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Ivars Kalvans

The city is a patchwork of heterogeneous fragments. David Grahame Shane, Recombinant urbanism

Published 2016 by the Print Unit at the Matthew Building at the University of Dundee, Perth Road, Dundee, Scotland, DD1 4HT Designed and typeset in Century Gothic Printed and bound in Great Britain First edition Š 2016 All rights reserved.



Ivars Kalvans ROOMS + CITIES

Ivars Kalvans University of Dundee Master of Architecture Thesis





1 2



0.1 Content


0.2 Abstract


0.3 Introduction


0.4 Mind map


HETEROTOPIAS 1.1 Other places


1.2 Urban tools


OTHERS 2.1 Precariat


2.2 Housing crisis


CITY EDGE 3.1 Glasburgh Corridor


3.2 Green Belt


3.3 Newbridge Village




4.2 Exodus, or the voluntary prisoners of architecture


4.3 The Continuous Monument


4.4 A simple heart


4.5 City-walls


4.6 Production/Reproduction



5.1 Critical reflection. Heterotopic grid



6.1 Acknowledgements


6.2 Bibliography


6.3 List of figures






The thesis investigates the potential of using the heterotopic (other, different) grid as a conceptual and formal framework for a utopian vision - accommodating increasing growth of Scotland’s population in a concentrated and equal manner within a highly infrastructural Green Belt on the city edge of Edinburgh. ‘City edge’ is one of the designated sectors within the Glasburgh corridor – a speculative research area between Edinburgh and Glasgow, defined by the infrastructure of the motorway M8 and the Shotts Line railway. The competition project ‘Exodus or the Voluntary Prisoners of Architecture’ and several works by Superstudio and DOGMA inhere heterotopic qualities by being able to create utopian visions and simultaneously reflect and redefine conditions of a real, existing society. The thesis draws parallels between the cultural, social and political issues of the others on one side and the accompanying urban processes and the role of Architecture within them on the other. It also highlights a set of questions which interrelate with each other on the basis of the concept of heterotopia and the heterotopic grid. How could the heterotopic grid intensify, diversify and in the same time preserve the Green Belt?

How could the heterotopic grid be able to accept and embrace different social groups within a homogeneity of housing context and create an egalitarian community? How could the heterotopic grid operate as the catalyst of utopian visions? The result is a formation which defines a clear edge to the city by framing the Green Belt around it. At the same time, it preserves what it frames and by being porous, it allows nature, infrastructure, and people to flow through. The singular unit of the heterotopic grid is a social condenser – a micro-city where the main urban components – enclave, armature, and heterotopia are condensed and manifested into one entity.




Utopias afford consolation: although they have no real locality there is neverthe less a fantastic, untroubled region in which they are able to unfold; they open up cities with vast avenues, superbly planted gardens, countries where life is easy, even though the road to them is chimerical. Heterotopias are disturbing, probably because they secretly undermine language, because they make it impossible to name this and that, because they shatter or tangle common names...1 The dominating and unifying theme of this thesis is a heterotopia – a term in medicine understood as a condition of presence of normal tissue in abnormal places. Urban heterotopias are mental spaces and real places of ‘everyday’ which stand out from the homogeneity of the built environment around them with their difference, mostly, in their social meaning and ordering. They are reflections of the current conditions within society and the utopian visions realised in spite of these conditions. They accommodate, separate and entertain the Others – future residents of Utopia. The aim of the thesis is to investigate the potentials of using the heterotopic (other, different) grid as a conceptual and formal framework for a utopian vision accommodating increasing growth of Scotland’s population in a concentrated and equal manner within a highly infrastructural Green Belt on the city edge of Edinburgh. The primary object of the thesis project and singular unit of the heterotopic grid is a social condenser. Its purpose is not only to accummulate people and functions but also to be a critique of the current urban processes and to be an example for the future city. The thesis operates within different fields of human existence at the various levels of the urban environment. The first section looks at the concept of heterotopia and thus prepares the philosophical soil for the research and design. It also describes its possible functions within concrete urban conditions. The second section looks at the social and political background of the intended project. The third section surveys and analyses the physical area of interest at different scales – from Glasburgh corridor to the urban conditions of Newbridge Village. The fourth section distills the findings of the previous three sections into the substance of architectural thought. It examines Architecture as a testing platform for the Utopian visions within several case studies which are juxtaposed with the actual project within its context. It uses them as mental and physical frameworks for the design of the city and the social condenser as its archetype. The final, fifth section summarises findings, describes their implementation into the design and critically reflects on the process and the design outcomes. 1 Michel Foucault, The Order of Things (London: Taylor and Francis e-Library, 2005), p. xix.




The postmodern cities are shaped by different forces – social, economic, political and ecological which overlap and intervene each aspect of everyday life. In the network society, these relationships are more complex than ever before. Mind map bellow shows how these relationships shape the internal dialogue between research and the design process and weave the heterotopic grid. Four sections of the text describe four directions of the research interest – Heterotopias, The Others, City Edge and Architecture and The City. They stretch into four fields: the field of thought (philosophy); the field of social/political issues; physical context and finally, more specifically - field of urban-architectural thought and practice. There are also four levels of privacy and spatial distance: private, local, regional and global, which measure the depth of the possible impact of the heterotopic grid and social condenser on the issues mentioned above. Keywords are scattered across the field of action, highlighting the themes and references.


Fig. 1. Mind map 12



The word comes from the Greek οὐ (“not”) and τόπος (“place”) and means “noplace“. It also could derive from eu-topos which means “a good place“.


prefix hetero- is from Ancient Greek ἕτερος (héteros, “other, another, different”)2

1 HETEROTOPIAS 2 ‘Heterotopia (space)’ <> [accessed 11 January 2016]



There are also, and probably in every culture, in every civilization, real places, actual places, places that are designed in the very institution of society, which are sorts of actually realized utopias in which the real emplacements, all the other real emplacements that can be found within the culture are, at the same time, represented, contested, and reversed, sorts of places that are outside all places, although they are actually localizable. Because they are utterly different from all the emplacements that they reflect or refer to, I shall call these places “heterotopias”, as opposed to utopias...3

As a philosophical concept heterotopias were introduced by French philosopher Michel Foucault. Firstly, heterotopias appear in The order of things in the context of language, where they illustrate its limitations in attempts to order and classify things. The language is a table, ‘a tabula’ which allows our mind to dissect the world into pieces and then order them in a coherent manner.4 Utopias provide such a convenient table where everything has its name despite not being real. Heterotopias, in contrast, create disorder – they disarrange the grammar of the language and thus all the myths created by it.5 Next, in the lecture ‘Of Other Spaces: Utopias and Heterotopias’ Foucault transfer heterotopias to the real, urban world where they are both mental spaces and real places. To explain them, he provides six principles by which heterotopias could be recognisable. Those principles are: 1. heterotopias have existed in all cultures and societies, 2. heterotopias reflect its surrounding culture and adapt to it, 3. several incompatible elements juxtaposed within a single real place, 4. they have an ability to accumulate a time, 5. the ambivalent system of opening/closing and entry/exit, 6. they are functionally opposite to all the space around it.6

3 Michel Foucault, ‘Different Spaces’, Aesthetics, Method, and Epistemology (New York: New Press, 1998), pp. 178-179. 4 Michel Foucault, The Order of Things (London: Taylor and Francis e-Library, 2005), p. xix. 5 Ibid. 6 Michel Foucault, ‘Different Spaces’, Aesthetics, Method, and Epistemology (New York: New Press, 1998), pp. 179-185.


Foucault distinguishes two main categories â&#x20AC;&#x201C; crisis heterotopias and heterotopias of deviance which would be attributed to pre-industrial / pre-modern time and industrial/ modern age accordingly.7 Later writers add third type - heterotopias of illusion which in turn represent post-industrial / post-modern time. Heterotopias of illusion (hereinafter called H3, by David G. Shane) differ from former (highly segregational, exclusionary and robust heterotopias of deviance) as being more transparent, accessible and flexible. Many of them (cinema, shopping malls, leisure centres) contain media communication, and thereby they have a high level of feedback and interaction.

Heterotopia of crisis H1

Heterotopia of deviance H2

Heterotopia of illusion H3

Fig. 2. Three categories of heterotopias

7 Michel Foucault, â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Different Spacesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, Aesthetics, Method, and Epistemology (New York: New Press, 1998), p. 179.




Further, I would like to look at other scholars who have used the concept of heterotopia directly attributed to certain urban conditions. Urban theorist David Grahame Shane discerns heterotopia as an important part of any urban environment and effective urban tool in hands of urban actors.8 He also considers heterotopias as the dominant urban element of the post-industrial city (Tele Città).9 Shane uses Foucault essay on heterotopias as a typological frame to formulate them accordingly with the postmodern urban condition. He ascribes heterotopias of illusion to Tele Città with its emphasis on visual where the illusion of freedom dominates over ‘compensatory’ discipline.10 Besides, the name Tele Città (from Greek tele – far) indicates on illusory qualities of the postmodern city where the notion of distance, reality and true is rather irrelevant. Next, there are three universal features which could be applied to heterotopias of all times and types. They are three “M’s” – mirror-function, which alter order imposed from outside, the multiple pockets, which provide alchemical processes within heterotopic enclaves and finally, heterotopias as catalysts which function as the miniature reflection of external condition.


Multiple pockets

Miniature reflection

Fig. 3. Three “M’s” features of heterotopias

What are the main functions of heterotopias in the contemporary urban environment? 1. A mirror. As mentioned above inverting-mirroring society and its utopian dreams is one of its functions. Shane believes that this function equips urban actors with multiple identities and indicates their needs.11 8 Shane, D. G. Recombinant urbanism : conceptual modelling in architecture, urban design, and city theory (Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2005), p. 9. 9 Ibid., pp. 219-226. 10 Ibid., p. 259. 11 Ibid., p. 260.


2. A catalyst. After identification process, urban actors can create micro-cities within enclaves and populate them with heterogeneous pockets with codes and actions different from the rest of the city. Here they can perform their utopian experiments safely which in the case of the success can become a pattern, a norm for outside.12 3. A host. One of the primary functions of heterotopias is to contain all anomalies (‘taboo objects, things, relationships, and people) which deviate from the norms created by the majority.13 In the postmodern Tele Città where crisis, deviance and illusion often overlap, the precariat is one group which exists in the crisis condition, deviate from conventional norms and live in an illusory state at the same time. 4. A mediator. According to Dehaene and De Cauter, within ‘postcivil society’ where the equilibrium between public and private has been eroded by economization, heterotopia could become a mediator between private and public with a potential to restore the former distinction.14

Fig. 4. Heterotopia as a mediator

5. Equilibrium. A heterotopia maintains a balance between ‘the stasis of the enclave’ and ‘the flow of an armature’ and it helps to ‘mantain the city’s stability as self-organizing system’.15

12 Ibid., p. 10. 13 Ibid., p. 231. 14 Dehaene, De Cauter, p. 4. 15 Shane, p. 231.


6. An attractor. In the Tele CittĂ where extensive commodification takes a place, heterotopias of illusion have become the embodiment of different forms of retail shopping malls, theme parks, etc. Here transformative and illusory qualities of heterotopias are being exploited to attract consumers. Heterotopias have been present in all societies and with their â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;alternate orderingâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; they have been driving force of modernity.16 What an urban role they would have in the postmodern cities in the condition of neoliberal capitalism where uncertainty and flexibility have suppressed predictability and hierarchy?

16 Kevin Hetherington, The badlands of modernity: heterotopia and social ordering.( London; New York: Routledge, 1997), p.viii.


Precariat in the UK This is economically the poorest class, with a household income of only £8k, negligible savings, and they are likely to rent. Their social range is small with an average of seven contacts whose mean status is the lowest of any of the classes. The scores for both highbrow and emerging cultural capital are the lowest and second lowest, respectively, of any of the classes. This is clearly the most deprived of the classes that we have identified, on all measures, yet they form a relatively large social class, with percent of the population.17


2 OTHERS 17 Mike Savage et al., ‘A New Model of Social Class? Findings from the BBC’s Great British Class Survey Experiment’, Sociology, 4 (2013) <> [accessed 16 March 2016] (p. 25).



Men in the plural, that is, men in so far as they live and move and act in this world, can experience meaningfulness only because they can talk with and make sense to each other and to themselves.18

Hannah Arendt in her book The Human Condition is expressing concern about rising world alienation within the modern society as a consequence of the processes galvanised by the capitalist economy.19 Progress and wealth accumulation for some have come at the cost of others. The rise of neo-liberal market competitiveness and ‘labour market flexibility’ brought insecurity to a vast amount of working class population and created global phenomena of the precariat.20 Being exposed to the conditions of bare life these others are deprived of the public sphere and thus ‘action’- the highest of human conditions which guarantee their equality in the public domain.21 Thus, the gap between elite and those at the bottom of the ladder is not only in economic terms but also socially and politically. The precariat is defined as the most deprived social class in contemporary Britain. It has a high level of insecurity on all measures of capital which are economic, cultural and social.22 In many European countries, the term precarity is used to describe ‘condition of temporary, flexible, contingent, casual, intermittent work in postindustrial societies’.23 There is not a common position on whether precariat is a separate class within society or it is the condition inherent to almost all parts of the society. For these groups everyday life is full of uncertainty and accommodation is temporary. The living condition of the lowest class is a catalyst of the whole society and it reflects other, wider issues within it, such as inequality, segregation, housing crisis. By being the Other, reflective, controversial, and not in the right place, precariat is a heterotopic subject.

18 Hannah Arendt, The Human Condition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989), p.4. 19 Ibid. pp. 254-255. 20 Guy Standing, The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class (Bloomsbury Academic, 2011), p.1. 21 Hannah Arendt, p.254-255. 22 Mike Savage et al., p. 25. 23 ‘Precarity’ <> [accessed 15 March 2016].


Housing crisis in the City of Edinburgh Homeless applicants:


homeless applications were made in 2014-15

Temporary accommodation:


families were in temporary accommodation on March 31st 2015,




Waiting list

24,909 people are on the waiting list for council housing


2 OTHERS 24 Shelter. Scotland, Scotlandâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s housing crisis. <> [accessed 21 March 2016]



‘Only if we are capable of dwelling, only then can we build.’25

The housing and homelessness charity ‘Shelter’ raises the alarm about the current housing crisis in the UK and particularly in Scotland. Since implementing Right to Buy policy in the Housing Act 1980, the stock of council and affordable housing has been experiencing constant shortages against growing demand.26 While ‘Shelter’ points out on a range of problems of a social and political character forming current housing crisis, such as insufficient level of new-build affordable housing and problems in the private rent sector, ‘The centre for social justice’ in their report talks about social housing’s residualisation. This term means that social housing is increasingly allocated to the residue of society – the neediest families.27 These people mostly are unemployed, the precariat. Bad reputation leads towards the further decline of the community, as more advantageous people want to leave such an undesirable place.28 Authors of the report propose to change social housing by creating more mixed communities and by building more flexible buildings which would be available for all.29 It would mean heterogeneous and open communities instead of homogeneous and closed communities. Heterogeneity expressed not only as a diversity of social classes, national backgrounds and family models but also concerning housing typology, spatial solutions and architectural language which allows diversity and transformations within a coherent framework.

25 Martin Heidegger ‘Building Dwelling Thinking’ Poetry, Language, Thought (New York, 1971), p.361. 26 Shelter. Scotland 27 Housing and Dependency Working Group, Housing Poverty From Social Breakdown to Social Mobility (The centre for social justice, November 2008) <> [accessed 21 March 2016] (p.53).. 28 Ibid. 29 Ibid., p.82.


‘Central belt’ population facts currently

63 % of Scotland’s population.


Predicted population rise of Scotland 2015 – 2035 by from

5.4 to 5.8 millions.

7% (400,000)


3 CITY EDGE 30 Central belt <> [accessed 21 March 2016] 31 Suzanne Dunsmith, National Population Projections: 2010-Based Statistical Bulletin (Office for National Statistics, 2011) < bulletins/nationalpopulationprojections/2011-10-26> [accessed 21 March 2016]




Glasburgh corridor

Fig. 5. Scotland / Central Belt / Glasburgh corridor

The area of study is the part of Central Belt, which lies between the major cities of Glasgow and Edinburgh constrained by the infrastructure of the M8 and the Shotts Line railway. 25

It is here on the edge of the periphery that we should observe how things take shape. The contemporary city, the one composed of these peripheries, ought to yield a sort of manifesto, a premature homage to a form of modernity, which when compared to cities of the past might seem devoid of qualities, but in which we will one day recognise as many gains as losses.32

3 CITY EDGE 32 Rem Koolhaas â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Toward the Contemporary Cityâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, in Design Book Review 17 (1989), 15-16 (p.15).



‘City Edge’ sector is located on the very East end of Glasburgh corridor. It covers parts of West Lothian council area and the rural area of the City of Edinburgh. The sector is very diverse in its character containing features of industrial, suburban and rural character. One of the main documents for reflection and critique is SES plan. SESPlan is designed to constrain the growth of Edinburgh within a series of corridors that reinforce its position as a compact city while retaining the status of the surrounding Green Belt.33 Edinburgh Green Belt is a buffer zone which was established in 1957. The primary functions since 1999 are following: *maintaining the identity of the City and neighbouring towns by preventing coalescence; *providing countryside for recreation and institutional purposes; *maintaining the landscape setting of the City and neighbouring towns.34 There are different views on the future of Green Belt. At one end of the spectrum of options is the policy of preserving current status of settlements which has drawbacks of increased commuting and uncontrolled development. At the other end is the option of green wedges and transport corridors which generates the development of settlements but may create their merge.35 In my opinion, none of these options provides a compactness neither to the city as a whole nor its margins. SES Plan’s Spatial Strategy offers an extension of the city within the growth corridors which will significantly interrupt Green Belt and will create a coalescence (Fig.7). One of the first forerunners of this scheme of growth is Edinburgh’s Garden District plan which will occupy The Green Belt and would provide mix development including 6200 homes on the total area of 250 Ha.36 Edinburgh’s Garden District Masterplan illustrates how the development fills the free space between Edinburgh and Heriot-Watt University (Fig.8). It clearly shows the benefit of diverse infrastructure (motorways, railway and water canal) going through the development area. The thesis looks at alternative solutions for the expansion of the city which would be more concentrate, effectively use existing infrastructure, provide necessary housing and at the same time would preserve the Green Belt.

33 The Edinburgh and South East Scotland Strategic Development Planning Authority, SESplan. Main Issues Report (July 2015) < > [accessed 7 March 2016] (p.9). 34 Scottish Government, Review of Green Belt policy in Scotland (2004) <> [accessed 7 March 2016] (5.49). 35 Ibid., 5.71 36 Edinburgh’s Garden District brochure (2015) <> [accessed 21 March 2016] (p.7).



Newbridge Village

Fig. 7. Growth corridors. SES plan main issues report

Edinburgh rural area/ city border

Fig. 6. â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;City Edgeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; sector area. Key elements: settlements, infrastructure


City of Edinburgh

Edinburgh Airport

Tram line The Royal Highland Centre A8

Shotts Line railway.

M8 Union Canal


Green Belt Proposed development Edinburgh Garden District A71

Heriot-Watt University 29

Edinburgh Garden Distric parameters Total site area Up to

250 Ha (2.5)km2

6,200 new family homes of which 25% affordable.


Estimated population

14,260 (the average household size in the UK is 2.3 people

per household)38 Estimated density

5,700 inh./km2

37 Murray Estates Limited Edinburghâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Garden District brochure (2015) <> [accessed 21 March 2016] (p.7). 38 Garnett Compton, 2011 Census: Population and household estimates for the United Kingdom, March Fig. 8. Edinburgh GardenStatistics, District Masterplan 2011(Office for National 2011) < bulletins/nationalpopulationprojections/2011-10-26> [accessed 21 March 2016]



Fig. 9. â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;City Edgeâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; contains the busiest infrastructural node in Scotland

0 Fig. 10. Newbridge Village



Newbridge population facts A total population of Newbridge (including Ratho Station)

1,074 (2011).

Fig.11. Newbridge Village - warehouses and traffic jams next to busiest junction in Scotland. 39 <,_Edinburgh>




Newbridge Village is a settlement on the edge of Edinburgh city. It has a peculiar character being densely crammed with the service and light industry (Fig.11), located next to the airport and entangled into the knot of infrastructure. The permanent presence of these components creates a dual situation of being at the centre of continuous movement and yet confined in its homogeneous development and reduced mobility. The village is a vivid example of a miniature model of the City as Machine where monofunctional enclaves of production, consumption and storage are connected by transport and information armatures which at the same time bypasses, segregate and fragmentize the urban settlement.40 Newbridge is one of the proposed areas for delivering necessary housing stock for expanding Edinburgh. There is a significant lack of local amenities such as community centre, library, leisure and healthcare facilities to provide with the existing and future population.41 The thesis looks at the ways to densify and intensify this suburban area to become a one of the major sub-centres within Edinburgh city area.

Fig.12. Newbridge Village - home for service and distribution.

40 Shane, p. 182. 41 <>





‘A socialist settlement is a properly thought out organization of industry and agriculture, culture and leisure: of everything that informs human consciousness and life. It is a settlement constructed on the basis of the foremost socialist technology’.42 Competition entry for the socialist settlement at Magnitogorsk by Ivan Leonidov is a linear city which joins industrial plants in a straight and focused manner. It vividly represents ideals and concepts of the City as a Machine, such as constant progress and straight movement. The main urban element of this type of city is an armature (infrastructure) which joins monofunctional enclaves. The exercise where Linear City is placed in the context of Glasburgh corridor is intended to be investigative, a critical tool which dissects, re-arranges iconic city in order to come to ‘provisional conclusions’ which further would lead into unpredictable directions.43 The exercise (Fig. 13-15) uncovers collusion between idealised form and chaotic reality, between transport network and housing developments. It occurs that Ivan Leonidov’s approach of connecting industrial plants along an infrastructure coincides with SES plan’s option with corridors of growth connecting existing settlements. New scheme reveals potentials of high-speed lifestyle where all amenities could be compressed into one volume along the infrastructure on one side and residential units on another (Fig. 16). It also shows how linear and concentrated massing of buildings could prevent coalescence of settlements and be more delicate to the Green Belt. On the domestic level (Fig. 14), Leonidov’s scheme provides communal lifestyle which would be appropriate to achieve goals of the social condenser for dwelling the Others. The interaction between 16 living cells happens within double-height communal space. It has heterotopic qualities as being dedicated to a wide range of shared activities – dining, leisure, morning exercises and cultural work.44

42 Andrei Gozak, Ivan Leonidov: the complete works (Academy Editions, 1988), p.87. 43 Lorens Holm and Cameron McEwan, ‘Preface’, in Eleven city plans + one section, ed. by Rooms + Cities unit (Dundee: the Print Unit, 2016) p.7. 44 Andrei Gozak, p.87.


0 Fig. 13. Linear City fragment 500x500m.


Fig. 14. Hierarchy of spaces



Glasburgh corridor + Linear city by Ivan Leonidov. Parameters. Volume / plot area (one unit), Population of the city: Population: Density,

2,625m3 / 375m2

150,000 inh.

250 per housing complex

4,200 inh./km2


0.1 (total)




Ratio of public to private space,

98% / 2%

Fig. 15. Linear City montage in Glasburgh corridor.



Fig. 16. Linear City in Glasburgh corridor. Photomontage.




‘It is possible to imagine a mirror image of this terrifying architecture, a force as intense and devastating but used instead in the service of positive intentions.’45 At the end of the Modern epoch, several manifestos were written criticising Modernism and looking for new trends and ideas. The seminal work by Rem Koolhaas’s and his collaborators’- 1972 competition entry ‘Exodus or the Voluntary Prisoners of Architecture’ for a ‘City with a significant environment’ was one of them. However, it stands out from its contemporaries with ‘otherness’ in thinking about a void and the spaces in-between. It reflects many issues of modern society which are still relevant today, more than 40 years after being published - such as idealisation of an architectural object, segregation and rationalisation. The idea for Exodus came from Berlin wall which Rem Koolhaas visited during his summer vacation in 1971 and which became his momentum of revelation.46 Which side of the wall is free, what ideals are pursued and believed – power and ambiguity of this architectural object were overwhelming to him. He inverted its meaning and placed it in the centre of London.47 Here in one of the financial centres of the world; the wall could be read as an allegory for capital accumulation and wealth concentration in the hands of a closed system. Political undertones here are present as much as architectural ones. ‘Exodus’ also must be seen as a critique of the late period Modernists’ idealistic visions and ambitions.48 Indeed, implementation of some of the postulates of CIAM’s 1933 Athens Charter such as segregation of functional uses, denial of the street and suppression of individual reached the apogee by the end of 1960’s and coincided with several urban processes.49 It was a disaster of social housing in America and UK, the death of historical centres in America and overwhelming mass production of cheap housing. ‘Exodus’ also opposed to positivist utopian visions which were aimed only at the future. In contrast, ‘Exodus’ showed the reflection of the present condition by mirroring desires of society into the space between walls. It represented the void between ‘us’ and ‘others’. One could recognise the features of both utopian, dystopian and heterotopic spaces all through this pseudorealistic text. Christine Boyer sees this project as ‘a negative manifesto out to destroy the city 45 Rem Koolhaas, S,M,L,XL, O.M.A. (The Monacelli Press, 1998), p.5. 46 M. Christine Boyer, ‘The many mirrors of Foucault and their architectural reflections’ in Heterotopia and the City. Public space in a postcivil society, ed. by Michiel Dehaene and Lieven De Cauter (New York: Routledge, 2008), p. 65. 47 Ibid., p.66. 48 Ibid., p. 65. 49 Congress Internationaux d’Architecture Moderne (CIAM), La Charte d’Athenes or The Athens Charter, 1933. Trans J.Tyrwhitt. (Paris, France: The Library of the Graduate School of Design, Harvard University, 1946). [accessed 18 February 2016]


and all reformist theories intent on improving it.’50 This antagonistic approach shows the heterotopic nature of this project. ‘Once, a city was divided in two parts. One part became the Good Half, the other part the Bad Half.’51 The good part was surrounded by walls. The aim was to protect it from undesirable outside influence. This zone – ‘The strip’ is an example of heterotopia of deviance – ‘machine for eliminating’.52 It creates order and stability within the imperfect city and compensates its weaknesses. Being so desirable the good part experienced a constant influx of those eager to be there. The parallels could be drawn with the processes in Britain at the time. The home ownership started to dominate over shared council housing and suburban expansion claimed more and more rural territories. In the light of these events idea of the walled city seems very appealing and as enormous megastructure appropriate in the context of 1960s. The heterotopic photomontage with ‘The strip’ being transplanted into Glasburgh corridor reflects on current issues of gated communities and alienation as the byproducts of neoliberalism and urban processes influenced by it.

Fig. 17. The strip. 50 Boyer, p.66. 51 Rem Koolhaas, S,M,L,XL, O.M.A. (The Monacelli Press, 1998), p.5. 52 Boyer, p.66.


Fig. 18. The strip in Glasburgh corridor. Photomontage.



We could say that the original motive of utopia is hope. Utopia is the true preparation for projecting, as play is preparation for life. The revolutionary charge of utopia, the hope which is at its foundation and the criticism which is its direct consequence, bring back its dignity as a rational, ordering activity.53

Another radical and provocative voice against the prevailing winds of society and architecture in the 60’s and 70’s was the group called Superstudio. Thoughts-provoking photomontages and collage drawings showing ambiguous visions of the future and critical reflections of the present were their instruments of inspection and the weapons of critique. ‘The continuous monument’ is a ‘moderate utopia’ for the near future when architecture will be the absolute and autonomous creation entirely distinct from nature.54 It would be a ’total urbanisation’ - a singular formation which occupies minimal footprint leaving the rest of the environment free.55

Fig. 19. The Continuous Monument. 53 Adolfo Natalini ‘Inventory, Catalogue, Systems of Flux... a Statement’, Superstudio: Life Without Objects by Peter Lang and William Menking (Skira Editore, 2003), p.166. 54 Peter Lang and William Menking, Superstudio: Life Without Objects (Skira Editore, 2003), p.122. 55 Ibid., p.128.


‘Architecture faces nature without disguising itself, but presented as the only alternative...’56 it creates a dialogue with it as between equals. Gil Doron believes that the true purpose of these megastructures ‘...was to free space’.57 He refers to Stefano Boeri who sees this new type of system of the continuous pattern through the open space as ‘a heterotopian landscape’.58

Fig. 20. The Continuous Monument.

This project continues themes of linearity, enclosure and void initiated by previous two. It uncovers terrain vague of countless possibilities what would emerge within a framed yet undefined void.

56 Ibid., p.130. 57 Gil Doron, ‘‘. . . those marvellous empty zones at the edge of cities’: Heterotopia and the ‘dead zone’’ in Heterotopia and the City. Public space in a postcivil society, ed. by Michiel Dehaene and Lieven De Cauter (New York: Routledge, 2008), p. 208. 58 Ibid.




This generic field is essence of the social factory defined by continuous mobility, the uprootedness, the precarity of life.59 DOGMA in their proposals creates highly heterotopic architecture. These projects are utopian in their far-reaching concepts and simultaneously real in their highly rational and in real politic and social situation grounded attitude. On the urban scale, it is a generic form or a framework which contains multiple heterotopic pockets. Pockets are heterotopic because they reflect on current needs and issues of society. They are not stable but flexible and transformative. Such is the case of ‘A simple heart’ – a project for the European city. The framework for different scenarios of development is an inhabitable wall, twenty storeys high and 25 m thick which encloses an existing territory 800 by 800m in various cities.60 Enclosed space is open ‘living room’ where production takes place.61 Production in the post-fordist age is immaterial; products are the knowledge and social exchange. DOGMA proposes to re-use ‘post-industrial city’ as a ground for ‘social factory’- a new city which uses former infrastructure.62 Spaces inside the walls are transformative, allocated mostly for the process of resting and contemplating in solitude.63

Fig. 21. A Simple Heart. 59 Pier Vittorio Aureli, Gabriele Mastrigli and Brett Steele, Dogma: 11 Projects (Publisher Architectural Association Publications 2013), p.22. 60 Ibid. 61 Ibid. 62 Ibid. 63 Ibid.


Placed in the context of the city edge of Edinburgh the frames reveal potentials of enclosing the existing context without affecting its fabric. The frames are uniform, surrounding environment - diverse. Uniformity reflects equality yet it is diversified by the environment it frames - industrial, retail, rural.

Fig. 22. A Simple Heart frames in the city edge. Montage.




‘We propose a city of rooms instead of a city of streets. We propose a city of walls instead of a city of landmarks.’64 This motto describes DOGMAS answer to the brief of international competition for the new multifunctional administrative city in Seoul. ‘City-walls’ are conceived as a frame for the future development. The space between them – existing landscape is preserved.65 The city grows inwards – from defined perimeter towards the centre. The detailed infrastructure scheme for public and private transport shows how infrastructure borders the city and connects strategic hotspots within it. However, it does not provide any clue how infrastructure could work at the pedestrian level, within a district, between buildings. The level of abstraction of this project allows ignoring them. DOGMA disclaims ‘streets and plazas’ and instead, sees city-walls – cruciform buildings as ‘the basic habitable architectural infrastructure’.66

Fig. 23. City-walls.

64 Pier Vittorio Aureli, Gabriele Mastrigli and Brett Steele, Dogma: 11 Projects (Publisher Architectural Association Publications 2013), p.52. 65 Ibid. 66 Ibid.


Pasted in the city edge of Edinburgh it shows a possibility of the dense urban settlement - sub-centre of Edinburgh. However, the small size of the grid does not allow to operate within an existing context flexibly, without ignoring it.

Fig. 24. City-walls in the city edge. Montage.




In the essay ‘Production/Reproduction: Housing beyond the Family’ Pier

Vittorio Aureli and Martino Tattara inspect a phenomenon of the postindustrial age – amalgamation of production and reproduction. They revise traditional relationships between oppositions - work and labor, office and housing, collective and individual and offer new models of their coexistence.

If the house in pre-industrial age was a place where domesticity very often

coexisted with work, then industrial age brought the distinction between production and reproduction. House became a refuge from the world of production.67 In the postindustrial age; this division is no more relevant as more and more people turn to freelance work. It also could be a case for a significant part of those living in the condition of precarity.

DOGMA indicates on the problematic of current housing situation. There is absurd

reliance on clichés of traditional family models and housing typologies and ignorance of increasing new forms of cohabitation.68 In the context of the current housing crisis; DOGMA sees an urgent need for new approaches to housing where currently ‘the hegemony of the family (and private property)’ dominates.69 As an alternative to this, they offer models of co-living and co-working within a complex structure consisting of both private and collective spaces. As one of the situations where these ideas could be implemented is the abundance of vacant office space throughout the Europe.70 The main idea is to use generic office with its open and flexible plan as a place where work and labor coexist. For this concept to be effectively implemented DOGMA names three principles: 1. housing is communal property, 2. reduced private space and increased communal space, 3. architecture without finishings.71

67 Aureli, P. V. and Tattara M. ‘Production/Reproduction: Housing beyond the Family’, Harvard Design Magazine, 41(2015) <> [accessed 9 March 2016] 68 Ibid. 69 Ibid. 70 Ibid. 71 Ibid.


These principles could guarantee the avoidance of property speculations, more effective and thus less time-consuming work within a communal environment and more costeffective dwellings. It is possible to see how this project and the principles it contains, could be applied to the city edge of Edinburgh. It also guides in the direction of incorporated flexibility where one unifying module would allow accommodating different functions - housing, office, car parking.

Fig. 25. Typical plan for the transformation of an office block, Brussels, Belgium, 2014.


Where there is nothing, everything is possible. Where there is architecture, nothing (else) is possible.72

5 72 Rem Koolhaas , Imagining Nothingness, 1995



In the course of the research and design process, the scheme has gone through

several transformations. What started as a linear city, ended as a heterotopic grid.

Stage 1. Continuous linear city

Stage 2. Connecting existing settlements. See also: Fig.15.

Stage 3. Two parralel volumes with the space in-between

Stage 4. Testing matt-building

Stage 5. Responding to the context

Stage 6. Creating basic concept

Stage 7. Grid 200 x 200m

Stage 8. Dense sub-centre on the city edge

Stage 9. Extending the grid. Gaps and voids

Fig. 26. Design process stages.


These transformations have happened through the cumulative gathering of information, knowledge and repetitive and rigorous applying it into the design process. Transformations were feed and determined not only from the case studies but also from insights into social, philosophical and political spheres. Here I describe the most substantial aspects, concepts and components of the design process. Enclave. According to David G. Shane, it is one of the three primary urban elements (enclave, armature and heterotopia) which shape the city.73 Enclaves are the fragments of the city which have ‘distinct interior spatial and social orders that help distinguish them from their surroundings’.74 In my scheme, the enclave is a self-organizing system which accommodates different functions - housing, business and retail activities, car and bicycle parking. It is a body (length 150m) of the social condenser.

Fig. 27. Enclave.

Fig. 28. Armature.

Armature. It is form and a character-defining element of the city, a space of flow and a place for interaction. As an infrastructure, it has considerable presence in the City Edge (motorways, railway and water canal) and segregating effect to Newbridge Village. As being part of the urban grid, it is also an organising device, which connects ‘the subelements of the city, its urban magnets or attractors... anything or anybody that draws people to a particular site or place.’ The traditional, normative 600-foot (200-meter) pedestrian armature is the basic length module of the heterotopic grid, public space within the enclave and the connecting device between heterotopias.

73 Shane, p. 155. 74 Ibid. p. 177.


Heterotopia. The concept of heterotopias is very ambiguous and volatile. As such it is an excellent mirror of Postmodernity where meanings are blurred and their overlap. The concept of heterotopias is more philosophical than architectural. It is more convenient to operate with it within the fields of philosophy, politics and social issues where it has more indefinite and intangible appearance and it does not require concreteness. Whereas architecture is tangible and concrete which asks everything to be defined, to have a form and place. Why then heterotopia could not start its existence as a void, space inbetween the city and rural area, settlement and infrastructure, public and private? In the heterotopic grid, it plays the role of uncertainty. It provides a space for possibilities and transformations. It is the crossing point where flows of people from outside, from different enclaves, meet, interact and implement their utopian visions.

Fig. 29. Heterotopia.

Fig. 30. Heterotopic grid. Voids between enclaves.

The void. It is possible to imagine the void as a beginning of something new - a new filling with new content, new development or... going back to the old allotment. Voids at the end of enclaves are raptures in the linearity of building volumes. They provide with relief, new vistas and new encounters. Voids between social condensers, in turn, are the spaces for preserving - existing industry, settlements, nature, the Green Belt. Within the urban and suburban context, they contain parks, allotments, football fields (Fig.31.). They also could contain patches of service or light industry. In the case of rural context, they frame agricultural fields which all are accessible through 50m gaps within each 200m.


Fig. 31. Voids between social condensers.

The grid. City edge condition with its multilayered infrastructure, fragmented settlements, scattered industry and the rural Green Belt requires a grid which organises, connects, accommodates and preserves. It must be flexible to grow (adjust new buildings) and to adapt to the context - to be interrupted when it meets an obstacle, to be lifted when there is a change in level. The size of the heterotopic grid responds to the local context. 200x200m is for high urban density (15â&#x20AC;&#x2122;000 inh/km2), 400x400m is for medium urban density (3,750 inh/km2), 800x800m is for suburban density (935 inh/km2) and 1600x1600m is for rural density (235 inh/km2).

Fig. 32. Heterotpics grid development in urban and rural setting. Photomontage.

Heterotopic grid is alien to the rural setting as much as uncontrolled urban sprawl. Even more, it accentuates this disparity with the artificiality of regular lines against natural irregularity. The grid defines a clear edge to the city with its continuity and massiveness. At the same time it preserves what it frames and by being porous, it allows the nature flow through.


The grid is considered as a universal urban solution for planned cities through the 75 history. It is also believed that grid expressed in the context of modern democracies is a key to equality.76 Heterotopic grid on the Green Belt allows equal distribution of housing regarding infrastructure, views, insolation. It provides equal access to public amenities and spaces. It eliminates segregation of functions and social classes and offer the space for integrated and egalitarian society, instead. The city of Edinburgh

City centre



The Green Belt

00 16




city border


Heterotopic grid

Fig. 33. Heterotopic grid as a framework for the future growth / sub-centres

Next, there is a list of functions heterotopic grid endeavours to implement on the city edge of Edinburgh and beyond. 1. A mirror. Heterotopic grid reflects utopian idea of preserved Green Belt and frames it. It reflects needs of society and adapts accordingly. 2. A catalyst. Heterotopic grid provides spaces for utopian experiments which in the case of the success can become a pattern, a norm for the city. 75 Kostof, S. The City Shaped: Urban Patterns and Meanings Through History (London: Thames and Hudson, 1991), p.95. 76 Ibid., p.100.


Fig. 34. Heterotopic grid. Concept photomontage


3. A host. Heterotopic grid hosts different social groups, different functions. 4. A mediator. Heterotopic grid clearly defines public and private spaces. Private space within the grid and each separate social condenser are reduced to a necessary minimum whereas communal space - increased. Heterotopic cross points are either public voids or they can become semi-public institutions – necessary amenities for communities. 5. An attractor. Being open for the new transformations the heterotopic grid could be attractive for different actors (developers) who would have to play on equal terms. Utopia. In his seminal work Recombinant urbanism: conceptual modelling in architecture, urban design, and city theory David Grahame Shane describes the postmodern city as ‘a patchwork of heterogeneous fragments’.77 Rem Koolhaas, in turn, speaks about ‘new urbanism’ which will be ‘...the staging of uncertainty; it will no longer be concerned with the arrangement of more or less permanent objects but with the irrigation of territories with potential...’78 Indeed, the city has become more diverse, fragmented and decentralised than ever before. There is no single authority, single masterplan which would orchestrate the whole. Edinburgh’s various plans for further growth on the edges of the city are exposed to different interests from actors with often contradicting opinions. To build on the Green Belt or to preserve it is a contentious issue. The attempt to organise heterogeneous environment of Edinburgh’s city edge with ‘alien’ grid is a utopian vision. It does not resemble typical development on greenfield land. It speaks a different ‘language’ which breaks up the usual order of things such as zoning, density, preservation, community and the others. Heterotopic grid is intended to be a conceptual and formal framework which inheres a critical aspect targeted at the existent problematic issues of the modern urbanity and society as a whole. These issues and their impact on Architecture are described throughout the thesis text and the heterotopic grid is a utopian answer to them. Utopian thinking does not provide resolutions to the uncertainties and problems of our time but instead gives more focussed image and ‘provisional conclusions’79 which, in turn, would lead to further discussion and more tangible results.

77 Shane, p. 9. 78 Rem Koolhaas, ‘What Ever Happened to Urbanism’ S,M,L,XL, O.M.A. (The Monacelli Press, 1998), p.967. 79 Lorens Holm and Cameron McEwan, p.7.


Once, there was a Green Belt around Edinburgh. It was a real countryside in the reach of hand.

There also were the Others - people in crisis. It was a housing crisis in the city of Edinburgh. Housing was for profit.

Developers were interested in building as many homes as possible. Detached houses were in favour as they are more profitable than flats.


The two camps were fighting against each other with opposite opinions about the future of the Green Belt. To build or not to build?

Heterotopic grid projects desires and needs of society on the ground. It reflects the idea of preserved Green Belt and frames it.

Heterotopic grid is based on the concept of heterotopia by Michel Foucault and the idea of egalitarian society.

Fig. 35. Heterotopic grid as an utopian vision.

Comic. 67

Edinburgh rural area/ city border

Newbridge Village

Heterotopic grid parameters Covered (gross) area with the heterotopic grid Population

70 km2

135,000 inh.

Average density

1,900 inh./km2

Fig. 36. Heterotopic grid in the Green Belt on the city edge of Edinburgh


City of Edinburgh

Edinburgh Airport

The Royal Highland Centre

Tram line A8


Shotts Line railway. Union Canal


Green Belt A71

Heriot-Watt University 69

Fig. 37. Heterotopic grid. Birdâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s view. Sketch photomontage



6 72



I would like to express my special thanks of gratitude to my tutors Dr Lorens Holm and Dr Cameron McEwan for the continuous encouragement and guidance through the year. I would also like to thank ROOMS + CITIES unit for mutually intensive co-operation. Finally, I must express my very profound gratitude to Mairita for patience and support.


6 74



Arendt, Hannah The Human Condition (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1989) a+t research group, 10 stories of collective housing: graphical analysis of inspiring masterpieces (a+t architecture publishers, 2013) Aureli, Pier Vittorio, Gabriele Mastrigli and Brett Steele, Dogma: 11 Projects (London: Publisher Architectural Association Publications 2013) Calvino, Italo Invisible cities (London: Vintage, 1997) Dehaene, Michiel and Lieven De Cauter Heterotopia and the City. Public space in a postcivil society (New York: Routledge, 2008) Foucault, Michel â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;Different Spacesâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;, Aesthetics, Method, and Epistemology (New York: New Press, 1998) Foucault, Michel The Order of Things (Taylor and Francis e-Library, 2005) Gausa, Manuel. et al. (editors), Metapolis Dictionary of Advanced Architecture: City, Technology and Society in the Information Age (Barcelona: Actar, 2000) Gozak, Andrej. Ivan Leonidov: the complete works. (London: Academy Editions, 2008) Heidegger, M. Poetry, language, thought (New York; London: Harper & Row, 1975) Hetherington, Kevin. The badlands of modernity: heterotopia and social ordering (London; New York: Routledge, 1997) Jacobs, J. The death and life of great American cities (London: Penguin Books in association with Jonathan Cape, 1994) Koolhaas, Rem S,M,L, XL, O.M.A. (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers, 1995) Koolhaas, Rem et al. Mutations (Barcelona: Actar, 2000) Lang, Peter and William Menking Superstudio: Life Without Objects (Skira Editore, 2003) Maas, Winy Farmax :excursions on density (Rotterdam : 010 Publishers, 1998) MVRDV KM3: excursions on capacities (Barcelona: Actar, 2005) Rossi, Alberto The Architecture of the City (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 1982) Sassen, Saskia The global city: New York, London, Tokyo (Princeton, N.J.; Oxford: Princeton University Press, 2001) Sennett, Richard The conscience of the eye: the design and social life of cities. (London: Faber, 1993) Sennett, Richard Flesh and Stone: The Body and the City in Western Civilization (London: Faber & Faber, c1994) Sennett, Richard The uses of disorder: personal identity and city life (London: Faber & Faber, 1996) Sergison Bates Architects Sergison Bates architects :papers 2 (Barcelona : Editorial Gustavo Gili SL, 2007) Shane, David Grahame Recombinant urbanism :conceptual modelling in architecture, urban design, and city theory (Chichester: John Wiley & Sons, 2005) Spiro, K. The city shaped :urban patterns and meanings through history (London: Thames and Hudson, 1991) Standing, Guy The Precariat: The New Dangerous Class (Bloomsbury Academic, 2011) Tafuri, Manfredo Architecture and utopia design and capitalist development (M.I.T. Press, 1976) Virno, Paolo A grammar of the multitude: for an analysis of contemporary forms of life (Los Angeles, Semiotext(e), c2004)


6 76



Fig. 1. Author’s own, Mind map. Fig. 2. Author’s own, Three categories of heterotopias. Fig. 3. Author’s own, Three “M’s” features of heterotopias. Fig. 4. Author’s own, Heterotopia as a mediator. Fig. 5. Rooms + Cities unit, ‘Region / Central Belt’ Glasburgh Corridor Survey (Dundee: the Print Unit, 2016) p.4. Fig. 6. Author’s own, ‘City Edge’ sector area. Main elements: settlements, infrastructure. Base map taken from: Digimap Ordnance Survey <> (Accessed October 10, 2015). Fig. 7. The Edinburgh and South East Scotland Strategic Development Planning Authority Growth corridors SESplan from Main Issues Report (July 2015)< > [accessed 7 March 2016] (p.9). Fig. 8. Murray Estates Limited, Edinburgh Garden District Masterplan from Edinburgh’s Garden District brochure (2015) <> [accessed 21 March 2016] (p.7). Fig. 9. Author’s own, ‘City Edge’ contains the busiest infrastructural node in Scotland. Fig. 10. Author’s own, Newbridge Village. Fig.11. Author’s own, Newbridge Village - warehouses and traffic jams next to busiest junction in Scotland. Fig.12. Author’s own, Newbridge Village - home for service and distribution. Fig. 13. Author’s own, Linear City fragment 500x500m. Fig. 14. Author’s own, Hierarchy of spaces. Fig. 15. Author’s own, Linear City montage in Glasburgh corridor. Fig. 16. Author’s own, Linear City in Glasburgh corridor. Photomontage. Fig. 17. Rem Koolhaas, Elia Zenghelis, Madelon Vriesendorp and Zoe Zenghelis, The Strip (Aerial Perspective) from S,M,L,XL, O.M.A. (Rotterdam: 010 Publishers, 1995) Fig. 18. Author’s own, The strip in Glasburgh corridor. Photomontage using The Strip by Rem Koolhaas, Elia Zenghelis, Madelon Vriesendorp and Zoe Zenghelis Fig. 19. Superstudio, The Continuous Monument. Superstudio: Life Without Objects (Skira Editore, 2003), p.129. Fig. 20. Superstudio, The Continuous Monument Superstudio: Life Without Objects (Skira Editore, 2003), p.139. Fig. 21. DOGMA, A Simple Heart Dogma: 11 Projects (Publisher Architectural Association Publications 2013), p.24. Fig. 22. A Simple Heart frames in the city edge. Montage. Fig. 23. DOGMA, City-walls Dogma: 11 Projects (Publisher Architectural Association Publications 2013), p.24. Fig. 24. City-walls in the city edge. Montage. Fig. 25. DOGMA, Typical plan for the transformation of an office block, Brussels, Belgium, 2014. ‘Production/ Reproduction: Housing beyond the Family’, Harvard Design Magazine, 41(2015) <> [accessed 9 March 2016] Fig. 26. Author’s own, Design process stages. Fig. 27. Author’s own, Enclave. Fig. 28. Author’s own, Armature. Fig. 29. Author’s own, Heterotopia. Fig. 30. Author’s own, Heterotopic grid. Voids between enclaves. Fig. 31. Author’s own, Voids between social condensers. Fig. 32. Author’s own, Heterotpics grid development in urban and rural setting. Photomontage. Fig. 33. Author’s own, Heterotopic grid. Concept photomontage. Fig. 34. Author’s own, Heterotopic grid as a framework for the future growth / sub-centres.Heterotopic grid in the City Edge. Fig. 35. Author’s own, Heterotopic grid as an utopian vision. Comic. Fig. 36. Author’s own, Heterotopic grid in the Green Belt on the city edge of Edinburgh Fig. 37. Author’s own, Heterotopic grid. Bird’s view. Sketch photomontage.



Heterotopic grid. The other dwelling in the Green Belt  

The Master thesis investigates the potential of using the heterotopic (other, different) grid as a conceptual and formal framework for a uto...

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