Page 5 - 10th German Flight Simulation Conference Page 7 - ITALIA Real Life Event Page 9 - Balice 2012 by Aerosoft Page 11 - Airbus X by Aerosoft Page 16 - Dangerous airports around the world Page 19 - Introduction of RVSM in Russia Page 20 - Malev & Spanair Page 23 - Gas turbine engine
IVAO VZW changes Alain Debrouwer, IVAO President and Allen Sindel, Vice President resigned from their respective positions for personal reason. Both have been important pillars within IVAO and played a very constructive role to ensure IVAO in a respectable position within the community. We would like thank them for all their efforts and contribution and wishes them the best. The BOG in its meeting held on March 4, 2012, reelected new NPO ofﬁcers for President, Vice President, Secretary and Assistant Secretary. The amended list of NPO ofﬁce bearers are as under: NPO President: NPO Vice President: NPO Secretary: NPO Assistant Secretary: NPO Treasurer:
Kenny Moens Wilfried Grötzbach Vybhava K. Srinivasan Alain Debrouwer Filip Jonckers
IVAO Israel Division IVAO Community is proud to announce opening of Israel Division (IL). The presence of this region on IVAO’s map was initially as an OIF (Ofﬁcial IVAO FIR) after a lot of hard work and increased activity in the area, now it is a new division and part of ever growing network of IVAO. Congratulations to Roven Zolotrevski, former LLLL-OIF manager, who has taken charge as a Director of the division. More information on this new division visit: http://il.ivao.aero.
IVAO Datalink System IVAO present’s to you a complete new Datalink System. This can be accessed via http://datalink. ivao.aero/. You may know some datalink Systems from some bigger Events, but this one is planned to be used by any logged in ATC on IVAO. Thanks to Gianluca Raberger (307513), who developed this amazing tool and a great job, he has been awarded with the Bright Idea Award. Thank you Gianluca!
Virtual Sky - May 2012
On March 24th 2012 the German FSC took place for the second time in the premises of Flugwerft Schleissheim which is part of the Deutsches Museum Munich. Embedded in buildings dated from the 1910s and surrounded by historical aircraft, engines and equipment, s i x t e e n e x h i b i t o r s presented their latest progress in flight simulation. Furthermore the opportunity was given to listen to lectures given by the add-on producers and to discuss with developers. IVAO DE was also present on the FSC. On one station the visitors were introduced to the IVAO pilot software IvAp. They had the chance to perform a local online flight on IVAO network with ATC. In case they werenâ€™t familiar with the phraseology, the stand advisors did the job for them so that they
could concentrate on their flight and experience the job of flying online. On the second station the ATC client, IvAc, was presented to the audience. A s a n o b s e r ve r, an interested person could learn basically how ATC is being performed on IVAO network and what features the IvAc offers. A d d i t i o n a l l y it was shown, how the radio communication via TeamSpeak works and how to get an overview over the IVAO activity with TheEye. From two other machines live-ATC for Munich airport (EDDM) was offered for IVAO pilots during the time of t h e f a i r. O n a n a d d i t i o n a l s c re e n the visitors had the opportunity to watch the latest official IVAO promotion clips.
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Just after the opening the first attendants entered the IVAO stand and brought up their questions. Amongst them some very basics like “how to start online flying” or “what are the system requirements for the IVAO software”. Some others were more specific or special: They pointed to the briefing and training options in IVAO DE division or were related to the monthly data volume/traffic when flying online with voice. Throughout the day, the stand personnel answered many questions of several visitors aged between
ten and seventy. In between the radio station Deutschlandfunk also showed interest. DE-DIR Stefan Zimmermann had an interview with a re p o r t e r. At the end of the event all participants stated that they enjoyed the event. They felt that IVAO has been presented well to the about one thousand visitors of the FSC and it was worth the effort and expenditure. Michael Henseler
Virtual Sky - May 2012
Here we are again; for the fourth year in a row, IVAO Italy division was present at the Verona Model Expo 2012, with a huge stand where we set up a 2-days Live ATC Event involving Verona Villafranca (LIPX) Airport, with a related on-line event (Verona Mega Fly-in) and where we had a chance to promote IVAO and on-line flight and ATC simulation. This year we also wanted to set up a position dedicated to on-line flying demonstration (a computer with joystick and all the accessories and an audio system) , where one of our I.I.A.S. (Ivao Italy Aviation School) instructor, Carlo Preziosi dedicated both days to introduce visitors to the world of flight simulation, flying himself and letting people try this new experience. I have to say that the idea hit the target since we had many people, among the visitors of the stand, that stopped by to spend some time flying.
As usual though, the greater part of the stand was dedicated to ATC, we opened for both days all the required position for LIPX airport from GND. TWR, APP and ACC (CTR), 7 hours per day. On one side of the desks where the ATC computers were installed, we positioned a projector to show visitors alternatively all the opened position, so to give people an outlook of what virtual Air Traffic Control is all about. There were 15 IVAO Italy staff members present throughout the event. Also some of the IVAO users who chose to â€œliveâ€? the event from beginning to end.
Virtual Sky - May 2012
Few of the visitors we had at the stand during those 2 days were existing IVAO members from Italy division, but most were people who didn’t know much or anything at all about IVAO. This year the number of visitors increased and the interest shown was greater than the past editions, more people asking specific questions about the network and the software used to connect. And I know some of them already joined our network. Besides all the work that lies behind such an event (the 3-months preparation, all the logistic aspects to take into account, retrieval of all the necessary hardware and its installation on Friday afternoon) the most important aspect of this kind of event is gathering together with a lot of people, meet other staff members, not only during the event but also in the evening and during the free time, making this Hobby more real and personal. When it comes to the staff, a group of people “working” together, knowing each other in person improves the relationship and consequently the working method.
Also the 2 evenings we spent in Verona were quite amazing: an opportunity to hang around, visit new places and to taste of local and exotic food in some good restaurants in the area. On Friday evening, we were a small group, just a few staff members and a few users: after the “aperitif” in a bar downtown, we moved to the countryside to have dinner in a small restaurant where we had a chance to taste some great local food. Back to Verona, we had a couple of beers in a Pub, just to “warm up” for the long day ahead. On Saturday night we went to a Mexican Restaurant not far from our hotel: this time the group grew up and we were 28 of us and I have to say it was amazing being all together with people from all over Italy, as far as from Palermo. A real nice and positive experience for me and I think for every person who attended the fair and I would like we could have more and more of this kind of “live” event throughout the year, so to have a chance to know new people every time and the occasion to meet sometimes IVAO members from foreign country as well. Page 8
Virtual Sky - May 2012
The airport of Krakow, also called John Paul II International Airport, is located in the city of Krakow, in the south-west of the country and it is one of the biggest and oldest cities of Poland. In 2007, it was decided to change it’s name, in commemoration to the Pope who died in 2005, the airport was called John Paul II International Airport Kraków-Balice. This airport is located eleven kilometers to the west of Krakow city, and it is one of the most important airports in Poland. This airport has only one runway of two thousand, five hundred meters approximately. The IATA code of this airport is KRK and the OACI code is EPKK. This airport is military and public, but it was opened to civil flights in 1964. This is the second airport of Poland behind the Airport of Warsaw and it has good growth prospects due to the fact that eight million people live within one hundred kilometers around. When Ryanair and other low cost airlines began operating in Krakow. Because of this, in 2007 another terminal was opened, the Terminal 2 (T2), to operate independently the domestic flights. There are also others expansion plans for the airport.
Virtual Sky - May 2012 This scenery is another masterpiece of Aerosoft company. This scenery is perfect if you want to fly from or to Poland and experiment the sensation of their wonderful graphics, thanks to their high quality textures that makes you feel like if you are flying into reality. Furthermore, it is fully compatible with AES (Airport Enhancement Services) that provides you a realistic handling service.
In winter, this scenery has an especial mesh with snow and at night you can enjoy the realistic night textures. You can also see some of the famous landmarks of Krakow while you are approaching, because they are included in the scenery! The scenery also has a very detailed autogen that, especially in the visual flights, will allow you a more realistic flight experience.
And the most important thing, you can buy it only for 20,00â‚Ź! Come on, enjoy what this scenery offers you and, once again, be captivated by the quality of Aerosoft. By Ă lvaro Mijares - IVAO-MTAC1
Virtual Sky - May 2012
The Airbus X package includes the A320 and the A321. The Airbus A320 is a narrow-body aircraft type from the European aircraft manufacturer Airbus. The name A320 is used both for the aircraft itself and for the «A320family», containing the interrelated types of aircraft (in increasing size) A318, A319, A320 and A321. They are relatively small jet aircrafts that are mainly used for medium distances. The Airbus A320 has got a relatively longest flying range of about four thousand, eight hundred and forty-three to five thousand, six hundred and seventy-six km. Land it’s main competitor is the Boeing 737. The Airbus A320 was the first widely-produced airliner with fly-by-wire technology. A notable innovation was the equipment of the stick as «side stick». An aircraft equipped with fly-by-wire technology no longer has a mechanical connection between the pilot and control surfaces. In this case, a computer is required to control the movements of the pilot to translate them into movements of the control surfaces.
Virtual Sky - May 2012 The A320 has got a maximum take-off weight of seventy-eight tons. A fully filled A320 needs about 2100 meters take-off run. On cruise it reaches a cruise speed of Mach 0.78. The A320’s maximum range is 3200 nm. Worldwide almost two thousand, seven hundred Airbus 320’s are flying round the world. The A320 has got 2 powerplants which gives 120 kn trust. IAE or CFM engines are the choice of the operators. The A321 is a 6 meter longer version of the A320.
It gives space to forty more passengers than the A320 and it has got around the same range as the A320. Aerosoft has got a very high name in producing scenery’s and now they tried to make a jetliner. The installation is easy and speaks for itself. Besides the A320/A321 base package, Aerosoft has included a one hundred and forty page manual. It gives a good explanation for the basic simmers with a step-by-step description of the systems. After the installation you have got the A320 and A321 with the IAE and CFM versions.
When we see the Virtual Cockpit, you will notice the quality of it.
There is dust on the Pedestal and almost everything is clickable with everything its own sound. The night lighting is very well worked out and overall it is an accurate representation of what the real Airbus A320/321 looks like. The FMC is very basic and easy for beginners but for the PMDG customers it is very simplified. However, Aerosoft has announced an update to V2 with new features.
Aerosoft have included a fine looking exterior model with lots of details and a new advanced non-standard lighting system in which the landing lights & taxi way turn off lights, nose wheel taxi light actually light up the scenery around the aircraft. This amazing product is available on Aerosoft website for 47,95€.
Virtual Sky - May 2012 For the repainters, Aerosoft has included a seven hundred MB paint kit to fly your own colours. And several users of the Aerosoft Airbus X have produced over hundred third party repaints available to download. On their website, Aerosoft states that Â´Frame rates are comparable to default FSX airbus (that has 1/5th the polygons and almost no detailed systemsâ€™. I noticed that the frames of the Airbus X are even better as the default plane.
So to come to our conclusion it is a simplified but beautiful plane on the inside and outside. For beginners it is a perfect aircraft to learn the basics and offers a realistic simulation of the airbus cockpit but a lack of depth on the FMC and FBW is a point of improvement. The Virtual Cockpit is one of the best in the market.
The Night Lighting (Interior and Exterior) is fantastic along with the new Lighting system. The Exterior Model is up to standards. By, Xander Rodenburg - MTAC3
Virtual Sky - May 2012
The Paro International airport is the only international airport of Bhutan. This airport is considered as one of the most difficult airports around the world. The Paro International airport is located around six kilometers from Paro city, in a steep valley surrounded by mountains, some of which are over five thousand, four hundred meters above sea level. If you think only a small propellers planes can manage, you are wrong. In this airport, beyond planes like Beechrafts 1900 or Pilatus PC-12, also medium aircrafts like Airbus 319 are operating in this airport. However, only eight pilots around the world are certified to land in this airport. This is mainly due to the fact that the elevation of this airport is seven thousand three hundred feets or two thousand two hundred and thirty meters, incredible or not? And another thing, it has a runway of less than two thousand meters. Do you dare to try it on IVAO?
Virtual Sky - May 2012
The Lukla airport is a small airport located in the small city of Lukla, in Nepal. In 2010, a program titled â€œMost Extreme Airportsâ€? rated the Lukla airport as the most dangerous airport in the world. This is a fact, because the airport is located beside a mountain and the runway has a significant slope. You are probably wondering why this airport is still in use? It is because, it is an important location for the people who want to climb the Mount Everest, and it is in one of the principal Mount Everest base camp. There are six airlines in this airport and the principal destination is Kathmandu, the capital of Nepal as well as the largest city in the country. The operations in this airport are restricted only at sunlight hours. The length of the runway is only four hundred and sixty meters, and only short-takeoff-and-landing aircrafts are able to land here, especially the Twin Otter, Pilatus PC-6 and the Dornier Do-228. Aircrafts can only use the runway 06 for landing and the runway 24 for takeoffs due to the slope of the runway, and you cannot make a go around on short final due to the terrain. After reading this, do you dare to try it on IVAO? Page 17
Virtual Sky - May 2012
The ToncontĂn International Airport is the most important airport of Honduras, and it is located six kilometers from the center of Tegucigalpa, the capital of Honduras. â€œMost Extreme Airportsâ€?, rated this airport as the second most dangerous airport around the world. But, how can an international airport located in the capital of a country be the second most dangerous airport in the world? This is because of its proximity to a mountainous terrain during the approach. This airport has a runway of two thousand meters, but its elevation is one thousand meters. The airport is surrounded by mountains during the approach and, sometimes, the plane is very close to the ground and in some planes the ground proximity alarms sound. However, thousands of passengers use this airport every year, and you can see planes like Boeing 757, Boeing 737 or Airbus A320 landing and taking-off with apparent complete normality. If you want to enjoy this airport, do you dare to try it on IVAO?
Virtual Sky - May 2012
INTRODUCTION OF RVSM IN RUSSIA B efore and af ter There is a metric leveling system in Russian airspace since USSR. R egarding International System of Units meter is a basic measurement unit for distances (length and heights). This is one of reasons why metric leveling system was used in USSR. Also all aircraf ts which were made in USSR had had the metric altimeter (except some aircraf ts, which were cer tificated for flying to Europe, with altimeters including meters and feet indication, ex. VBE on Tu-154). Unfor tunately, the metric leveling system, adopted in the So viet Union had some drawbacks. The first one is that all aircraf ts need to change their flight level from or to metric when crossing borders between RVSM and metric airspace. To change some flight levels is required a significant change in height (sometimes with crossing levels with the opposite direction of flights). Also there were some flight levels with “broken” direction. For example, eastbound metric flight level nine thousand one hundred meters (equals to flight level two hundred nine and ninetynine) was the same with westbound RVSM flight level three hundred. This unfor tunate coincidence cannot contribute to safety, but with few aircraf ts, it is possible to pro vide quiet and safe separation at the meters/RVSM border. The second one is that many aircraf ts, which are not manufactured in Russia or USSR, do not have the meters option in their altimeter indicator. So, all these pilots must use special conversion tables to fly in Russian airspace. The conversion tables consist of all Russian flight levels (or heights) from nine hundred meters up to fif teen thousand one hundred meters and equal feet flight levels or altitudes. Errors in the use of data tables can also lead to a breach of safety. D ue to the increasing traffic in Russian airspace during the last years, the countr y ’s desire was to meet the highest European standards and to impro ve safety. For that, it was necessar y to introduce the
RVSM leveling system. The transition to the RVSM leveling system was prepared since long time ago, but it was introduced only on 17th of No vember 2011. RSVM in Russian airspace has the meter as the default measurement unit. All flight levels are multiple of fif ty meters (before 17th of No vember 2011 all levels were multiple of a hundred meters). Minimum separation is three hundred meters (~ nine hundred and eighty-four feet). For ease the use of such system on the aircraf t from a foreign manufacturer, all flight levels have o wn numbers, which is equal to feet interpretation of this flight level (according to ICAO RVSM). So, all foreign aircraf ts can perform standard procedures and phraseology in Russian RVSM leveling system, because there is no significant difference between Europe RVSM (ICAO) and Russian RVSM in terms of pilot. A great job was done in preparing supervisor y staff, cer tification of aircraf t for flight in the RVSM airspace, flight crew training and air traffic controller training and introduction of a new radar control system to implement RVSM in Russian Federation’s airspace. Some problems were sol ved with the help of reduced ver tical separation minima. The traffic capacity of the airspace and flight safety as increased since RVSM star ted working in Russia. Foreign crews do not have to spend time conver ting metric level to feet. Also there is no possibility of error in the conversion. Thus, the abo ve transition altitude separation and procedures comply with the European ICAO standards. But some problems cannot be sol ved. For example, there is meters heights and QFE belo w transition level in Russian airspace, so pilots do not thro w out THE conversion table - they are still useful. We took a big step forward, but that should not stop there. Fur ther changes need to continue to pro vide safety (for example, the introduction of parallel procedures at some airpor ts, RNAV SID and STAR, the transition to QNH and feet measurements belo w the transition level, and more).
Virtual Sky - May 2012
Malev & Spanair
By Miquel Balves Miralles (IVAO-MTAT3)
Spanair was created in 1986 by SAS & Teinver and as a society in December of the same year (Spanair S.A). However, their operations did not start until 1988. Initially Spanair only did charter flights to the Balearic and Canary Islands and Europe. Spanair belonged to the Star Alliance. On the other hand, Malev was created in 1946 and it was active in the east and in the center of Europe. It offered 50 destinations in Europe and Middle East. Malev belonged to the Oneworld alliance. Nowadays, We are not in a good phase in aviation business. In last two years, two companies closed their flight operations. All started on January 27th when Spanair informed that the company decided to stop their operations on the same day and the last flight landed at 2200LT. Few days later another important airline with a history of more than seventy years with the Hungarian flag, took the same decision. Malev finished its operations on February 3rd at 0500Z.
Virtual Sky - May 2012
Its closure was due to the unsustainability of keeping the airline operative. In addition, its suppliers did not trust the airline anymore while the government could not offer money to the company due to crisis. Without doubt, the closure of these companies are bad news for the aviation history. Spanair Virtual wanted to perform a big event. In this event, they did a flight between Madrid-Barajas (LEMD) and Barcelona (LEBL), after finishing this flight, the CEO of Spanair Virtual decided to close also the airline in IVAO after four years being operative on IVAN. He took that decision because the CEO of Spanair VA wanted to follow the same structure of Spanair. For the event, the ATC Operations department of the Spanish division allowed to open some special ATC positions (like delivery, Barcelona final approach, etc.). In the other hand another event was organized in the Hungarian division. The name of this event was: â€œLast flight of Malevâ€?, which was in a flight between Helsinki (EFHK) and Budapest (LHBP). During the flight, all the ATC stations were staffed and around forty-five pilots participated in that event and was incredible to see all the pilots.
Virtual Sky - May 2012
The gas turbine engines in aircrafts can operate at very high altitudes. They very easily provide thrust, torque and bleed air and they let aircrafts fly at high speeds. As you know, there are different types of gas turbine engines on aircraft. -The Auxiliary Power Unit: It is a small turbine engine. It provides to the aircraft electric and pneumatic power if the engines are not available. -Turboprop engines: They are especially designed to produce shaft horsepower only, which is used to drive a propeller. This engine type is usually installed on small subsonic aircraft. But we can find it also in large military aircraft. -Turbojet engines: this concept of engine was developed independently into practical engines during the late 1930s and they were the first type of gas turbine engines used on aircrafts. The turbojet engines provide very high aircraft speeds, but they are very loud because of the extremely high exhaust gas velocities, and they are not efficient. -Turbofan engines: It is usually used on modern aircrafts. This engine is better because it gives to the aircraft high speeds with a very good efficiency. All aircraft engines work in the same way. An engine which uses jet propulsion is called a reaction engine. These engines use Newtonâ€™s laws of motion, which states that for every force which acts on a body there is an opposite equal reaction. But, what is necessary to accelerate the air? The air pressure must be increased to accelerate. This can be done thermally by increasing the volume of the air when a fuel/air mixture is heated or burned, or it can be done mechanically with a compressor. There are 2 ways to compress the air in engines. You can decrease the volume in a cylinder by a piston or you can make use of Bernoulliâ€™s Principle to get compressed air. This is the method which is used in the compressors of gas turbine engines. This type of compressor supplies a continuous flow of air to the engine combustor and it has two main components: the compressor rotor and the compressor stator. The stator is a fixed component and the rotor is a movable
part of the engine and it has rotor blades mounted on it. As it rotates around the axis of the compressor, the rotor blades suck in air and then pushes it to the outlet side of the rotor, therefore an increase of the energy of the airflow occurs. The combination of these two parts is called a compressor stage. After the air is compressed it will enter in a new stage of the engine, the combustion chamber. Here the fuel nozzles spray the fuel into the centre of this airflow. The fuel vaporizes and mixes with the airflow and the fuel air mixture is then electrically ignited by an igniter plug situated in the chamber, then the combustion continues because fuel and air is continuously supplied to the combustion chamber. Two primary conditions are necessary to correct and safe combustion. First the ratio of air and fuel must be fulfilled and correct and second the air velocity must be slow enough to make sure that the combustion is completed inside the combustion chamber. And this is why before this stage there is a diffuser to slow down the speed of the air before entering on the combustion chamber. The next stage is the turbine. It converts the gas energy from the combustion chamber into torque. The gas flow from the combustion section is accelerated because of the convergent shape of the section and the impact of the gas flow on the turbine rotor blades causes a turbine rotation. This makes the torque to drive the entire turbine shaft. The final stage of a jet engine is the exhaust system which guides the exhaust gases from the rear of the turbine into the atmosphere. On a jet engine the main task of the exhaust system is to accelerate the airflow, which comes from the turbine, to efficiently make thrust. In the turboprop engine the main task of the exhaust system is to safely guide the exhaust gases overboard. The gas flow leaves the engine in the necessary direction and with the optimum velocity to make an efficient thrust. Remember, the engine is the heart of an airplane, but the pilot is its soul.
Air France, Airbus 380-800 FSX Aircrafts Filename: Pa380_af_fsx.zip Author: Project Airbus Source: http://avsim.com Project Airbus released a new software for one of the biggest airplanes in the world… Airbus 380-800.It includes too much extra features like dynamic wingﬂex or parallel bogies. If you enjoy ﬂying big aircrafts, just download it!
AB 412 Phoenix FS2004 Filename: ai_ab_412_phoenix_v_2_0.zip Author: Jordan Moore Source: http://ﬂightsim.com Helicopters are really good to ﬂy. Try this lovely helicopter created by Jordan Moore. It is completely realistic.
Frankfurt Main - Update FSX Scenery Filename: Eddf_v1.1_ade_rs_fsx.zip Author: Ray Smith Source: http://avsim.com Frankfurt is one of the biggest airports around the world. Millions of passengers travel to Frankfurt every year. If you usually ﬂy to Frankfurt you should have the latest update to operate correctly in this amazing airport!
Airbus A318, A319, A320 FSX Aircrafts Filename: Pa32x_fsx_models.zip Author: Project Airbus Source: http://avsim.com Airbus is an important aeronautical company which released a lot of important aircrafts like the Airbus A32X series. They are all very secure aircraft. Are you able to ﬂy them? Just download them and try!
Lleida International Airport FS2004 and FSX Scenery Filename: LEDA-X-FS9/FSX Author: Akesoft Source: http://www.ake-airlines.es/akesoft/ Lleida can be considered as a new airport in Spain. Akesoft developed a great scenery for this new airport. Download it if you want to enjoy!
B-737 Checklists FS2004 and FSX Filename: Pmdg_b-737_ngx_fs2crew_checklist.zip Author: Paco Galindo http://avsim.net Do you usually try to ﬂy “as real as it gets”? If you usually do that, you should have at least the checklists on board! Get them now.
Virtual Sky - May 2012
What is the quickest aircraft in the world? a. Concorde b. F-18 c. Falcon HTV-2 d. MIG-31
When was the first ever commercial flight? a. 1920 b. 1937 c. 1952 d. 1914
What is one of the functions of the black box? a. Record the voice of the pilots b. Calculate the maximum altitude accord ing to the weight 2
c. d. 4.
Stabilize the aircraft None of them are correct
What is the biggest aircraft in the world? a. Airbus A380 b. Boeing 747-400 c. Concorde d. Airbus Beluga
5. What is the record of people connected in IVAO Network? a. 9519 b. 2303 c. 4307 d. 1959
1The airspeed that is read directly off the airspeed indicator. This airspeed does not take into account any corrections for altitude, temperature or compressibility 2fuel
The length of time an aircraftâ€™s load will permit it to remain airborne.
3A vehicle with wings and a jet engine or propellers, that is heavier than air, and is able to fly 4A navigation system in which displacement from the point of departure is determined by measuring the acceleration exerted upon a gyroscopically stabilized platform by vehicle movement
5 6 3
5Ratio of true airspeed to speed of sound in the surrounding air which varies with temperature. 6An aircraft which serves as a radar manager and operations control, which manages and broadens the span of radar. The radar from AEW aircraft are sent to all aircraft in the area to give them a more detailed view of the field 7A measurement of how large an aircraft, stealth or not, shows up on radar, Infra-Red, or other means of detection
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1- C / 2- D / 3- A / 4- D / 5- C
E 4 I N S D U R 1 I A S N 5 6 7 C M A I R P L A N E C C W S H A C S