, in 2030 & 2050 it is 553 MCM. The ultimate irrigation percentage by surface irrigation from above water resources projects would be 4.66% whereas its present value is 3.06%. These are projects which are owned by the Water Resources Department of Madhya Pradesh/Rajasthan. Some additional area is being irrigated by village Talab /tanks owned by village Pachayats. Total area under surface irrigation has been obtained from land use statistics and presented in Table-11 As per land statistics collected, an area 62,235 by surface irrigation and 6,59,751 by ground water resources was being

72

45

Other Source s 10 4348 423 2387 9275 760 566 3226 2119 340 308 23752

Ground Water irrigation 11 203737 20266 86387 63163 36463 61366 115022 39161 16033 18153 659751

Total irrigation

Ratlam

Total MLD

144

918

12 214131 21669 89518 76655 37405 64233 120119 59636 20077 18543 721986

irrigated in 2008-09 in the sub-basin. Total area irrigated as per land statistics is 7,21,986 which is 45% of net sown area. Therefore in absence of adequate sources for surface irrigation the area is heavily dependent on ground water which is resulting in continuous mining and rapid falling of ground water table. Out of 31 Tehsils in the Sub-basin mining has been reported in 17 Tehsils in past decade. To reverse trend at least 15% i.e., 1/3rd of total area under irrigation i.e., 2,38,750 ha. need to be provided with surface water irrigation facility in the sub-basin. This would ensure conjunctive use and would also stabilize ground water table as about 1008 MCM water which is drawn from ground water resources would be

7


J. Indian Water Resour. Soc., Vol. 33, No. 2, April, 2013  available from surface irrigation from Water Resources Project. Hence, future water requirement for bringing total 15% of net sown area i.e., 2,38,750 under irrigation would be 1432 MCM considering a delta of 0.60 m for approved cropping pattern in the region. Hence, water required for irrigation in 2030 & 2050 will be 1432 MCM.

Industrial water requirement The industrial water requirement for various industrial clusters in the sub-basin is given in Table-12. Which comes to 335 MLD as future requirement for industrial purposes.

Water requirement for export to other basin: An interstate agreement was reached by Madhya Pradesh and Rajasthan in 1955 wherein an allocation of water of 3948

MCM (3.2 MAF) ex-Gandhinagar (constructed in 1960) was committed for irrigation in 566801 ha in Lower Chambal command of Kota, Jhalawar of Rajasthan, Bhind, Morena and Gwalior districts of Madhya Pradesh.The Gandhisagar project has a live storage of 7616 M. Cum. (6.17 M.Cum) with a carry over storage of 3668 M.Cu.m. The irrigation from Kota Barrage downstream of Gandhisagar Project is mainly in Kalisindh, Parbati and Sindh sub basin of lower Chambal basin.

WATER AVAILABILITY AT GANDHISAGAR RESERVOIR Surface Water The inflow data of river Chambal are available for 64 years from 1946-47 to year 2009-10. The upstream utilization through water resources projects/water supply projects are also available for the corresponding period. The virgin flow/run off series at Gandhisagar has been prepared. By arranging the series in descending order and using Gumbel Plotting formula,

Table 13: UPPER CHAMBAL SUB-BASIN Computation of 50 % and 75 % Dependable run-off from inflow series at Gandhisagar RUN-OFF S.No. YEAR U/S RUN-OFF ( R ) ARRANGED IN UTILIZATION ( CM ) ( MCM ) DESCENDING ORDER (in MCM) 1 1946-47 0.05 46.903 19974 19974 2 1947-48 0.05 26.520 13728 13728 3 1948-49 0.05 33.391 12301 12301 4 1949-50 0.07 7.892 11688 11688 5 1950-51 0.07 31.730 10822 10822 6 1951-52 0.10 6.350 10684 10684 7 1952-53 0.10 25.220 9824 9824 8 1953-54 0.12 10.848 9512 9512 9 1954-55 0.13 41.164 9377 9377 10 1955-56 0.15 39.837 9075 9075 11 1956-57 0.16 16.842 8603 8603 12 1957-58 0.17 9.711 7973 7973 13 1958-59 0.17 19.001 7956 7956 14 1959-60 0.17 54.000 7941 7941 15 1960-61 0.18 12.000 7704 7704 16 1961-62 0.18 34.928 7606 7606 17 1962-63 0.18 35.000 7598 7598 18 1963-64 0.19 17.810 7278 7278 19 1964-65 0.24 11.642 7228 7228 20 1965-66 0.29 6.279 7089 7089 21 1966-67 0.34 7.387 6811 6811 22 1967-68 0.35 11.529 6767 6767 23 1968-69 0.36 21.392 6582 6582 24 1969-70 0.37 41.759 6266 6266 25 1970-71 0.38 21.590 6041 6041 26 1971-72 0.38 37.766 5745 5745 27 1972-73 0.39 14.569 5711 5711 28 1973-74 0.40 87.688 5655 5655 29 1974-75 0.42 29.900 4918 4918 30 1975-76 0.46 29.709 4873 4873 31 1976-77 0.47 47.509 4809 4809 32 1977-78 0.48 31.951 4328 4328 33 1978-79 0.48 31.120 4057 4057

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J. Indian Water Resour. Soc., Vol. 33, No. 2, April, 2013  34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 60 61 62 63

1979-80 1980-81 1981-82 1982-83 1983-84 1984-85 1985-86 1986-87 1987-88 1988-89 1989-90 1990-91 1991-92 1992-93 1993-94 1994-95 1995-96 1996-97 1997-98 1998-99 1999-00 2000-01 2001-02 2002-03 2003-04 2004-05 2005-06 2006-07 2007-08 2008-09

0.50 0.51 0.70 0.72 0.76 0.76 0.76 0.79 0.80 0.80 0.85 0.93 1.21 1.50 1.52 1.54 1.54 1.54 1.55 1.55 1.56 1.56 1.56 1.57 1.58 1.58 1.58 1.58 1.58 1.58

11.715 17.073 17.745 14.004 16.026 33.355 12.980 51.312 12.254 25.072 13.635 33.819 27.507 8.979 17.603 34.860 24.827 43.128 28.896 16.665 15.099 4.551 8.986 4.075 10.364 3.789 9.326 60.267 21.112 5.710

4042 4042 4010 4010 3889 3889 3837 3837 3796 3796 3651 3651 3439 3439 3319 3319 3190 3190 3106 3106 2957 2957 2791 2791 2733 2733 2669 2669 2652 2652 2626 2626 2471 2471 2361 2361 2212 2212 2124 2124 2047 2047 2045 2045 1798 1884 1683 1798 1446 1683 1430 1446 1301 1430 1037 1301 928 1037 863 928 Computation of 50 % = 4568.5 Computation of 75 % = 2656.25

Table 14: District Wise Ground Water Potential in Upper Chambal Sub Basin ( All unit in ham ) S.No.

1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

9 10

Assessment Unit/District/ Block

% Falling in SubBasin

Net Annual Ground water Availability

Existing Gross Ground water Draft for Irrigation

Existing Gross Ground water Draft for Domestic & Industrial water Supply

Existing Gross Ground water Draft for All uses (5+6)

Allocation for domestic &industrial requirement supply upto next 25 years

Net Ground water Availability for future irrigation development

Stage of Ground water Development (%) ( 7/4X100 )

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

60424 4897

69019 4655

1332 249

70351 4904

3209 433

-8792 -65

116 100

60.34 93.82 14.24 20.19 74.60 49.83

39027 141788 14595 14695 42663 25449

48042 153075 13491 21663 46427 17733

1795 4467 480 338 1822 688

49837 157542 13971 22001 48249 18421

2110 5470 859 441 4385 931

-11119 -16458 245 7826 -8152 1197

128 111 96 150 113 72

8.75 9.95

5262 3982 352782

11171

2575 2169 390020

-35318

49 54 99

2 3 MADHYA PRADESH STATE Mandsaur 80.90 Shajapur 10.39 Ratlam Ujjain Dewas Dhar Indore Neemuch RAJASTHAN STATE Chittaurgarh Jhalawar TOTAL

374105

17838

  the surface runoff at 50% and 75% dependability has been worked out in Table-13 by arranging the virgin flow series in descending order and using weibuls formula to determine the

50% and 75% probability flows. The values are given as under: Surface runoff at 50% dependability

= 4568 MCM

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J. Indian Water Resour. Soc., Vol. 33, No. 2, April, 2013  Surface runoff at 75% dependability

= 2656 MCM

Ground Water Resources As per data collected from Central Ground Water Board, Net ground water availability up to Gandhisagar is 3,527 MCM. Total draft for irrigation is 3,741 MCM and the same for domestic including industrial purposes is 111.70 MCM. The values are given in Table-14.

brought in Upper Chambal sub-basin for above stated purpose. In 2040, the import will be increased to 315 MCM (864 MLD) after completion of Narmada Phase-III. The summary of water demand is given in the Table-15 using above values of water demand for various purposes and water availability (Fig. 4).

It is evident that there is mining of 373 MCM of ground water resources every year.

WATER BALANCE AT GANDHISAGAR & ADDITIONAL WATER REQUIREMENT IN THE SUB BASIN

Import of water in the sub basin

The values of water balance are calculated using values given in Table-13 and 15 and are presented in Table-16 and Fig. 5.

The drinking water supply project for Indore – Mhow – Dewas area is based on a pumped water scheme from Narmada river since 1979. Presently, 205 MCM (564 MLD) of water is being

Present demand of additional water of (-) 1185 MCM is being drawn from ground water resources which is causing depletion

Table 15: Total water requirement in Upper Chambal sub-basin (in MCM) Present (2011) Domestic Irrigation Industrial Total Import Export Difference Total

2030 446 350 50 846 205 3200 2995 3841

2050 591 553 335 1479 315 3200 2885 4364

665 1432 335 2432 315 3200 2885 5317

  Fig. 4: Total Water Requirement in Upper Chambal Sub-Basin

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J. Indian Water Resour. Soc., Vol. 33, No. 2, April, 2013  Table16: Present & future water balance at Gandhisagar Surface Water available (MCM) 50% 4568

75% 2656

Surface water demand (MCM)

2011 3841

2030 4364

2050 5317

Water balance at 50% dependability (+)Surplus, (-)deficit (MCM) 2011 2030 2050 727 204 -749

Water balance at 75% dependability (+) Surplus, (-) deficit (MCM) 2011 -1185

2030 -1708

2050 -2661

Fig. 5: Water balance at 50% and 75% dependability. of ground water table. This situation will go on worsening with the passage of time as demand will increase to an unmanageable state as there will not be usable ground water left. In view of above, additional requirement of surface water in upper Chambal sub basin at present is 1185 MCM and in 2050 the same will be 2,661 MCM.

2011 is 212 Cum and in 2050 it will further come down to 121 Cum. (ii)

The total demand of water for domestic and industrial purposes will be doubled from existing 304 MCM to 586 MCM.

(iii)

The irrigation water demand will remain stabilized to about 553 MCM unless water is imported from nearby basin.

(iv)

The ground water resources have indicated over exploitation in most of the tehsils. As against net ground water availability of 3527 MCM, the annual draft for all purposes is 3,741 MCM.

(v)

Present demand of additional water of (-) 1185 MCM is being drawn from ground water resources which is causing depletion of ground water table. This situation will go on worsening with the passage of time as demand will increase to an unmanageable state as there will not be usable ground water left.

(vi)

To further arrest depletion of ground water resources and for providing at least 15% of existing area irrigated mostly by ground water and considering all other demands, total water requirement will be 5317 MCM. Hence, at 75% dependability water deficit is 2661 MCM and that at 50% dependability is 749 MCM.

POSSIBLE SOLUTIONS There is need to develop a decision support model to devise alternative strategies to bridge the gap between demand and supply of water and prepare a regional water plan for upper Chambal sub basin. This plan should inter -alia consider following :a)

Adopting appropriate crop planning and scientific methods for water use most suited to the area.

b)

Studies to explore technically advance , economically viable and sustainable schemes for import of required quantity of water from nearby sub basins/Basin of Parbati, Kalisindh and Narmada.

CONCLUDING REMARKS Following conclusions can be made from the above study. (i)

The Upper Chambal Sub-basin is one of the most water deficient region in India. Per capita water availability in

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J. Indian Water Resour. Soc., Vol. 33, No. 2, April, 2013  (vii) At least 2661 MCM water will be required to be provided additionally. The study provides the basis for making alternative strategies for bringing additional water from nearby basins/sub-basins.

7.

Chauhan M.K., 2005. “Seminar on Water Demand & Availability in Malwa” Centre for Environment Protection & Research & Development, Indore.

8.

Govt. of Madhya Pradesh, 1983.” Indicative Master Plan of Chambal Sub-Basin”.

REFERENCES 1.

Agrawal S.K., Etal, 1998. “7th National Water th Convention”, Lucknow, 7-9 January, 1998.

9.

Govt. of Madhya Pradesh, 1983. “Reservoir Operation Table for Gandhisagar Reservoir”.

2.

Govt. of Rajasthan, 2008-09. “Agricultural Commission Report”.

10.

3.

Agricultural Statistics, 2008. Pradesh”

National Water Development Agency, 1999. “Water Balance Study of Upper Chambal Technical Study”, No.WB 41.

11.

4.

Central Ground Water Board, 2008-09. “Annual General Report”.

Sinha M.K., 2007. “Parbati – Kalisindh-Chambal link in its new shape to serve more people”. 12th National Water Convention, Puduchery, November, 2007.

5.

Census, 2011. “Department of Census”, Govt. of India

12.

6.

Chauhan M.K., 2004. “Book on Blue Water Plan for Malwa Region”.

K. Subramanyam, 2011. “Hydrology”. Ven Te Chao Hydrology. 

“Govt. of Madhya

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STATUS PAPER ON WATER SHORTAGE AND REQUIREMENT OF UPPER CHAMBAL SUB-BASIN OF MALWA REGION IN MADHYA