REPUBLIC OF ALBANIA MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT, FORESTRY AND WATER ADMINISTRATION
MONTENEGRO MINISTRY OF TOURISM AND ENVIRONMENT
LAKE SHKODER/SKADAR INTEGRATED ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT PROJECT
TERMS OF REFERENCE SOCIAL ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT I. BACKGROUND The Global Environmental Facility (GEF) has approved a grant of Mil US$USD 4.55 to implement Lake Shkodra/Skadar Integrated Ecosystem Management Project (LSIEMP). LSIEMP is financed through a Global Environment Facility Specific Investment Grant and government budget contributions. The key project development objective is: To maintain and enhance the long-term economic value and environmental services of Lake Skadar-Shkodra/Skadar and its natural resources. The Project has three components: 1) Understanding and Managing the Lake Skadar-Shkodra/Skadar Ecosystem that will focus on transboundary capacity building, improved information and coordination for transboundary decision-making; 2) Enhancing Sustainable Use of the Lake Ecosystem that aims to promote the adoption of more sustainable approaches to economic development of the lake and its natural resources focusing mainly on tourism and fishing where there is a high potential for economically significant sustainable use; 3) Investments to Protect Water Quality which will support investments to help address existing sources of pollution identified in the TDA. The project will not be able to achieve its environmental management and conservation aims without changing the way Lake-related natural resources are accessed and used and when the primary users of those resources are given a stake in the design and implementation of management practices. Therefore the Process Framework, outlines the strategy for building community-level awareness and support for the new resource regulatory regime developed under the LSIEMP for the Lake, it describes provisions for the direct participation of adversely affected resource users in the targeted livelihood restoration and larger economic development activities foreseen under the GEF and related projects, it refers to the goals and principles established for public engagement and participation in the LSIEMP as a whole. It also provides information on conflict-resolution and participatory monitoring mechanisms to be established in connection with the expected livelihood enhancement activities. The World Bankâ€™s policy on involuntary resettlement, OP/BP 4.12, paragraph 3.(b) makes it clear that the policy applies when restriction of access to legally designated protected areas has the potential to result in adverse impacts on the livelihoods of the affected persons. It goes on to clarify that restriction of access covers restrictions on the use of resources imposed on people living outside a PA, or on those who continue living inside
the PA during and after project implementation (OP 4.12, footnote 9). The required response is the preparation of a Process Framework, as a specialized instrument describing the processes and procedures to be followed specifically in such cases. LSIEMP will pursue an integrated approach to land and water management issues. This will involve promoting cross-sectoral, multi-stakeholder cooperation for improved environmental quality in the binational Shkoder/Skadar Lake region. This means it will endeavor not simply to consult with them, but to engage them as partners in decisionmaking, with respect to the determination of eligibility criteria, the design and implementation of targeted livelihood restoration measures, and the monitoring of relevant activities. A preliminary Social Economic Assessment has been prepared during the project preparation. Relevant data on social aspect such as stakeholders and interested groups, participatory strategy, main problems and conflicts in the area, population etc have been collected. An overview of economic assessment such as employment and unemployment, income and poverty, agriculture, land use, handicraft, recreation and tourism, fishing etc have been collected and analyzed. However the social economic assessments conducted during the Project preparation did not succeed in establishing a specific baseline data with a common approach for both countries therefore there is a need for generating such a baseline right at the project start. So far implementation of activities from both countries on both sides of the lake has not been harmonized. There is great need to harmonize all future activities so that Lake Shkoder/Skadar can be considered as a single and unique ecosystem and can be managed jointly in a sustainable way. II. PROJECT AREA The Project covers Lake Shkodra/Skadar and its immediate lakeshores on both sides, in Albania and Montenegro. III. OBJECTIVES OF SOCIAL ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT (SEA) The objective of the SEA is: 1. To implement a thorough social economic overview of the Project area. This socioeconomic review will create a baseline which will enable measuring of the Project objectives, outcomes and results set jointly by both countries.. 2. To identify and quantify the socio-economic implications of LSIEMP in the protection and development of the protected area in an effective, timely and cost-efficient manner. 3. To identify and assess the effects that LSIEMP implementation can have upon the people and economy in the PA (both positive and negative. 4. To assess the way the primary users of the Lakeâ€™s resources are involved in the management practices, to assess the participation of adversely affected resource users in the targeted livelihood restoration and economic development activities, to provide recommendations on potential conflict-resolution.
5. To identify and assess the activities of government agencies, communities and other stakeholders who will be involved in planning and implementing LSIEMP activities in the Lake Shkodra/Skadar protected area and note key points for project implementation. IV. SCOPE OF THE SOCIAL ECONOMIC ASSESSMENT The socio-economic assessment should: Be consistent with the principles and goals of the LSIEMP Be based on the LSIEMP documents, reports and plans Conduct a socio-economic surveys utilizing the same instrument and scope in both countries Seek maximum community consultation and involvement throughout the information gathering and assessment process. Concentrate its assessment on the Project area, but should also assess the linkages and effects upon the local/nearby communities. Specifically the scope of this SEA includes: a) Social and economic data on project stakeholders and community groups in the Project area in Albania and Montenegro, including identification of potential positive and negative impacts of the project on the population and livelihood strategies ; b) Demography of the immediate settlements along the lakeshores, trends in all settlements of Shkodra/Skadar Lake; c) Principal livelihood strategies and economic activities of the residents (tourism, fishing, land use and other resource use), including business activities and extent to which these contribute to sustainable economic development and environmental protection; d) Level of public participation in the decision procedures, planning and policies on the protection and development of resources; e) level of public awareness of and public sources of information regarding resource protection and use; f) legal and institutional framework for public participation in environmental protection andsustainable natural resource management., 1. Overview of the social and economic context. Existing project studies, surveys, reports and materials will be used to analyze the social aspect and provide the background as a desk review to the primary research. The World Bank’s materials (PRSP, Poverty Analysis), and locally and donors’ produced reports and analyses will be used for the desk review. The countries’ anti-poverty strategies should be reviewed within the context of the project objectives, key stakeholders, and some vulnerable groups. The social aspect: A special focus should be on various groups, livelihood strategies, reliance on lake resources, extent of previous participation, sources of information on which the community relies, perceptions of various initiatives to involve them in sustainable lake management.. The survey should also include trends in all settlements of Skadar Lake, social services available (education, health, water and electricity supply, phone/internet facilities etc), community services and activities, current demographic analysis, population profile, ethnic structure, households, gender, migration, Potential opportunities and risks of various social groups should be mapped. The economic aspect: labor force, and household incomes, employment and unemployment, economic activities of the population: fishing, hunting, agriculture tourism, recreational activities, historical sites, cultural heritage, illegal building, infrastructure development and infrastructure problems, tourism facilities, road infrastructure, water supply and wastewater system etc: Environmental status
(polluters, sewage, solid waste dump sites, etc. Households relying on fishing, tourism, agriculture and other resource use, as main economic activities, households having these as second activities, annual incomes etc. Tourism: Level of tourism utilization, direct and indirect incomes, existing tourist capacities in Lake Shkodra/Skadar/Skadar, percentage of population committed in tourist activities, rate of income in each tourist activity, existing strategies of tourism development for the Lake, urban plans for tourist designated areas, tourism diversity, involvement of the local inhabitants in public campaigns, educational programs for family tourism, existing tourist accommodation facilities etc. Fishing:The objective is to provide baseline information about fishing that can be used to assess project progress and outcomes. The main elements would be to provide detailed overview of fish situation and populations, fish catches, fishing means and equipments, legal and illegal fishermen and fishing methods used in Lake Shkodra/Skadar, fish processing and marketing, fishing licences, actual fish monitoring etc. Basic information should be provided regarding quantities of fish caught on average daily and annually, time spent fishing, time spent selling, sources of information on fishing, has the fishing catch declined, stayed the same, increased? If the fishing catch has declined then to what factors do fishermen attribute the decline in catch (increased number of fisherman, fewer numbers of fish, more illegal fishing, decreased enforcement of illegal fishing etc)? What is the general response to the declined catch? Incomes from fishing activities, what percent of fishermen household consumption is based on the fish they catch, what are other incomeproducing activities in which fishermen are interested and list possibilities, what are the obstacles to engage in these activities (lack of knowledge/information, time, capital etc), basic demographic information about the number of members of the household, sources of household income/ primary income earning activities, different sources of income how much (in percentages) each source of income contributes to the household total etc. How common do fishermen consider illegal fishing on Lake Shkoder? What are the forms of illegal fishing that occur in Lake Shkoder/Skadar? What actions should be taken to limit illegal fishing? The consultant should give recommendations for this. Laws on fishing, fishing organizations, cooperation of fishermen with local authorities, fish traders, business and other social organizations shoulf be enlisted and their relevant roles should be described. The purpose of the project (improving management of the lake's resources for environmental improvement and sustainable economic development) and the expected local benefits should be explained to the fishermen. Other Resource use: Actual trends resource use such as in land use, lakeshore agriculture, forestry, water use etc, Incomes and economic benifits. 2. Identification of major stakeholders and interest groups, their needs, voices and participation. Identification of major stakeholder groups should involve stakeholder mapping in terms of level of interest/intensity, ability to influence outcome, engagement, their willingness to be involved in the project related activities and the lake management and protection. This will include: List of key stakeholders relevant to Project implementation, Main focus should be on governmental agencies, local officials especially the Municipalities of Shkodra/Skadar and Podgorica as very important stakeholders, local community leaders, NGO groups,
research groups, mass media, regional agencies, interest groups (business, tourism, traditional artisan etc), resource user associations, their social characteristics, their relationships, their stake and participation in the project, their activities, their direct and indirect influence and impact on Shkodra/Skadar Lake and its natural resources, their level of awareness on environmental issues and protection of the Shkodra/Skadar Lake, extent and quality of their participation in the project, stakeholders with controversies, uncertainties, opposition, resistance or negative impact to Project concept and implementation. Stakeholder attitude and impact on the Protected Area: Main focus should be on the involvement of all interested structures and stakeholders in the protection of the Lake, their participation in public campaigns and information dissemination their knowledge and information of the processes envisioned by the project; the level of cooperation between local population and administrations responsible for the PA, between local governments and Park management authorities; level of understanding of the people living alongside the lakeshores on the importance of the ecosystem, their lifestyles and impact on the lakeâ€™s natural resources? A special focus should be on peopeâ€™s information, sources of information on which people rely, what do they trust, what are their preferences for receiving information, what organizations distribute information to them regularly, etc? 3. Institutional and legal framework. The focus will be on institutional framework and existing laws on Lake protection and conservation, fishing, hunting, illegal building, forestry, illegal logging, tourism, water use etc. Public institutions responsible for the protection and management of Lake Skadar-Shkoder, their capacities on lake protection and conservation, their capacity to communicate with citizens and other relevant actors, to cooperate with each other, to enforce laws, to provide and maintain databases, to provide regular information about their activities, their readiness and institutional capacity to provide services envisioned in the project, to what extent the harmonization of the environmental and natural resource management regulations and practices with the EU environmental acquis has been achieved. This may include line ministries, research agencies, local governments, environmental agencies, local NGOs and community based institutions (formal and informal). Their voice, their needs and their priorities should be analyzed. Legal framework improvements will be assessed and suggested. 4. Cross-border Cooperation and existing institutional framework; Level and fields of transboundary cooperation between Albania and Montenegro in the field of Lake and natural resource protection, tourism development, fishery, pollution reduction; mechanisms for joint protection and management of the lake, actual monitoring systems. 5. Recommendations: The consultant should provide recommendations for each of the social economic aspects especially those related to the project activities and outcomes V. SUGGESTED METHODOLOGY The Consultants should prepare an Inception Report, reviewing research conducted to date and outlining the combination of quantitative and qualitative methods to be used, including survey instruments, focus groups, and in-depth interviews. International expertise is
required in terms of overall guidance of the work and application of same approach for both countries. VI. REPORTING AND TIMEFRAME
The assignment will need 100 person working days and will be completed within a time frame of 9 months from the contract signing.
Inception report should be submitted 30 days after contract signing with the consultant. Inception report should include methodology for data collection, as well as preliminary table of contents. Any comments by all relevant parties should be submitted within 15 days.
Progress report should be submitted by consultant four months after contract signing, including presentation of ongoing work, as well as any possible obstacles during data collection and analysis. Any comments by all relevant parties should be submitted within 15 days.
Draft final Report should be submitted 7, 5 months after contract signing. Comments and suggestions from the relevant parties should be submitted within 15 days
Final report should be submitted 8, 5 months after contract signing. Any final comments by the all relevant parties should be provided within 7 days and the consultant should reflect them, within 8 days.
All reports should be prepared and submitted in English language. In addition to English, Progress and Final Reports should be submitted in Albanian and Montenegrin languages as well. Reports should be submitted to the Albanian Project Coordination Unit on behalf of both countries.
VII. QUALIFICATIONS: • • • •
A consultant company with recognized international experience in socio-economic analysis Demonstrated experience in survey design and implementation, including data entry,, data cleaning and analysis. Demonstrated ability to mobilize and manage surveys in the field Demonstrated experience in and knowledge of the social and economic analysis related to protected areas and natural resource management, including issues related to access of restriction to natural resources as handled Regional experience would be an advantage.