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Flora City Bureau for Physical Planning Zagreb

Ivana Vojnić Rogić


the wider area surrounding the City of Zagreb features 1,709 plant species, not counting algae, fungi, lichens and mosses

the City of Zagreb area alone should be very rich in plant species; the exact number, however, will be established only through systematic inventory

Altogether 196 species, i.e. 11% of the total possible flora, appear on the lists of species important for protection


Among the endangered and protected plant species typical of forests, the following are predominantly in the submontane belt: 

White Helleborine (Cephalanthera damasonium)

Dogtooth Violet (Erythronium dens-canis)

Christmas Rose (Helleborus niger ssp. macranthus)

Holly Tree (Ilex aquifolium)

Spring Snowflake (Leucojum vernum) Dogtooth Violet (foto J. Topić)


Among the endangered and protected plant species typical of forests, the following are predominantly in the submontane belt: 

Turk’s-cap Lily (Lilium martagon)

Twayblade (Listera ovata)

Stag's-horn Clubmoss (Lycopodium clavatum)

Lady Orchid (Orchis purpurea)

Lesser Butterfly Orchid (Platanthera bifolia)

Horse Tongue Lily (Ruscus hypoglossum)

Lady Orchid (foto M. Vuković)


In remnants of wet habitats of particular importance are the following, vulnerable species: 

Common Sedge (Carex nigra)

Cyperus (Cyperus glomeratus and C. serotinus)

Floating Sweet Grasses (Glyceria fluitans and G. plicata)

Yellow Flag (Iris pseudacorus)

Siberian Iris (Iris sibirica), extremely rare within Zagreb area

Yellow Flag (foto M. Vuković)


Particularly important species on dry grasslands are the following: 

critically endangered Snowdrop Windflower (Anemone sylvestris) for which the City of Zagreb is the only remaining locality in Croatia endangered Bee Orchid (Ophrys apifera)

Endangered Snowdrop Windflower in blossom and with fruits (foto N. Tvrtković)


Particularly important species on dry grasslands are the following: vulnerable species 

Croatian Clusterhead Pink

Fly Orchid

Soldier Orchid

Three Toothed Orchid

Pale Orchid

Fragrant Orchid

Plum-scented Iris

Croatian Clusterhead Pink (foto M. Vuković)

Three Toothed Orchid (foto M. Vuković)

Fly Orchid (foto M. Vuković)


On stony peaks with SW exposure, one can also find: 

grass species like Blue Rocky Grass Sesleria tenuifolia ssp. kalnikensis Rare species like:

Croatian Iris (Iris germanica ssp. croatica)

alpine primrose Bear's Ear (Primula auricula) which has the most southern point of its Alpine area distribution exactly in Zagreb area


For the time being there are about 30 plant species endangered at the national level that have been positively identified within the territory of the city Among them: Snowdrop Windflower (Anemone sylvestris) is in the category of critically endangered (CR) species Bee Orchid (Ophrys apifera) in the category of endangered species (EN) while the rest belong either to the category of vulnerable species (VU) or data deficient (DD)


flora in Zagreb city