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Journal 9th Veterinary Public Health Journal by the International Veterinary Students Association, IVSA

IN THIS EDITION

The United Movement to Fight Against Neglected Tropical Diseases Bhavisha Patel 1

Climate change - a paradise for livestock parasites? Bartley, D.J., Skuce,9th P.J.,edition McNeilly, T.N. VPH Journal

Pastoralists as Stewards of the Environment Cornelia Heine, VSF Germany


Bryanna Andrews

Caroline Bulstra

Dear all, Climate change is becoming an increasingly important consideration in the health of ecosystems and the spread of disease, with global warming making it possible for vectors and the diseases they carry to spread to regions previously inaccessible to them. Both veterinary and human medicine must now race to combat newly-emerging diseases and diagnose new differentials as previous diseases adapt to their new niches. This issue of the journal looks at the way these changes have affected human and veterinary communities around the world, including new vectors, increased incidence of disease, and the introduction of novel diseases. We are grateful for the contributions from veterinary students and professionals around the world in presenting a global picture and for offering some insights on how we can best fight these problems. Thanks for reading! Best, Bryanna Mariel Andrews Publication Team, Standing Committee on One Health (SCOH) 2016 – 2017 Student at the Royal (Dick) School of Veterinary Medicine, University of Edinburgh, Scotland

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VPH Journal 9th edition


The VPH Journal is edited and published by the Standing Committee on One Health (SCOH), part of the International Veterinary Students Association (IVSA). 9th edition January 2017

SCOH 2016-2017 Chair Clara Buxbaum Secretary & Webmaster Katherina Turnbull Publications Team Bryanna Andrews Caroline Bulstra LoVPHO Coordinator Zuzana Mojžišová Committee Liaison Officer Samuel Williams Project Managers Breanna Beberman Gavin Gan

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VPH Journal 9th edition


In this issue

6 9 13 17 26 4

THE UNITED MOVEMENT TO FIGHT AGAINST NEGLECTED TROPICAL DISEASES By Bhavisha Patel, University of Bristol, United Kingdom

THE GAPS IN OUR KNOWLEDGE OF WILDLIFE DISEASE AND HOW TO REMEDY THIS By Carlin Senst, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway

PASTORALISTS AS STEWARDS OF THE ENVIRONMENT By Cornelia Heine Veterinarians Without Borders (VSF) Germany

CRIMEAN-CONGO HEMORRHAGIC FEVER: AN EMERGING THREAT TO PAKISTAN By Fatima Urooj, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pakistan

ANIMAL WELFARE ISSUES AND GLOBAL WARMING By Megan Rawlins, Royal Veterinary College,United Kingdom

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30 34 39 43 45 5

THE IMPACT OF CLIMATE CHANGE ON ANIMAL HEALTH By:Yuvraj Panth, IAAS Rampus Campus, Nepal

ONE HEALTH: ISSUES By Sulove Koirala, Agriculture and Forestry University, Nepal

CLIMATE CHANGE - A PARADISE FOR LIVESTOCK PARASITES? By Bartley, D.J., Skuce, P.J., McNeilly, T.N. University of Edinburgh; Roslin Institute

HOW ARE YOU INVOLVED IN ONE HEALTH ACTIVITIES? IVSA Nepal: Marching on the path of One Health By Ranjita Bastola

Analysis of forest disturbance dynamics in the Tatra Mountains using Landsat time series from 1986 to 2015 By Katja Kowalski Master student Geography at Humboldt University Berlin

VPH Journal 9th edition


The United Movement to Fight Against Neglected Tropical Diseases Bavisha Patel University of Bristol, United Kingdom Former Chair IVSA Standing Committee on Veterinary Education (SCoVE) Neglected tropical diseases (NTDs) are a group of bacterial, viral and parasitic diseases that are riddled among the besieged or low income populations in developing countries.
Of the many NTDs, some of which include: Onchocerciasis (river blindness), Lymphatic filariasis (elephantiasis) and Schistosomiasis (snail fever) and they all, to no surprise, thrive in conditions of poverty. NTDs affect more than 1 billion people on this earth. Unlike, Zika or Ebola, the media seems to bear no recognition to them, even when the estimated death toll is over 350,000. This fundamental public health toll proclaims an enormous disability burden of which among other things can cause blindness, epilepsy, chronic anaemia and disfiguring skin lesions. For example, leishmania is a deadly protozoa that causes permanent scar lesions on people that (among other places) spreads in Syrain refugee camps. This causes a viscous cycle of deprivation to the victim, families and communities who may not be able to earn a living or attend education. This puts a toll on the social and economic development of poor countries. But how have we got to this position and who’s fault is it and what should we do about it? A multi-targeted approach that combines mass drug administration, control of insect vectors, access to clean safe water, improved sanitation and education. Intersectorial collaboration between governments, health organisations and pharmaceuticals proves a strong partnership to commit to ending the NTD self-inflicted war against humanity.
Although we have done a lot now, interventions still need to be placed to educate the world that NTDs cause enormous suffering, social stigma, diabolical health expenditures and drive communities into viscous cycle of poverty. Making their elimination should be a priority.
So far, great benefit has come from drug donations. Such as public health social programs instigated by Pan American Health Organisation has started programmes to provide praziquantel to children to reduce schistosomiasis disease and increase life expectancy by 15 years in South America. Today there is a continent national plan supported by the standards set by WHO and the significant drug donation from Merck pharmaceuticals, of 250 million parasite control tablets. Logistics of drug distribution to rural communicates and then to families is the next hurdle. Schistosomiasis, as briefly mentioned, is one of the NTDs we need to stop. It is a parasite harvesting in contaminated water that infects people. With 90% of cases still in Africa.
For vector-borne diseases cure is not possible and focus should be centred on managing the environment. Vector borne diseases (VBD) are becoming a widespread epidemic in many countries. For instance, Dengue fever has become an epidemic due to 6

VPH Journal 9th edition


migration of the Aedes aegypti mosquito vector to subtropical climates of South Europe. The mosquito has been found in some parts of North Europe but no clinical infections have been reported as yet. Leishmania is a protozoal infection that causes disheartening skin lesions and ulcers and affects more than 200,000 people. All because of the spread of the vector sandfly targeting refuse populations. The Mentor initiative are paving the way to promoting public and political commitment to distributing insecticide-treated sand fly nets, curtains and insect repellant spray. The flying progress in developing vaccines sheds some hope into counteracting this devastating disease, but this can only be useful if resources and finances are channeled to the underdogs of the urban population where the disease thrives. There is no shortage of medication it is just adapting the logistics to ensure this medication is distributed to the people and used appropriately. We seem to have stumbled over a logistical hole. Immersive Public and government collaboration can ensure ready access of drugs to even the most remote communities. Hay, if I can pick up a coca cola in the tiniest village in Kenya then with some perseverance health care supplies can reach there too. But if they would prefer a coke to a potentially life saving drug, then its the duty of the ministries of health and education to educate community leaders on how treatment can improve the lives of children. With this in mind, schools are a convenient place to deliver safe and ready access to their right for life-saving preventative and curative health care. The sustainable development goals ‘to leave no one behind’ encompasses many issues including war, refugees, poverty and health. NTDs reinforce a cycle of the world’s poorest and most marginalised populations. But it is a basic human right for everyone to deserve quality health care regardless of financial circumstances. Britain has been a champion model in supporting the relief from NTDs. It is now becoming urgent for governments, to take ownership of health programmes and to improve the environment by services such as water, hygeine and sanitation.

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The Vets role in all this. There are some NTDs that are directly transmitted by animals including Rabies. It is our duty to join forces with other healthcare professionals to tackle global animal/ public health issues such as sustainable food production, minimising stray animal populations, controlling epidemic/endemic diseases and poverty reduction. There are Veterinary led programmes such as ‘Vets Without Borders’ instigating their own veterinary and student involved projects on tackling animal/public health issues, such as in Uganda they aim to reduce poverty among families affected by HIV by participating in the goat pass-on project. Or working in Vietnam to help to strengthen the resilience of the poorest farmers by offering them a fair trade deal. There are many global health projects out there to face a variety of challenges from Trochoma infection causing trichiasis causing 3 million people to wait eyelid surgery (posterior lamellar surgery) to prevent blindness; or to the active control of world hunger by reducing 40% of crop yield loss due to pests and diseases per year. Just to note, it is good to prevent NTDs but we also need to prevent this from the start and ensure people have enough food to maintain healthy lives. The Food Agricultural Organisation (FAO) recently celebrated World Food Day on the 14th October with a focus on climate change. The international community must also support countries to adapt to climate change. The UN Paris agreement is the start to unity in achieving food security for productive sustainable agriculture and also reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Global health is becoming more of a valued and important topic encompassing the health, social and economic challenges we currently face in the world. It is a united force among governments, public and health care professionals to end the war of NTDs and to promote sustainability in all aspects of life. 8

VPH Journal 9th edition


The gaps in our knowledge of wildlife disease and how to remedy this Carlin Senst, Norwegian University of Life Sciences, Norway

INTRODUCTION

ment can impact these diseases. It is now understood

Billions of dollars are spent every year by, the Center

that host specificity of pathogens is rare, this is appa-

for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the World

rent in that over 75% of new human emergent infec-

Health Organization (WHO), and individual govern-

tious diseases (EID) are zoonotic in origin and these

ments, in an effort to cure and control infectious di-

EID events are on the rise in both human and wildlife

sease (WHO, 2014). Many of these efforts are reacti-

populations (Karesh et al. 2012).

onary in nature and focus solely on human medicine and curative measures that often fall short of desired

In order to control and manage these diseases acade-

management and control goals (Webster et al 2016).

mics need to come together to challenge old assump-

This is partially due to our misunderstanding of how

tions and to better understand the way these diseases

diseases move through populations and how environ-

move through and across populations. This will enable

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actors at all levels involved in disease management

Pathogen and host dynamics are also changing due

to create holistic preventative strategies. Here I will

to environmental and climactic changes. Any change

highlight some examples of how an overly narrow

in these dynamics, such as loss of biodiversity or in-

view of zoonotic diseases have led to mismanage-

crease in population density of susceptible hosts, can

ment and will then make a case for utilizing the often

all lead to changing virulence of a pathogen. Not only

over-looked yet highly pervasive wildlife rehabilitati-

can these regional changes affect how diseases move

on and release centers as possible sources for future

through populations, but global climate change has

research into wildlife disease and management.

already been documented affecting epidemiological patterns (Patz et al 2005). This is a highly com-

CHALLENGING ASSUMPTIONS

plex factor but has been shown to have an effect on

To begin this discussion, we need to hone in on what

the spread of the zika virus (Bagoch et al. 2016; Paz

facets of our knowledge are outdated or where there

and Semenza, 2016) and the increased presence of

are holes in our understanding. One of the most cri-

trypanosoma in East Africa (Scasta, 2015). Changing

tical areas in which we must expand our understan-

ecosystem dynamics and anthropogenic changes are

ding of pathogens is in the arena of host specificity.

leading to the altering of the delicate balance of the

Historically, it was believed that many pathogens

host pathogen relationship and will continue to lead

were host specific; however, the more we look, the

to future EID events (Johnson et al. 2015). In order to

more plasticity we see in the ability of pathogens to

implement preventative management strategies, it is

infect multiple host species. This can be seen in the

important to highlight areas of disease hotspots and

introduction of avian malaria to the Hawaiian islands

attempt to reinstate natural and ecological checks

(Benning et al. 2002), tuberculosis spillover from hu-

and balances systems such as wetlands, biodiversity,

mans to great apes (Epstein and Price, 2009), virus

fire regimes, and trophic relationships just to name a

host switching in the forms of SARS and H1N1 (Hol-

few (Patz et al. 2004; Civitello et al. 2015).

lenbeck, 2016) and the guinae worm reemergence in central Africa (Callaway, 2016), just to name a few.

NEW OPPORTUNITIES

Pathogens of all kinds are highly adaptable and with

What is needed now is a greater research base that

ever-increasing contact between species (humans,

enlightens us on these complex facets of wildlife di-

wildlife, and domestic animals), there is going to be

seases. Wildlife pathogens are notoriously difficult

a continued increase in the number of zoonotic EIDs.

to survey and are nearly impossible to perform ex-

There is a need to further explore the sink/source dy-

perimental studies on in their natural environment

namics of pathogens as well as the role of key hosts

(Pedersen, 2015). This logistical issue has constrained

in transmission in all populations. With only 24% of

the essential foundation work that is required to fu-

wildlife populations having even a preliminary sur-

rther expand our ability to create and implement sus-

vey done on their corresponding pathogens, this is

tainable disease management strategies. One way

the area that calls for the most attention (Pedersen

to overcome this hurdle is to include an often-over-

& Fenton, 2007).

looked resource which is wildlife rehabilitation and

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VPH Journal 9th edition


release centers. These centers have the potential to

nagement is still in its infancy. In order to move beyo-

provide extensive insight into what pathogens natu-

nd reactionary measures, which are often not cost

rally occur in a wide range of species, as well as act as

effective or efficient on a large scale, there needs

a control mechanism for experimental studies (Pe-

to be further interdisciplinary studies across diverse

dersen, 2015). There is a drastic need for academics

academic fields (Pedersen & Fenton, 2007). There is a

to pay attention to these centers. Not only in order

need to expand our understanding of complex, mul-

to implement adaptive management techniques

tihost systems as well as how environmental factors

to a field that is notorious for its failures (Guy et al.

can impact these systems (Daszak et al. 2000). One

2013), but also because these centers offer a unique

possible source of this type of information are the nu-

opportunity to study wildlife pathogens.

merous wildlife rehab and release centers across the world. With the utilization of the unique and currently

These centers are so prolific, and are one of the few

over looked scientific potential at these centers, the-

areas where there is direct contact with a diverse

re could be a large push forward in the research being

number of wildlife species, that the IUCN has crea-

produced about wildlife disease. These centers have

ted a standard set of procedures for these centers to

access to many different species across many diffe-

follow in order to reduce the risk of spreading infec-

rent ecosystems and can be utilized to fill in many

tious disease (IUCN, 2013). These centers, if opera-

gaps in our knowledge. Filling in these gaps will allow

ted correctly and with the right support of the aca-

managers to implement long term, preventative di-

demic community, have massive potential to further

sease management strategies based on holistic and

our understanding of wildlife diseases across many

multidisciplinary research (Webster et al. 2016). In

different species and different ecosystems. Not only

order to accomplish this, participants from diverse

can surveys be done on animals during intake and

fields will have to come together on an equal playing

initial quarantine, but also with appropriate and in-

field in an effort to build an accurate and extensive

tensive monitoring, released animals can offer valu-

database of known wildlife diseases which will be the

able insight into naturally occurring pathogens in the

basis for future studies and management practices.

release environments through experimental studies. These centers are not the only answer to how we can

REFERENCES

further our understanding of wildlife pathogens, but

Benning, T. L., LaPointe, D., Atkinson, C. T., & Vitousek, P. M.

they are already operational and only require an in-

(2002). Interactions of climate change with biological invasions

terest from the academic community to become lar-

and land use in the Hawaiian Islands: Modeling the fate of ende-

ge producers of scientific information.

mic birds using a geographic information system. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences of the United States of America,

CLOSING REMARKS

99(22), 14246-14249. doi:10.1073/pnas.162372399

While humans have been aware of diseases and

Bogoch, I. I., Brady, O. J., Kraemer, M. U. G., German, M., Creatore,

have attempted to prevent the spread of pathogens

M. I., Kulkarni, M. A., . . . Khan, K. (2016). Anticipating the interna-

since time immemorial, the science of disease ma-

tional spread of Zika virus from Brazil. Lancet, 387(10016), 335-336.

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doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(16)00080-5

Karesh, W. B., Dobson, A., Lloyd-Smith, J. O., Lubroth, J., Dixon,

Callaway, E. (2016). INFECTIOUS DISEASE Dogs thwart end to

M. A., Bennett, M., . . . Heymann, D. L. (2012). Zoonoses 1 Ecology

Guinea worm. Nature, 529(7584), 10-U14.

of zoonoses: natural and unnatural histories. Lancet, 380(9857),

Civitello, D. J., Cohen, J., Fatima, H., Halstead, N. T., Liriano, J., Mc-

1936-1945.

Mahon, T. A., . . . Rohr, J. R. (2015). Biodiversity inhibits parasites:

Patz, J. A., Campbell-Lendrum, D., Holloway, T., & Foley, J. A.

Broad evidence for the dilution effect. Proceedings of the Natio-

(2005). Impact of regional climate change on human health. Natu-

nal Academy of Sciences of the United States of America, 112(28),

re, 438(7066), 310-317. doi:10.1038/nature04188

8667-8671. doi:10.1073/pnas.1506279112

Patz, J. A., Daszak, P., Tabor, G. M., Aguirre, A. A., Pearl, M., Ep-

Daszak, P., Cunningham, A. A., & Hyatt, A. D. (2000). Wildlife eco-

stein, J., . . . Working Grp Land Use Change, D. (2004). Unhealthy

logy - Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife - Threats to biodiver-

landscapes: Policy recommendations on land use change and in-

sity and human health. Science, 287(5452), 443-449. doi:10.1126/

fectious disease emergence. Environmental Health Perspectives,

science.287.5452.443

112(10), 1092-1098. doi:10.1289/ehp.6877

Epstein, J. H., & Price, J. T. (2009). The Significant but Understu-

Paz, S., & Semenza, J. C. (2016). El Nino and climate change-con-

died Impact of Pathogen Transmission from Humans to Animals.

tributing factors in the dispersal of Zika virus in the Americas? Lan-

Mount Sinai Journal of Medicine, 76(5), 448-455. doi:10.1002/

cet, 387(10020), 745-745. doi:10.1016/s0140-6736(16)00256-7

msj.20140

Pedersen, A. B., & Fenton, A. (2007). Emphasizing the ecology in

Guy, A. J., Curnoe, D., & Banks, P. B. (2013). A survey of current

parasite community ecology. Trends in Ecology & Evolution, 22(3),

mammal rehabilitation and release practices. Biodiversity and

133-139. doi:10.1016/j.tree.2006.11.005

Conservation, 22(4), 825-837. doi:10.1007/s10531-013-0452-1

Pedersen, A. B., & Fenton, A. (2015). The role of antiparasite treat-

Hollenbeck, J. E. (2016). Interaction of the role of Concentrated Ani-

ment experiments in assessing the impact of parasites on wildlife.

mal Feeding Operations (CAFOs) in Emerging Infectious Diseases

Trends in Parasitology, 31(5), 200-211. doi:10.1016/j.pt.2015.02.004

(EIDS). Infection Genetics and Evolution, 38, 44-46. doi:10.1016/j.

Scasta, J. D. (2015). Fire and Parasites: An Under-Recognized Form

meegid.2015.12.002

of Anthropogenic Land Use Change and Mechanism of Disease Ex-

IUCN/SSC. (2013). Guidelines for Reintroductions and

posure. Ecohealth, 12(3), 398-403. doi:10.1007/s10393-015-1024-5

Other Conservation Translocations Version 1.0. Retrieved from

Webster, J. P., Gower, C. M., Knowles, S. C. L., Molyneux, D. H.,

Gland, Switzerland:

& Fenton, A. (2016). One health - an ecological and evolutionary

Johnson, C. K., Hitchens, P. L., Evans, T. S., Goldstein, T., Thomas,

framework for tackling Neglected Zoonotic Diseases. Evolutio-

K., Clements, A., . . . Mazet, J. K. (2015). Spillover and pandemic

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properties of zoonotic viruses with high host plasticity. Scientific

WHO. (2014). A Brief Guide to Emerging Infectious Diseases and

Reports, 5, 8. doi:10.1038/srep14830

Zoonoses. Retrieved from New Delhi, India:

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Pastoralists as Stewards of the Environment Cornelia Heine Veterinarians Without Borders (VSF) Germany Cattle farming is mentioned among the world’s worst environmentally destructive activities: it devours resources, pollutes groundwater and is a climate killer. These claims are all true – but not universally so. Pastoralists have managed their livestock in harmony with nature for millennia. As recent publications on the subject confirm, they actually help conserve ecosystems. Livestock-farming supplies high-quality food in areas where there is no or only little arable land. However, the people who rely on it are barely considered in the meat consumption debate, which considers mostly the industrialised world. It is wrong to judge cattle farming exclusively on the basis of carbon intensity (the carbon emissions generated per kilo of meat produced or per litre of milk). To the 800 million hungry people in the world – most of whom have no access to essential, high-quality animal proteins – such a debate must seem cynical. The discussion on the environmental burden of ever-gro-

The daily meat intake recommended by the World

wing meat and dairy production focuses mostly on the

Health Organization WHO is 90 grammes a day. Whi-

western world with its highly developed, industrial-

le US citizens consume three times that amount on

scale livestock farming and the methane emissions as-

average, the average Botswanan, for example, eats

sociated with it. Two things tend to be forgotten:

less than half, according to Jimmy Smith (2015) of the

• First, a large share of global cattle, camel and goat

International Livestock Research Institute (ILRI) in

farming is extensive and has helped stabilise and di-

Nairobi.

versify ecosystems for millennia. • Second, livestock is a vitally important resource for nearly 3 billion people on the planet.

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Many forums tend to neglect the role that small farmers and pastoralists can – and should – play in the

VPH Journal 9th edition


Pastoralists help in many ways to preserve ecosystems and food security.

provision of animal proteins, a vital requirement. This

PASTORALISM HELPS PROTECT THE ENVIRON-

is so even against the backdrop of steadily rising glo-

MENT

bal demand for livestock products (Smith, 2015). The IUCN/UNEP report estimates that there are nearMoreover, pastoralism does not just supply meat and

ly 500 million pastoralists worldwide. In sub-Saharan

milk for millions of people worldwide; it is also one

Africa alone, nomadic herders account for 16 % of the

of the most sustainable and environmentally benign

population. In countries such as Somalia and Mauri-

forms of livestock farming. It improves soil quality,

tania, they even make up the majority of the people.

preserves biodiversity, keeps nutrient cycles intact

The billion animals they own supply meat and milk,

and helps maintain regional food security, especially

horn and hides as well as provide muscle power for

in the global South. This is increasingly acknowledged

haulage and transport.

by international institutions and actors. A recent study commissioned by the International Union for the

J. Davies (2012) notes that pastoralists and their prac-

Conservation of Nature (IUCN) and the United Nati-

tices have contributed significantly to food security

ons Environment Programme (UNEP) concludes that

and the agricultural value added in many regions for

pastoralism could play a key role in the transition to a

thousands of years. This is because they make pro-

green, environmentally sustainable global economy.

ductive use of both arid areas and inaccessible moun-

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tain valleys. The savannah and steppe ecosystems

When foraging for food becomes difficult, they move

that are used for grazing make up nearly a quarter of

on with their animals.

the planet’s land area. Over time, those ecosystems have developed with the ungulates grazing them. The

Over the centuries, the selective breeding strategies

herds and the ecosystems have become interdepen-

adopted by pastoralists have produced animals that

dent: the animals have shaped pastoral ecosystems

suit local conditions and have great resistance to cer-

and their biodiversity, and the rangelands have sha-

tain diseases, drought or parasites. Drylands, where

ped the evolution of the grazing animals.

most pastoralists live and work, maintain 46 % of global livestock diversity.

Pastoralism itself has evolved over millennia. Nomadic herders have developed complex management

By producing local livestock breeds, pastoralists pre-

systems and cultural norms that guarantee sustaina-

serve not only regional biodiversity. They also pass on

ble and efficient use of resources. Ultimately, the pas-

important traditional expertise in livestock manage-

toral lifestyle is so closely linked to the preservation

ment, breeding and health. It is interesting to note

of biodiversity that pastoralists can fairly be described

in this context that 82 % of global livestock products

as stewards of the environment.

come from just 14 breeds.

Where pastoralism is practised efficiently, it pro-

Pastoral livestock breeds are uniquely adapted to the

tects and maintains grasslands and savannahs (IUCN/

environment and to the production conditions of pas-

UNEP, 2014). Even in Europe, the traditional routes

toralism. They remain productive under stress and

that wandering shepherds use are among the conti-

adversity and supply a range of useful products such

nents’ most bio-diverse places. Nomadic pastoralists

as meat, milk, hides and dung. If one considers tho-

have generations of experience in making sustainable

se breeds only in terms of a single characteristic, they

use of pastures: they know the limits of the rangeland,

often appear less attractive than they actually are.

they know the effect of every forage plant, and their

While there are other breeds, for example, that yield

lifestyle prevents lasting damage to the vegetation.

more meat or supply more milk, they would lack the

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ability to adapt to local conditions. They will cope less

International Institute for Environment and Develop-

well with drought, for instance, or have poorer defen-

ment concludes that the economic costs of the chan-

ces against pathogenic germs that are widely found in

ge of land use are often much greater than the be-

some areas.

nefits derived from arable farming. Furthermore, the IIED reports that the value added in such cases often

The loss of animal genetic resources is more serious

shifts – away from the local population and pastoral

than the loss of crop diversity because the gene pool

livestock keepers to powerful landlords of large-sca-

is much smaller and there are fewer wild relatives still

le holdings and international companies.

around. The IUCN/UNEP report points out that more than 200 breeds of cattle and around 180 breeds of

Smart and effective measures to support pastora-

sheep have become extinct and a further 210 cattle

lists are also needed in the light of the steady incre-

and 179 sheep breeds are considered “critical” or “en-

ase in the consumption of livestock products. Their

dangered”.

land rights should be strengthened. Moreover, they should be better connected to livestock markets and

Pastoral livelihoods are increasingly under pressure.

they should be more involved in political discourses.

Urbanisation, privatisation of rangelands, political marginalisation and conflicts are only a few of the

Cornelia Heine is a veterinarian and special advi-

problems that pastoralists have to contend with all

sor on pastoralism with Vétérinaires Sans Frontières

over the world. The problems are further compoun-

Germany.

ded – especially in the drylands of sub-Saharan Africa

cornelia.heine@togev.de

– by climate change, which impacts negatively on the resilience of nomadic peoples. Loss of pastoral land through conversion to arable farming is also a problem. Patches of wetland in dryland areas and fertile valleys in mountainous regions play a crucial role in pastoralist systems; they are a vital source of water and a seasonal refuge. If the resources they provide are not available at critical times, the entire land use/livestock management system is jeopardised. In a paper focusing on the issue of pastoralism versus irrigated agriculture (IIED, 2013), the

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VPH Journal 9th edition


Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever: An Emerging Threat to Pakistan Fatima Urooj University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, Pakistan ABSTRACT

VIRUS MORPHOLOGY

The Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) is

Genome of the virus is an enveloped negative-sen-

zoonotic viral disease transmitted by bite of infected

se, single-stranded RNA virus having three segments

ticks resulting into outbreaks of viral hemorrhagic fe-

(tri-segmented).(Goswami et al. 2014)

ver. Case fatality rate ranges of up to 40%. Disease

The virus has seven genotypes i.e. Africa-1, Africa-2,

can also be transmitted to humans from close con-

Africa-3, Europe-1, Europe-2, Asia-1 and Asia-2. In

tact with the blood, body secretions and body fluids

Pakistan, especially in Balochistan province, genetic

or organs of infected persons. CCHF is endemic in the

analysis of the CCHFV has confirmed the presence of

regions of Africa, the Balkans, the Middle East, Asia,

Asia-1 and Asia-2 genotypes (Aslam et al. 2016)

and in countries south of the 50th parallel north. Vaccination is not available commercially yet, for either

INCUBATION PERIOD

humans or for animals.

After a tick bite, it usually takes 1-3 days to show signs and symptoms whereas IP is 5–6 days if person

INTRODUCTION

is exposed to infected blood or tissues. The incuba-

In 1944, this disease was first characterized in the regi-

tion period can reach a maximum of up to 13 days.

on of Crimea, and thus it was given the name Crimean

The amount of time is particularly influenced by the

hemorrhagic fever. Later in 1969 it was recognized as

viral load, route of infection and source of infection

the cause of illness in the Congo, so the current name

(Mamuchishvili et al. 2015).

Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever (CCHF) was assigned (Simpson et al. 1967; Goswami et al. 2014)

HOST RANGE The disease has wide host range of wild and domestic

ETIOLOGY

animals such as cattle, sheep and goats. Many birds

CCHF is a tick-borne viral infection. Both animals and

are resistant to infection with the exception of ostri-

human are affected by Nairovirus of family Bunyaviri-

ches (Swanepoel et al. 1987).

dae (Donets et al. 1977) 17

VPH Journal 9th edition


GEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION In the initial years after the virus was first described in 1967, a majority of cases were reported from the former Soviet Union (Crimea, Astrakhan, Rostov, Uzbekistan, Kazakhstan, Tajikistan) and Bulgaria (Hoogstraal 1979; Watts et al. 1988). In the years that followed, outbreaks were reported from parts of Africa such as the Democratic Republic of the Congo, Uganda, and Mauritania(Saluzzo et al. 1985; Swanepoel VECTORS AND RESERVOIRS

et al. 1987). A significant number of cases were also

Ticks acts as vectors and carry the infection from ani-

reported from Middle Eastern countries such as Iraq

mal to animal or from animal to human. 31 different

(Al-Tikriti et al. 1981), the United Arab Emirates (UAE)

species of ticks belonging to genera Haemaphysalis

(Schwarz et al. 1997),and Saudi Arabia (Karti et al.

and Hyalomma have been identified from which virus

2004). In the previous decade, most cases have been

has been isolated (Zavitsanou et al. 2009; Bente et al.

reported from Pakistan (Sheikh et al. 2005), Iran (Sha-

2013). Livestock animals have been found with high ti-

rifi-Mood et al. 2009), Bulgaria (Papa et al. 2004), Tur-

ters of virus in blood but still they did not show signs

key (ErgĂśnĂźl et al. 2004; Bakir et al. 2005), and also

and symptoms.(Hussain et al. 2016)

India (from the outbreak in Gujarat) The virus has been reported in an extensive area ran-

MODE OF TRANSMISSION

ging from South Africa through southern Europe,

CCHF is a zoonotic tick-borne infection that can be

Eurasia, and into parts of western China. It is endemic

spread to human from infected animal mainly through

to Africa, the Balkans, the Middle the East, and Asia.

direct contact with infectious blood or tissue of ani-

Currently Pakistan is threatened with an outbreak of

mals after slaughtering. It can also be spread the bite

CCHF and the disease has become endemic (Saleem

of an infectious hyalomma tick (Kemp et al. 2014). No-

et al. 2009).

socomial infections are common human-to-human transmission resulting from close contact with infec-

CURRENT SCENARIO IN PAKISTAN

tious blood, organs, body secretions, and fluids. Inap-

The first case of CCHF was reported in 1976, in a gene-

propriate disinfection of medical equipment, reuse of

ral hospital of Rawalpindi when a patient was admit-

needles, and contamination of other medical supplies

ted in the hospital with abdominal pain, haemateme-

results in hospital-borne infection (Hasan et al. 2014).

sis (vomiting of blood), and melena (Alam et al. 2013)

Milk from an infected animal can also be a source.

but a dramatic rise in incidences was observed since 2000 with annual number of cases being 50-60.

RISK OF EXPOSURE

the number of cases has been highest in June and

Veterinary staff, animal breeders and handlers, staff in

October, but cases do occur around the year. During

abattoirs, and health care staff are at high risk if expo-

2012, disease early warning system (DEWS) received

sed to animals directly

a total of 68 CCHF alerts concerning 141 suspected

18

VPH Journal 9th edition


and 49 laboratory-confirmed human cases causing in

town of the Federally Administered Tribal Areas of

16 deaths (Case Fatality Rate: 33%).

Pakistan.this data confirms that currently the disease

However, during 2013 a total of 150 human samples

is endemic to most of the regions of Pakistan.

were received by the National Institute of Health for

From 30 March to 20 July 2014, a total of 42 cases

CCHF testing by September 30th. Out of these sam-

of Crimean-Congo haemorrhagic fever, including 10

ples, 60 were positive and 12 sampled patients died

deaths (case-fatality rate: 24%) have been reported

(Case Fatality Rate 8%). On epidemiological analysis,

across the country. Of these reported infections, 22

the maximum number of cases was traced back to ani-

cases have been laboratory-confirmed.

mals in several districts of Balochistan including Quet-

In 2016, a surgeon from Bahawalpur hospital died af-

ta, Zhob, Killa Saifullah, Killa Abdullah, Pishin, Loralai,

ter completing a surgery on a patient infected with

and Musa Khel. The province Balochistan is the largest

CCHF. This leads to create a wave of fear among me-

by means of area but smallest by means of population.

dical staff and people as well.

Moreover, this provinceis being considered important

(Data retrieved from official guidelines published by

as it is the main area where CPEC (China Pakistan Eco-

National Institute Of Health, link given at the end of

nomic Corridor) is started. Likewise, a number of pa-

references). To recapitulate the number of cases, a ta-

tients found to be positive in different cities of other

ble is constructed below in order to better understand

provinces like Karachi, Rawalpindi, Multan, D. I. Khan,

the no. of cases occurred since 2012-2014 (data taken

Mansehra, Peshawar, Landi Kotal, and recently from

from WHO,2014 surveillance-forecasting-response

Abbottabad also possessed history of contact and sl-

page, linked down at the end)

aughtering animals. All the mentioned cities are the main and big cities of their respective provinces with the exception of Landi Kotal which is one the small Human infections of Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever reported from various provinces in Pakistan, 2012-2014 Province

2012

2013

2014*

Cases

Deaths Cases Deaths

Cases

Deaths

AJK

0

0

1

0

1

0

Sindh

7

3

2

1

0

0

Punjab

8

3

18

5

4

3

Islamabad

0

0

4

1

4

3

Khyber Pakhtunkhwa

9

5

9

4

8

0

Balochistan

38

7

66

9

17

1

Total

62

18

100

20

34

7<

* Up to 20 July 2014. Cases include both laboratory-confirmed and suspected cases. (WHO, 2014)

19

VPH Journal 9th edition


STEPS TAKEN BY GOVERNMENT AND L&DD PA-

VETERINARY STUDENTS ORGANIZING CAMPS

KISTAN

FOR CCHF IN COLLABORATION WITH IVSA, PA-

The Government of Pakistan is focusing on research;

KISTAN

the livestock and dairy development department of Go-

Media campaigns were also organized by students

vernment of Punjab has developed guidelines to aware

where students were interviewed and they spread

people about the disease. Eid-ul-Azha season (a reli-

information about congo virus to people. moreover,

gious event of Muslims when they slaughter livestock

both male and female vets conducted extension ser-

animals as a sacrifice and give away the meat to poor

vice campaigns at different villagers to make farmers

and relatives) is period of high risk for the transmission

aware about the deadly virus and prevention strate-

of the CCHFV from animals to the human (Jamil et al.

gies.

2005). During the recent Eid-ul-Adha , L&DD Pakistan created check posts at the entrance and exit points of

ROLE OF UNIVERSITY OF VETERINARY AND

the major cities where the animals were sprayed with

ANIMAL SCIENCES

anti-tick chemicals like cypermethrin in order to pre-

The University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences is

vent reaching ticks to main animal stocks.

one of the Asiaâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s best veterinary university(among top 10 by HEC ranking). The institute played a vital role in

ROLE OF VETERINARY STUDENTS

providing diagnostic facilities for research purposes

Veterinary students also played an important role and

for CCHF. One laboratory was confined for this pur-

took part in several campaigns to make people aware

pose and a group of researchers worked hard, follo-

about the disease. Several camps were organized at lo-

wing the antigen- and antibody-capture ELISA tech-

cal cattle and goat markets where animals were injec-

niques on the serum and plasma samples collected

ted with ivermectin to treat tick infestation.

from wide range of geographical areas of Pakistan.

Dipping of animals in diluted chemicals

Veterinary students organizing camps for CCHF in collaboration with IVSA, Pakistan

20

VPH Journal 9th edition


SEASONALITY

and diathesis that comprise petechial conjunctival he-

The majority of cases occur all through Fall and Spring

morrhage. Blood begins to ooze out from nose (epis-

seasons because the humidity aids tick reproduction,

taxis), be present in vomit (hematemesis), occur with

making animals more susceptible to CCHF through

cough (hemoptysis), and stool becomes black in color

increased numbers of ticks.

(melena). Spleen and liver may become oversized in certain patients (Vashakidze and Mikadze 2015). Case

PATHOGENESIS

fatality rate is 40-60%. In severe cases, death occurs

Still pathogenesis of the disease in humans is not well

as a result of multi-organ failure, disseminated intra-

understood(Burt et al. 1997)

vascular coagulation, and circulatory shock. Acute

but studies indicates that virus multiplies within the

respiratory distress syndrome and diffuse alveolar

larval and adult stages in the host tick and it can also

hemorrhage, followed by systemic inflammatory re-

be spread from one generation to the next, meaning

action, have also been reported during hemorrhagic

that the ticks act as vectors for disease as well as re-

manifestations.

servoirs of the virus through vertical transmission. Most Hyalomma species ticks are multi-host and use

C.

CONVALESCENT PHASE

larger vertebrates as the host for the adult stage of

If disease does not lead to death in hemorrhagic pha-

their life cycle .

se, which is quite rare, the patient enters into convalescent period 10-20 days after the onset of illness.

STAGES OF INFECTION

Patients may have a weak pulse, increased heart rate

The disease has three stages:

(tachycardia), deafness, amnesia, and alopecia(Baj-

A.

Pre-hemorrhagic phase

pai and Nadkar 2011).

B.

Hemorrhagic phase

C.

Convalescent phase

DIAGNOSIS Diagnosis can be made by several tests including:

A.

PRE-HEMORRHAGIC PHASE

• Enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA)

Symptoms include pyrexia, myalgia (pain in a muscle

• Antigen detection (ELISA antigen capture)

or group of muscles), headache, nausea, abdominal

• Antibody detection ELISA (IgG and IgM)

pain, diarrhea followed by lowered blood pressure

• Real-time polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR)

(hypotension), decreased heart rate (bradycardia),

• Serum neutralization

increased respiration (tachypnea), and inflammati-

• Virus isolation by cell culture.

on of conjunctiva and pharynx along with cutaneous

• Immunohistochemical staining (viral antigen in

flushing or rashes. This lasts for 4-5 days and progres-

formalin-fixed tissues are seen)

ses to hemorrhagic phase(Appannanavar and Mishra 2011; Kaya et al. 2011)

PREVENTION AND CONTROL MEASURES TAKEN IN PAKISTAN

B.

HEMORRHAGIC PHASE

• Use of acaricides to kill ticks. Animal dipping in an

The hemorrhagic phase is usually short, has a rapid

insecticide solution is recommended.(Leblebiciog-

course, and includes signs of progressive hemorrhage

lu et al. 2014)

21

VPH Journal 9th edition


• Local Community should avoid tick-infested areas especially when ticks are active (spring to fall). • To reduce exposure to ticks, completely cover body and regularly examine clothing and skin for ticks, and apply tick repellent such as diethyltoluamide (Deet®, Autan®) to the exposed areas of skin or permethrin(Yadav et al. 2015).

patient, hospital clothing, and the medical items used for patients. • All reusable instruments must be de-contaminated and autoclaved. • Decontaminate non-living surfaces with household liquid bleach. • All samples for laboratory testing should be proper-

• Wear gloves and face mask if possible.

ly collected, labeled, and disinfected from outside

• Virus is killed at 56 ° C so always cook meat properly

with bleach and packed in triple container packing

before consuming.

with sealing.

• Bury the infected animal or patient after death due

• After the patient leaves the medication room, all

to CCHF according to recommended protocol(Za-

surfaces should be cleaned with liquid bleach to kill

vitsanou et al. 2009).

the virus and the room should be fumigated.

• Educate people about the disease, its mode of transmission, handling of ticks, handling and but-

VACCINATION

chering animals, and how to keep themselves safe.

No commercial vaccination is available because

(Flusin et al. 2010)

the virus possesses great genetic variation potenti-

• Bio-safety measures should be taken. Make isolation rooms for patients confirmed with CCHF.

al (Keshtkar-Jahromi et al. 2011; Jabbari et al. 2012; Mertens et al. 2013).

• • All equipment used on positive patients should

There are currently two vaccines against CCHFV which

be treated as infectious and should be autoclaved

have been developed. The first one is a formalin-inac-

before incinerating.

tivated vaccine which was developed in Bulgaria from

• All staff and attendants should wear disposable gloves, masks and gowns.

vaccine which was tested in mice. Both the vaccines

• Autoclave and then incinerate all secretions of the

22

infected suckling mouse brain. The second is a DNA are under research (shayan et. al 2016)

VPH Journal 9th edition


TREATMENT

not much efficacious (Buttigieg et al. 2014) Recently,

Treatment is mainly symptomatic and supportive, as

a DNA-based vaccine expressing the CCHFV M seg-

there is no established specific treatment

ment, which induce neutralizing antibodies in some

• Oral Ribavirin: 2 g loading dose

model organism such as mice has been under study

• 4 g/day in 4 divided doses (8 hourly) for 6 days

but it is not much effective still for commercial use

• 2 g/day in 4 divided doses for 6 days (Khan et al.

Another vaccine candidate using transgenic tobacco

1995; Athar et al. 2005).

leaves expressing Gn and Gc glycopropteins was fed

• In Pakistan it is available in the market as Ribazole®

to mice which induced IgG and IgA antibodies. This vaccine also needs advanced research and study for commercial use (Ghiasi et al. 2011)

FUTURE PERSPECTIVES

Smallpox virus vectored vaccines such as those based

The intravenous passive transfer of anti-CCHFV im-

on Modified Vaccinia virus Ankara (MVA), have the

munoglobulin is expected to be an effective treat-

capacity to accommodate M segment of the CCHFV

ment for CCHF. These immunoglobulins can be pre-

genome and can be used to produce vaccine against

pared from sera collected from survivors are expected

CCHF (Buttigieg et al. 2014)

to become available in the near future but further studies are still required (Keshtkar-Jahromi et al. 2011).

CONCLUSION

A vaccine inactivated by chloroform treatment and

CCHF was always an imminent threat to Asia. Ho-

amplified in baby mice brain and the brains of those

wever, the threat has now become a reality with the

baby mice are subsequently crushed using a mortar

current outbreak in Pakistan. With the emergence of

and pestle, and the resulting solution is absorbed into

CCHF in Pakistan and the environmental suitability

aluminium hydroxide (Al(OH)3) before being admi-

for this lethal virus, the disease presents a big chal-

nistered to patients, has been used in Eastern Europe,

lenge for the whole veterinary and medical commu-

but is unlicensed by the European Medicines Agen-

nity. It reinforces the need for dynamic investigation

cy and US Food and Drug Administration (FDA) and

not only for existing pathogens but also for those that pose future threat. As there is no vaccine is available, the control of the tick populations is the sole precautionary measure. WEB PAGES • http://www.nih.org.pk/files/Guidelines/CCHF%20 guidelines%20September%202013.pdf • http://www.emro.who.int/surveillance-forecasting-response/surveillance-news/cchf-july-2014. html • https://www.cdc.gov/vhf/crimean-congo/pdf/factsheet.pdf

23

VPH Journal 9th edition


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VPH Journal 9th edition


Animal Welfare Issues and Global Warming Megan Rawlins, Royal Veterinary College,United Kingdom IVSA Animal Welfare Committee

Global warming is one of the biggest problems, if not the biggest problem, of our time. It is having a massive effect on animal welfare; both to do with the loss of habitats leading to the extinction of certain species, by having an impact on the migration patterns of animals and by causing an increased incidence of disease, to name a few.

26

VPH Journal 9th edition


The earth’s climate has always been changing; we have experienced ice ages and fluctuations of the earth’s temperature. However, since 1880 the Earth’s temperature has increased by around 0.8 degrees Celsius with two-thirds of the warming occurring since 1975 (1). This has led scientists to conclude that human activities have caused this increase; with events such as the Industrial revolution and increased car use releasing a large amount of CO2 into the atmosphere. CO2 alongside other greenhouse gases such as methane causes global warming as these molecules stay in the ozone layer after they have been emitted, meaning that they trap the radiation from the sun which passes through. This causes the so-called ‘Greenhouse effect’ in which the radiation is trapped and reflects back to earth causing its temperature to increase. This increase in global temperature has had many environmental effects; including increases in sea levels; global sea level rose about 17 centimeters (6.7 inches) in the last century with last decades’ rate nearly double that of last century (2). There has also been vast glacial retreat in areas including the Alps, Alaska and Andes (3). These changes have led to animal welfare issues due to the loss of habitats putting many animals in danger of extinction. WWF lists polar bears, snow leopards and mountain gorillas as endangered due to environmental changes accentuated and caused by global warming. The loss of these species is obviously an animal welfare issue and their loss has the potential to damage ecosystems and food chains. The polar bear is one of the most common animals discussed with regards to climate change and potential extinction. Polar bears primary threat is glacial retreat. Their preferred habitat is sea ice and a decrease in this is having an effect on their movements, fertility and availability of prey amongst others. Sea ice is the essential platform from which polar bears hunt and a loss of this makes their prey less accessible (4). This is aiding a decline in their species. Studies on polar bears in the Canadian Arctic have shown evidence of substantial variation in body size and reproductive output over short periods (2–3 years) mediated by varying ice conditions (5). Decreasing in body size and reproductive output is having a negative effect on their welfare and aiding in their decline. Marine species are also being affected by global warming. Approximately 25% of the CO2 emitted from all anthropogenic sources currently enters the ocean, where it reacts with water to produce carbonic acid (6). This has led to ocean acidification which is having a negative impact marine animal’s welfare. This increase in acidity

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VPH Journal 9th edition


is having an effect on calcifying species such as reefs, shells and exoskeletons as it is harder for them to make these structures under these acidic conditions. Zooplankton is on the decrease which will have an impact on the oceans food systems and the continued loss of and damage to the coral reef will impact many of the marine animals which live there; nearly one million species of fish, invertebrates, and algae can be found in and around the worldâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s reefs (7). Oceana, (an international ocean conservation organization), has also stated that ocean acidification can have an impact on food security in some countries due to impact on marine animals. Climate change has also been accentuated by deforestation of rainforests. This is occurring at a rapid rate; rainforests once covered 14% of the earthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s land surface; now they cover a mere 6% (8). Researchers studying plants, ants, birds, dung beetles and orchid bees in the Brazilian Amazon have found clear evidence that deforestation causes drastic loss of tropical forest biodiversity (9). This loss in biodiversity is having a negative impact on the welfare of the animals which still exist there. It is also thought that some of the plants destroyed by deforestation of the rainforest have potential medicinal effects. These medicinal effects could have positive impacts on both human and veterinary medicine, hence the loss of these has caused potential loss of something which could have had a positive effect on animal welfare. Climate change also has the potential to cause an increase in disease spread by insect vectors to animals. This increase in disease incidence is an animal welfare issue. Increasing global temperatures have been show to increase rainfall as a warmer atmosphere can hold more moisture. In addition, increased temperature leads to an increase in global water vapor as more evaporates. Increased precipitation has the potential to increase the number and quality of breeding sites for vectors of disease such as mosquitoes, ticks and snails (10). Zoonotic diseases such as West Nile Virus, Dengue fever, malaria and Lyme disease are spread through vectors such as this. It is thought that climate change is likely to have the greatest impact on dengue fever, West Nile Virus, Chikungunya fever, malaria, leishmaniasis and tick borne-encephalitis to name a few (11). These are all zoonotic diseases. With global temperature increase, despite mosquito longevity decreasing, viral transmission rates increase (12), meaning that more animals can become infected with viral-borne disease and suffer ill-health and even death. An example of this is West Nile Virus; WHO (World Health Organization) states that West Nile Virus has 28

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spread and become widely established in the USA from its introduction in 1999, this could be attributed partly to the increase in temperature causing increased transmission rates. Horses are a dead-end host in West Nile Virus and their infection with it can be mild but can cause neurological disease and fatal encephalomyelitis, which of course is a major animal welfare issue as animals should be kept free from disease. Migratory species such as birds are also particularly at risk due to climate change. Many studies such as one conducted by Huin and Sparks in 2000 (13) showed that increasing temperature leads to increasing rates of migration if birds earlier than usual. Climate change has been shown to change the timing and abundance of their food supplies and other resources (14). If they arrive at their destination earlier than expected due to temperature cues then they can face food shortages and therefore suffer. This is thought to have led to their decline in population over the past few years. In conclusion, climate change has many negative effects on animal welfare. It is vital that we develop new methods and technologies to release less fossil fuels into the atmosphere. Although we cannot undo the damage we have already done, we can try and reduce the continued acceleration of global warming which could further harm animal’s (and our own) welfare. We have to consider what we individually and as a whole local and global community can do to try and reduce the rates of global warming. REFERENCES Data from: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/WorldOfChange/decadaltemp.php Data from: http://climate.nasa.gov/evidence/ Data from: http://www.unep.org/geo/geo_ice/PDF/GEO_C6_B_LowRes.pdf Stirling, I., and A. E. Derocher. 1993. Possible impacts of climatic warming on polar bears. Arctic, 46240-245- this is the reference for the reproductive thing in PB’s Derocher, Lunn, Sterling (2004), ‘Polar Bears in a Warming Climate’ Integr Comp Biol (2004) 44 (2): 163-176 Guldberg et al (2007), Coral Reefs Under Rapid Climate Change and Ocean Acidification Weir (2001), ‘Mapping of the decline of coral reefs’: http://earthobservatory.nasa.gov/Features/Coral/ Data from: http://rain-tree.com/facts.htm#.WHAaihuLTIU Lancaster University (2015): ‘Evidence of species loss in Amazon caused by deforestation’ Githeko et al (2000) ‘Climate change and vector-borne diseases: a regional analysis’ Bull World Health Organ vol.78 n.9 Genebra Jan. 2000 WHO (2014) ‘A Global brief on vector-borne diseases’ : http://apps.who.int/iris/bitstream/10665/111008/1/WHO_DCO_WHD_2014.1_ eng.pdf Bouzid et al (2014): ‘Climate change and the emergence of vector-borne diseases in Europe: Case study of Dengue fever’ BMC Public Health 14:781 Huin N, Sparks TH (2000) ‘Spring arrival patterns of the Cuckoo Cuculus canorus, Nightingale Luscina megarhynchos, and Spotted Flyca’ Carey (2009), ‘The impacts of climate change on the annual cycles of birds’ Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci. 2009 Nov 27; 364(1534): 3321–3330.

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Impact of Climate Change on Animal Health Yuvraj Panth President 2016/17, IVSA Nepal B.V.Sc. & A.H. Internee, NARC IAAS Rampur Campus vetdoc.yuvraj@gmail.com

OVERVIEW A trend of increased average temperature around the globe has emerged within the last few years and expectations are more a greater increase in temperatures if measures are not taken, particularly by highly industrialized countries, to reduce greenhouse gas emissions. Climate change and global warming now being accepted facts have affected all ecosystems and will continue to do so if left unchecked [15]. Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) says “climate change is real, it will become worse and then poorest and most vulnerable people will be the worst affected”. The IPCC predicts that by 2100 the increase in global average surface temperature may be between 1.8 and 4.0 degree Centigrade [10]. As reported by IPCC (2007), the average global surface temperature has risen by 0.8°C in the past century and by 0.6°C in the past three decades [7] mainly due to human activities. Greenhouse gas emission could be raised globally 25–90% by 2030 and temperatures could increase by 3% by the year 2050 [8]. It is further predicted that even with a small global surface temperature rise of 1-2.5%, the consequences could still be severe, exerting far-reaching 30

VPH Journal 9th edition


impacts on the livelihood of many people. With increase of global surface temperature by 1.5-2.5 degree centigrade, approximately 20-30% of plant and animal species are expected to be at risk of extinction [6] with severe consequences for food security in developing countries. IMPACTS ON LIVESTOCK HEALTH Direct effects on livestock health include temperature-related illness and death and the morbidity of animals during extreme weather events. Indirect impacts follow more intricate pathways and include the attempt of animals to adapt to their climate, the influence of climate on microbial populations, the distribution of vector-borne diseases, host resistance to infectious agents, feed and water shortages, and food-borne diseases [14]. The impacts of climate change on crops and agricultural production in addition to grassland and rangeland productivity will affect animals. Heat stress will result in decreased food intake and result in poor growth performance and loss of fertility [12]. The impact of climate change is expected to heighten the vulnerability of livestock systems and reinforce existing factors that affect livestock production systems. According to the FAO (2008), among the direct effects of climate change are high temperatures and changes in rainfall patterns, translating to an increased spread of existing vector-borne diseases and macro parasites of animals as well as the emergence and spread of new diseases. Digambar (2011) reported that as a result of severe drought, there was direct impact on the growth of palatable grass species and that regeneration of fodder species in pasture and forest decreased because of reduced rainfall leading to a shortage in diversity and quality of livestock fodder. Temperature increase led to outbreak of new diseases, while scarcity of fodder led to a change in livestock pattern. Most of the people (59.05%) have changed their livestock which needed less fodder and grass. Dairy products have decreased significantly, while meat product is increased due to the poultry farming [5]. Abate (2009) found that drought and delay in the onset of rain led to poor regeneration of grass, water shortage and heat stress on livestock. He further reports that the drought and delay of rainfall led to increased mortality of livestock, vulnerability to diseases, and physical deterioration due to long distance travel for water and pastures. Decrease in livestock production will have effect on food security and incomes of smallholders [10]. Although a global issue, developing countries like Nepal will be vulnerable to effects of climate change on livestock as they lack of pre-planning, investment, knowledge, veterinary services and extension activities, warning the disasters due to climate change. High-performing livestock that are reared in adverse environment are pushed farther towards levels of vulnerability. Inherent genetic characteristics or management scenarios that limit the animalâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s ability to adapt to or cope with environmental factors also put the animal at risk. THERMAL STRESS The vulnerability of livestock to thermal stress varies according to species, genetic potential, life stage, and nutritional status. Heat stress at higher altitudes will tax animals more than that at lower altitudes as the residing animals in the latter are usually better adapted to their environment. Heat stress suffered by animals will reduce feed intake and result in poor growth performance, although indigenous cattle are heat tolerant to higher temperatures [14]. The impacts of thermal stress on a dairy cattle are on dry matter intake (reduction in 31

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DMI to reduce metabolism and hence heat production), physiological parameters (higher rectal temperature and respiration rate), endocrine system (reduced T4, increased T3, decreased alsosterone secretion, increased levels of catecholamines and glucocorticoids, etc.), energy balance & metabolism (increased energy required for maintenance while there is low energy intake, low glucose and NEFA level), electrolyte & acid-base balance (increased K+ loss due to sweating, decreased Na+ absorption,etc.), rumen health & pH (hyperventilation results in increased secretion of bicarbonate (HCO3-) from kidney and decreased secretion of HCO3- in saliva, etc.), impaired nutrient absorption from gastrointestinal tract, decline in immunity, reduced milk production, reproduction problems (reduced reproductive hormones, etc.) [2]. LIVESTOCK DISEASE AND DISEASE VECTORS Climate change is deteriorating natural ecosystems by providing more suitable environments for infectious diseases. The disease-causing bacteria, viruses, helminthes and fungi as well as vectors have moved into new areas where they may harm wild life and domestic species, as well as humans. Diseases that were previously limited only to tropical areas are now spreading to other previously cooler areas e.g. malaria. Insect-borne diseases are now present in temperate areas where the vector insects were nonexistent in the past e.g. trypanosomosis, anaplasmosis. Warmer temperatures have supplemented insects and microorganisms to invade and reproduce in areas where once they could not due to severely low temperatures and seasonal chills [4]. Pathogens and parasites that are sensitive to moist or dry conditions may be affected by changes to precipitation, soil moisture and the frequency of flood [9]. Important zoonotic diseases such as avian influenza, Lyme disease, Avian Influenza and Rift Valley Fever are some diseases to be following these trends.

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CONCLUSION Climate change certainly affects animal health and production. Some practices have been undertaken to reduce thermal stress, including shades, ventilations, and others. However, more strategies needto be implemented ranging from a reduction in green house gas emissions toimproving local genetics through cross-breeding with heat and disease-tolerant breeds. Feed management like higher concentrates in diet, lower emissions of methane, manure management including covered storage facilities, management of feed crop production through proper waste management androtational grazing, selection of faster growing breeds, and increasing feed efficiency and digestibility are some more strategies livestock and food production systems will need to employ in the future to combat the effects on climate change on their industries. REFERENCES 1. Abate, F. S. (2009). Climate Change Impact on Livelihood, Vulnerability and Coping Mechanisms in West-Arsi Zone, Ethiopia. 2. Bajagai, YS. (2011). Global climate change and its impacts on dairy cattle. Nepalese Veterinary Journal, vol. 30, pp. 2-16 3. Calvosa,C., D. Chuluunbaatar and K.Fara. Livestock and climate change. 4. Climate Change and the Expansion of Animal and Zoonotic Diseases â&#x20AC;&#x201C; What is the Agencyâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Contribution?.(2014). International Atomic Energy Agency. Retrieved December 21, 2016, from http://www-naweb.iaea.org/nafa/aph/stories/2010-climate-change.html 5. Digambar, D. S. (2011).Impact of Climate Change on Livelihood and Biodiversity in Rural Communities (A case study of Siddhi Ganesh and Nepane Community Forestry User Groups of Sindhupalchwok District of Nepal). 6. FAO, 2007. Adaptation to Climate Change in Agriculture, Forestry and Fisheries: Perspective, Framework and Priorities. Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome, Italy. 7. Hansen, J. et. al. (2006). NASA Goddard Institute for Space Studies and Columbia University Earth Institute, New York, NY, 10025, USA. 8. IPCC, 2007. Retrieved 21st Dec 2016 from http://www.ipcc.ch/pdf/assessment-report/ar4/wg1/ar4-wg1-spm.pdf. 9. Kimaro, E.G. and O.C. Chibinga. 2013. Potential impact of climate change on livestock production and health in East Africa: A review. University of Zambia. Retrieved April 22,2016, from http://www.lrrd.org/lrrd25/7/kima25116.htm. 10. Kolachhapati, M.R. (2012). Impact of climate change on livestock and mitigation strategies. The Blue Cross. 12: 1-7. 11. Majahodvwa S. N. and Micah B. Masuku. 2013. The Impact of Climate Change on Livestock Production in Swaziland: The case of Mpolonjeni Area Development Programme . University of Swaziland. 12. Rowlinson, P., 2008. Adapting livestock production systems to climate change-temperate zones. Proceedings of the Livestock and Global Change Conference, May 25, 2008, Tunisia. 13. Sejian, V., J. Gaughan, L. Baumgard, and C. Prasad. 2015 . Climate Change Impact on Livestock: Adaptation and Mitigation.Springer. Retrieved April 22,2016, from http://www.springer.com/gp/book/9788132222644 . 14. Walter, O. et. al. (2010). Climate change and links to animal diseases and animal production conf. oie 2010, 179-186. Retrieved http:// www.oie.int/doc/ged/D11834.PDF. 15. Yatoo, et.al., (2012). Effects of Climate Change on Animal Health and Diseases. Retrieved December 21, 2016, from https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279196026_Effects_of_Climate_Change_on_Animal_Health_and_Diseases.

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ONE HEALTH: ISSUES Sulove Koirala Faculty of Animal Science, Veterinary Science and Fisheries Agriculture and Forestry University Nepal

“75% of emerging infectious diseases come from animals and 60% of human pathogens are zoonotic.” INTRODUCTION In the early 21st century, emerging zoonotic viruses that had the potential to cause pandemic disease and extensive human mortality created several international crises. Governments and scientists worldwide recognized that greater interdisciplinary collaboration was required to prevent and control zoonosis, and that such collaboration should include not only physicians and veterinarians, but also wildlife specialists, environmentalists, anthropologists, economists, and sociologists, among others (Gibbs, 2014). The expression ‘One Health’ was proposed as a concept to foster such interdisciplinary collaboration. Below are some of the global One Health issues. EMERGING AND RE-EMERGING ZOONOSES Over the last 15 years, our planet has faced more than 15 deadly zoonotic or vector-borne global outbreaks. These include: Hanta, Ebola, highly pathogenic avian influenza [H5N1 and recently H7N9], West Nile, Rift Valley fever, norovirus, severe acute respiratory syndrome [SARS], Marburg, influenza A [H1N1]). Additionally, bacterial infections such as Escherichia coli O157:H7, Yersinia pestis, and Bacillus anthracis have caused hemolytic uremic syndrome, plague, and anthrax, respectively. Since 1980, more than 87 new zoonotic and/or vector-borne emerging infectious diseases have been discovered (Gebreyes et al., 2014). TRANSBOUNDARY DISEASES ON ONE HEALTH The globalization of food and feed trades is facilitated by the liberalization of world trade, and it offers many benefits and opportunities, this commercialism also presents new risks. The Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) philosophy—shared by the World Organization for Animal Health (OIE)—embraces the need to prevent and control Transboundary Animal Diseases (TADs) and emerging diseases at their source, which is most of

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the time in developing countries (Domenech, Lubroth, Eddi, Martin, & Roger, 2006). According to a report, Ethiopia, Nigeria, and Tanzania in Africa, as well as India in Asia, have the highest zoonotic disease burdens. Meanwhile, the northeastern United States, Western Europe (especially the United Kingdom), Brazil and parts of Southeast Asia may be hotspots of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;emerging zoonosesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (Grace et al., 2012). BIOTERRORISM Toxins are poisons produced by living organisms. Toxins relevant to bioterrorism include ricin, botulinum, Clostridium perfrigens epsilson toxin, conotoxins, shigatoxins, saxitoxins, tetrodotoxins, mycotoxins, and nicotine (Anderson, 2012). Botulinum toxin is the most lethal substance known to humans (Gill, 1982). A single gram of this crystalline toxin, evenly dispersed and inhaled, would kill more than 1 million people (Arnon et al., 2001). The dispersal of aerosolized agents in a concentrated population area is the most dangerous scenario and perhaps the most likely method used by terrorists.

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Source: Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). https://www.cdc.gov/drugresistance/about.html USE OF ANTIMICROBIAL MEDICINE AND DRUG RESSISTANCE Prophylactic and metaphylactic use of antimicrobials in animal husbandry and their use as growth promoters do not appear to improve animal health; they are, in fact, potentially detrimental because increased amounts of antimicrobials in the environment lead to increased amounts of antimicrobial resistance (Cabello & Godfrey, 2016). Resistance also develops in non-pathogenic bacteria; these may become donors of resistance genes to pathogens and pose an indirect risk to human health. To reduce the problem of human infections caused by resistant bacteria of animal origin, there is continuous pressure to restrict the use of antimicrobials in animals (Wassenaar, 2005). The best example of a food-borne pathogen rapidly becoming resistant to an antimicrobial used in both veterinary and human medicine is Campylobacter. The introduction of Enrofloxacin in the poultry industry and ciprofloxacin for human use (both fluoroquinolones) went hand in hand with an increase in fluoroquinolone resistant Campylobacter in human cases, as first reported in the Netherlands (Endtz et al., 1991). 36

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ECOLOGICAL DISRUPTION Ecological disruption is another major issue to address and may be one of the most dangerous factors in the emergence of new zoonotic diseases. As humans encroach on new habitat, it is a certainty that they will be exposed to novel pathogens that could move from their four-footed or avian niches into humans to engender disease. In addition, there is the anthropogenic movement of pathogens into new geographical locations, a phenomenon that has been termed â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;pathogen pollutionâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; (Brown, 2004). WILDLIFE ZOONOSIS Wildlife acts as a potential but unknown reservoir for diseases that emerge or re-emerge possessing zoonotic threat and include vector-borne viral diseases (Taylor, Latham, & Mark, 2001) viz., such as Hendra and Nipah viruses, Menangle, West Nile virus, Monkey pox (Daszak, Cunningham, & Hyatt, 2000). Although rarely observed (approximately 1 per year globally), zoonotic viruses that originate in wildlife and are associated with food systems punch above their weight in terms of their potential human, animal, and economic impacts (Jones et al., 2008). CONCLUSION AND FUTURE PERSPECTIVES It can be summarized that scientific and policy-focused presentations from leaders, public health, and scientific communities covering topics on current global activities focusing on surveillance for emerging infectious diseases are important. Moreover, roundtable discussions to effectively generate multi-sectorial, trans-boundary surveillance initiatives need to be regularly organized, bringing together participants from diverse scientific backgrounds. An overall emphasis should be on epidemiology, surveillance and networking, prevention and control policies of zoonosis focusing the current and future perspectives. Equitable coordination between the public and private sectors is advisable.

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REFERENCES Anderson, P. D. (2012). Bioterrorism:Toxins asWeapons. Journal of Pharmacy Practice, 25(2), 121–129. https://doi.org/10.1177/0897190012442351 Arnon, S. S., Schechter, R., Inglesby, T. V., Henderson, D. A., Bartlett, J. G., Ascher, M. S., … Biodefense, for the W. G. on C. (2001). Botulinum Toxin as a Biological Weapon: Medical and Public Health Management. JAMA, 285(8), 1059–1070. https://doi.org/10.1001/jama.285.8.1059 Brown, C. (2004). Emerging zoonoses and pathogens of public health significance–an overview. Revue Scientifique et Technique-Office International Des Epizooties, 23(2), 435–442. Cabello, F. C., & Godfrey, H. P. (2016). Even therapeutic antimicrobial use in animal husbandry may generate environmental hazards to human health. Environmental Microbiology, 18(2), 311–313. https://doi.org/10.1111/1462-2920.13247 Daszak, P., Cunningham, A. A., & Hyatt, A. D. (2000). Emerging infectious diseases of wildlife–threats to biodiversity and human health. Science, 287(5452), 443–449. Domenech, J., Lubroth, J., Eddi, C., Martin, V., & Roger, F. (2006). Regional and International Approaches on Prevention and Control of Animal Transboundary and Emerging Diseases. Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences, 1081(1), 90–107. https://doi.org/10.1196/annals.1373.010 Endtz, H. P., Ruijs, G. J., van Klingeren, B., Jansen, W. H., van der Reyden, T., & Mouton, R. P. (1991). Quinolone resistance in campylobacter isolated from man and poultry following the introduction of fluoroquinolones in veterinary medicine. Journal of Antimicrobial Chemotherapy, 27(2), 199–208. https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/27.2.199 Gebreyes, W. A., Dupouy-Camet, J., Newport, M. J., Oliveira, C. J. B., Schlesinger, L. S., Saif, Y. M., … King, L. J. (2014). The Global One Health Paradigm: Challenges and Opportunities for Tackling Infectious Diseases at the Human, Animal, and Environment Interface in Low-Resource Settings. PLOS Neglected Tropical Diseases, 8(11), e3257. https://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003257 Gibbs, E. P. J. (2014). The evolution of One Health: a decade of progress and challenges for the future. Veterinary Record, 174(4), 85–91. https:// doi.org/10.1136/vr.g143 Gill, D. M. (1982). Bacterial toxins: a table of lethal amounts. Microbiological Reviews, 46(1), 86–94. Grace, D., Mutua, F., Ochungo, P., Kruska, R. L., Jones, K., Brierley, L., … Ogutu, F. (2012). Mapping of poverty and likely zoonoses hotspots (Report). ILRI. Retrieved from https://cgspace.cgiar.org/handle/10568/21161 Jones, K. E., Patel, N. G., Levy, M. A., Storeygard, A., Balk, D., Gittleman, J. L., & Daszak, P. (2008). Global trends in emerging infectious diseases. Nature, 451(7181), 990–993. https://doi.org/10.1038/nature06536 Taylor, L. H., Latham, S. M., & Mark, E. J. (2001). Risk factors for human disease emergence. Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London B: Biological Sciences, 356(1411), 983–989. Wassenaar, T. M. (2005). Use of Antimicrobial Agents in Veterinary Medicine and Implications for Human Health. Critical Reviews in Microbiology, 31(3), 155–169. https://doi.org/10.1080/10408410591005110

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Climate change - a paradise for livestock parasites? Bartley, D.J., Skuce, P.J., McNeilly, T.N. University of Edinburgh Roslin Institute Moredun Research Institute, Pentlands Science Park, Bush Loan, EH26 0PZ Dave.Bartley@moredun.ac.uk | Philip.Skuce@moredun.ac.uk | Tom.McNeilly@moredun.ac.uk

It is well established that the global climate has signi-

fected in different ways, and not necessarily negati-

ficantly change over recent decades and will continue

vely e.g. parasite populations may decrease rather

to do so despite global efforts to reduce anthropoge-

than increase due to unfavourable climatic conditi-

nic greenhouse gas emissions [1-2]. Because most

ons such as drought. In this short review, we will fo-

livestock endo- and ecto-parasites have lifecycle sta-

cus specifically on helminth and arthropod diseases

ges that live, develop and survive in the environment,

within Europe.

the epidemiology and hence the management of livestock parasitoses will be affected by the prevailing

In temperate North-western Europe, average tem-

climatic conditions. Key climate drivers include chan-

peratures and rainfall have all increased in recent

ges in temperature, rainfall, levels of ultraviolet radi-

decades [3]. There has also been an increase in the

ation and evapotranspiration

frequency and intensity of extreme weather events such as flooding, and the length of the grazing sea-

There have been well-documented changes in preva-

son. These trends conspire to improve the parasitesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

lence, seasonality and geographic spread of livestock

chances of surviving in the environment and also en-

parasites. This has applied to incursions of â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;exoticâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;

countering suitable host animals such as livestock,

insect-borne diseases, most notably Bluetongue and

wildlife, intermediate hosts or vectors to infect. The-

Schmallenberg. Endemic livestock diseases have re-

se changes translate into improved overwintering

ceived less attention but are no less impacted by cli-

survival of life-cycle stages outside the host animal

matic changes. There is an assumption that global

but also more rapid development and hence unsea-

warming will lead to more severe parasitic disease,

sonal or unexpected disease outbreaks.

but different parts of the world will obviously be af39

VPH Journal 9th edition


Disease risk and exposure will also be dictated, to a

rasites are adapting to a warmer climate and being

large extent, by farm management and husbandry

able to complete their lifecycle without chilling [6].

decisions. For example extensive grazing on pastu-

Trematode parasites, exemplified by the liver fluke,

re may increase exposure to parasites, whereas ex-

Fasciola hepatica, have an extra layer of complexity

tended periods of housing due to adverse climatic

to their lifecycles in the form of molluscan interme-

conditions could reduce the risk of parasitic disease

diate hosts, which are also affected by changing cli-

but pre-dispose animals to other diseases caused by

matic conditions. As well as an increasing prevalence

bacterial and viral pathogens.

across Europe, we have seen a west-to-east spread and establishment in previously fluke-free areas, pos-

To give specific examples of climate effects on en-

sibly as a result of snail dissemination on the margins

demic livestock diseases, we have seen increasing

of flooding events [7]. The traditional seasonality

reports of outbreaks associated with the voracious

of the liver fluke life-cycle is also changing with flu-

blood-sucking nematode, Haemonchus contortus,

ke eggs and infectious metacercarial cysts surviving

the scourge of the livestock industry in the Southern

winter more effectively and establishing infections at

Hemisphere, spreading north across the UK [4].

traditionally unseasonal times.

Conversely, we have also seen a southerly spread of the nematode, Nematodirus battus [5], a devasta-

Arthropods such as biting insects and ticks are impor-

ting parasite of lambs more associated with arctic

tant vectors for the transmission of many infectious

latitudes. Previously it was believed that this para-

livestock diseases. As these vectors, and the patho-

site required chilling followed by a period sustained

gens within them, are highly dependent on environ-

warming to trigger synchronised egg hatching to

mental conditions, the distributions of the diseases

coincide with the availability of lamb crops. Recent

they transmit are extremely sensitive to changes in

research would suggest that this may not hold true

climate. For example, the emergence of Bluetongue

for all N. battus populations with evidence that pa-

in Europe in the late 1990s, has partly been attributed

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VPH Journal 9th edition


to the spread of its main midge vector, Culicoides

terinary parasites (e.g. F. hepatica) or the pathogens

imicola, from Africa to Southern Europe as a result

they carry (e.g. ticks and tick-borne diseases) affect

of rising global temperatures [8]. The emergence

humans, changes in parasite epidemiology as a re-

in Europe of Schmallenberg virus, an entirely no-

sult of climate change is of considerable relevance to

vel Orthobunyavirus of ruminants transmitted by

â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;One Healthâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;.

Culicoides midges [9], highlights another problem for the livestock industry: that is the emergence of

To combat these challenges we need better and up-

previously unknown vector-borne diseases with the

to-date epidemiological information about the pa-

potential to rapidly change their geographical distri-

rasites themselves and their life-histories, improved

bution due to climate-driven changes in their vector

surveillance and diagnosis in real time. This could be

range.

interfaced with state-of-the-art epidemiological modelling to help forecast parasite risk periods and deci-

An awareness, by animal health professionals, of

sion support systems to improve the timing of treat-

changes in animal disease dynamics and periodici-

ment, grazing management strategies or methods to

ty is essential to effectively respond to the threat of

reduce exposure to disease-transmitting vectors.

parasites in the future. The increasing prevalence of livestock helminth parasites is likely, at least in

REFERENCES

Europe, to lead to a greater requirement for anthel-

[1] UN Climate Change Conference (2015); http://

mintic treatment, which we know is not sustainable

www.cop21.gouv.fr/en/ Final Agreement text http://

in the long-term [10], and climate driven changes in

unfccc.int/files/meetings/paris_nov_2015/applicati-

the distribution of disease transmitting arthropods

on/pdf/paris_agreement_english_.pdf last accessed

mean future outbreaks of arthropod-borne diseases

12JAN17

are highly likely. Furthermore, as some of these ve-

[2] UK Climate projections, UKCP09 http://ukclima-

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teprojections.metoffice.gov.uk/21678 last accessed

hatching behaviour of Nematodirus battus: poly-

12JAN17

morphic bet hedging? Int J Parasitol, 40:675-81.

[3] Barnett, C., J. Hossell, M. Perry, C. Procter and

[7]. Skuce, P., van Dijk, J., Smith, D., & Morgan, E.

G. Hughes (2006) A handbook of climate trends

(2014). Implications of extreme weather events for risk

across Scotland. SNIFFER project CC03, Scotland

of fluke infection. Veterinary Record, 175: 198-200.

& Northern Ireland Forum for Environmental Rese-

[8] Purse BV, Mellor PS, Rogers DJ, Samuel AR, Mer-

arch, 62pp.

tens PP, Baylis M (2005) Climate change and the recent

[4] Morgan, E. R., Charlier, J., Hendrickx, G., Bigge-

emergence of bluetongue in Europe. Nat Rev Micro-

ri, A., Catalan, D., von Samson-Himmelstjerna, G., &

biol. 3:171-81.

Skuce, P. (2013). Global change and helminth infecti-

[9] Rasmussen L, Kristensen B, Kirkeby C, Rasmus-

ons in grazing ruminants in Europe: impacts, trends

sen T, Belsham GJ, Bødker R, et al. (2012) Culicoids as

and sustainable solutions. Agriculture, 3: 484-502.

Vectors of Schmallenberg Virus. Emerg Infect Dis.;18:

[5] Morgan, E. R., & Van Dijk, J. (2012). Climate and

1204-1206.

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[10] Rose, H., Rinaldi, L., Bosco, A., Mavrot, F., de Waal,

fections of sheep in Europe. Veterinary parasitology,

T., Skuce, P., & Vercruysse, J. (2015). Widespread ant-

189: 8-14.

helmintic resistance in European farmed ruminants: a

[6] van Dijk J1, Morgan ER. (2010) Variation in the

systematic review. Veterinary Record, 176: 546.

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How are you involved in One Health activities? IVSA Nepal: Marching on the path of One Health Name: Ranjita Bastola Profession: Veterinary student at Agriculture and Forestry University Nepal Member, IVSA Nepal (National MO) Secretary 2016/17, IVSA Rampur (Local Chapter)

The One Health concept is a worldwide strategy for expanding interdisciplinary collaborations and communications in all aspects of health care for humans, animals and the environment. In such collaboration expertise from multiple sectors are unified together to conclude a concrete one solution to problems evolving from above three aspects viz; human factor, animal factor and environment factor. Veterinarians are the most influential expertise to contribute on this trigon to balance and sustain. The emerging and vague issues like antibiotic resistance, zoonotic diseases, animal welfare issues, sustainable usage of environmental resources, climate change and itâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s impacts, etc are results of imbalance on this triad of human, animal and environment interaction. We humans are mostly responsible for these hazards. Meanwhile, scientists and expertise are working continuously on this matter. There are many policies and legacies established, INGOs/NGOs are working on it, Government level is also serious on this matter; students from related sectors are actively participating from their level, etc. Students are the best way to reduce above problems as they are source of innovation as well as reaching locally. International veterinary Studentsâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; Association is unification of worldwide veterinary students. The mission of IVSA is to benefit the animals and people of the world by harnessing the potential and dedication of veterinary students to promote the international application of veterinary skills, education and knowledge. It has member organization in each country, which extends as member organization chapter. I belong to member organization IVSA Nepal. IVSA Nepal is an active member organization which has high dedication over public health issues. It is stimulating veterinary students of Nepal to step ahead of their comfort zone. It is mobilizing their skills and capability on local level, say farmer level. In context of Nepal, veterinarian and farmer relation is prerequisite factor for implication of legacies and advances of technology among themselves. Since the day of establishment i.e, August 2013, it has been working and participating to address public health issues. We annually celebrate Rabies Day (28th September) with a weekly/fortnightly/monthly program package (consisting of free ARV for stray dogs and cats, Mass Awareness, School Awareness, etc.), bring out new projects for Antibio43

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tic Resistance Awareness Week in November (Sometimes collaborating with the university in rally awareness or organizing farmer level talks, TB day . Furthermore, we have Good Friday session on last Friday of each English month with the theme “Participate and Learn”, where students work on a topic that is not included in the curriculum and present it to the rest students. The IVSA Mirror, our annual bulletin published on 2016 as our first issue also prioritized articles related to One Health. Here is a short list of some exciting events related to One Health, we have been able to accomplish: RABIES DAY CELEBRATION IVSAians reach out to farmers and specially school students with our awareness materials like posters, pamphlets and presentation slides. We share our knowledge on prevention of rabies, protection of kids and puppies from rabies and many more. We vaccinate stray dogs and cats against Rabies. ANTIBIOTIC RESISTANCE WEEK It is the burning issue of this era. Our local chapter IVSA Rampur had organized interaction between farmer, veterinarian and veterinary students. It was much more productive according to farmers’ feedback. They were able to discuss their problems and insecurities regarding antibiotic consumption. Students were benefited directly by knowing what farmer thinks and how they behave on each medication process. ONE HEALTH DAY CELEBRATION A national essay competition was released with expectation of participation from veterinary, medical and pharmacy faculty students. This program helped up on building a general concept of one health and its issues among students rendering them to improve their writing skills. TUBERCULOSIS DAY CELEBRATION Annually, we mark the world TB day by organizing a seminar on the MDR TB via a skilled resource person. We feel proud to be an IVSA family and wish to continue our involvement in the arena of public health. Our activities can be cited at ivsanepal.wordpress.com 44

VPH Journal 9th edition


Analysis of forest disturbance dynamics in the Tatra Mountains using Landsat time series from 1986 to 2015 By Katja Kowalski Master student Geography at Humboldt University Berlin

The topic of my bachelor’s thesis originated from a field trip to the Tatra Mountains in 2016, which was a joint effort of Humboldt-University Berlin and Jagiellonian University Krakow. This study was part of the bachelor’s program at Humboldt University and was successfully completed thanks to Dr. Dirk Pflugmacher and Prof. Dr. Patrick Hostert who supported me during the whole work with frequent discussions and helpful advice. I am currently studying the Master’s program “Global Change Geography” of the Humboldt-University Berlin. Besides field trips, I have a special interest in the field of forest ecology, remote sensing and land use change.

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What are forest disturbances and what do they have to do with climate change and ecosystem health? As a part of every healthy forest ecosystem, natural forest disturbances include fires, wind breakage, blowdown of trees and insect pests. Next to these natural disturbances, humans are bringing along substantial changes to forests structure, function and diversity. These can be harvest events, management measures and fires as well. Another human made factor changing forest disturbance regimes is climate change [1, 2]. Our study area, the forests of the Tatra Mountains, lies in the Western Carpathians, which contain the largest pristine and most diverse forests in East and Central Europe. They also present a last habitat for endangered mammals like lynx, wolf and bear [3-6]. However, like in the rest of Europe, these forests experienced increasing disturbances in the last decades [7]. Not only harvest events and insect outbreaks are documented from the Tatra Mountains but also windstorms like the bora storm in 2004, which reached velocities of up to 250 km/h and destroyed 12.000 ha of forest [8-10]. Several studies analyzed disturbances over larger areas of the Carpathians or described single disturbance events in the Tatra Mountains. However, none of them distinguished disturbance agents and quantified disturbance dynamics over a timespan of several decades in the Tatra Mountains. In connection to climate change, extreme climatic events like severe windstorms are expected to increase in intensity, which will likely lead to more severe forest damages. Adding to this, insect outbreaks are highly correlated with storm damages and alone accounted for a tree mortality of 90.000 m3 from 1990 to 2000 in the Tatra Mountains [7, 11]. The increased availability of breeding substrate after windthrow events allows bark beetle populations to develop in large numbers and to attack healthy forest stands in the vicinity of the storm damaged area [12]. Additionally, climate change will alter insect disturbance regimes, since higher temperatures will enable the development of two or more populations of bark beetles per year. This increases the risk of several attacks on trees during one growing season [13, 14]. That bark beetles spread

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to higher elevations of the Tatra Mountains recently and the evidence of an upward shift of climatic zones [12, 15] emphasizes, that first impacts of climate change on forest disturbance dynamics are noticeable in the region. Since fundamental functions of the forests are altered by disturbances, this might also have implications on animal wildlife. Habitat structures can be severely changed by disturbances e.g. for birds. Numerous studies analyzed forest disturbances in general over large areas of the Carpathians [e.g. 16, 17] or certain disturbance events in the region of the Tatra Mountains in connection to specific agents and predisposing factors or management options [e.g. 9, 18]. However, there has not been a comprehensive approach to quantify and characterize forest disturbance dynamics over the whole Tatra Mountains for a longer time span. Thus, this is exactly what the study aimed at. We used satellite images from 1986 to 2015 to quantify and characterize the forest disturbance dynamics in the Tatra Mountains. With the interactive interpretation of spectral trajectories of 1000 samples, data was derived from which annual disturbance rates, split by country and several disturbance agents were estimated. The general pattern of increasing disturbance rates that is evident all over Europe, was also found in the Tatra Mountains. Increasing disturbance rates were especially evident in the second half of the study period. The three dominating disturbance agents, harvest, insect-pathogen and wind, all have a considerable impact on annual disturbance rates, though each of a different nature. While insect disturbances drive forest disturbance dynamics over several years, the highest blowdown impacts are limited to distinct years. The course of harvest rates follows the two dominating natural disturbance types since forest management seems to respond to increasing natural disturbance rates. Forest management is only allowed for non-commercial use and seems to be carried out unregularly in the Tatra National Parks [19]. In line with this, the study found a substantial amount of human interventions in form of forest management. These measures include felling of insect-infested and wind damaged trees. However, recent research suggests to consider natural disturbances, caused e.g. by insects and wind, as an integral part of the natural ecosystem in Western Carpathian forests rather than as an unwanted condition [20]. Moreover, some studies suggest, that management practices to suppress natural disturbances, interfere with recovery capabilities of the whole forest ecosystem after disturbances occurred [20, 21]. Since disturbance frequency, severity and spatial impact increase in whole Europe, management activities to subdue natural disturbances in the first place will become harder to realize [22]. That sanitation logging and harvesting activities were evident throughout the study period makes clear that this approach is not implemented in all parts of the Tatra Mountains and forest stands are managed differently. These results confirm the rising need to adjust forest management and nature protection objectives especially regarding possible effects of future climatic changes. Adding to this, the need to preserve the largest pristine forests in the Western Carpathians is urgent since they are a last habitat for already endangered mammal species like bear, lynx and wolf. 47

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/ivsapage

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IVSA. Information Office DSR KU LIFE DyrlĂŚgevej 9, Kopenhag 1870 Fredriksberg C Website: www.ivsa.org Email: publichealth@ivsa.org 50

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VPH Journal 9th edition  
VPH Journal 9th edition  

By the IVSA, Standing Committee on One Health

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