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ARCHITECTURE DESIGN STUDIO: AIR ABPL30048 2013

Ivan Tang Tutors: Chris, Rosie -1-


CONTENTS 00

INTRODUCTION

01

CASE FOR INNOVATION

A.1 Architecture as a Discourse A.2 Computational Architecture A.3 Parametric Modelling a.4 Algorithmic Explorations a.5 conclusion a.6 learning outcomes

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design approach

b.1 design focus b.2 case study 1.0 b.3 case study 2.0 b.4 technique: development b.5 technique: prototypes b.6 technique proposal b.7 algorithmic sketches b.8 leaning objectives and outcomes -2-


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project proposal c.1 gateway project: design concept c.2 gateway project: tectonic elements c.3 gateway project: final model c.4 Algorithmic sketches c.5 Learning objectives and outcomes

References

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| ABPL30048 ADS: AIR

| PART 00

| INTRODUCTION

INTRODUCTION ABOUT ME My full name is Ivan Ho- Lun Tang but I prefer to be referred to as Ivan. I am currently a third year student studying Bachelor of Environments and majoring in Architecture at Melbourne University. I am par cularly interested in the virtual side of designing due to the greater poten al and flexibility it offers compared to its physical counterparts and the prac cal uses it offers for modern society.

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I have had an eclec c, yet not extensive, experience handling computer- aided design so ware. I studied at Deakin University where the course has introduced me to AutoCAD and ArchiCAD which I both found useful in designing 2D and 3D structures while elimina ng the human error factor.

1 IVAN HO- LUN TANG

The Melbourne couse introduced me to RHINO and Indesign where I found the former allowed me to design more freeform and natural shapes compared to the more geometrically fixated shapes in ArchiCAD I learnt. I understand the value of Digital Architecture and that its gaining momentum in the modern world, and am eager to learn and contribute what it has to offer.

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| PART 00

| INTRODUCTION

| PREVIOUS WORKS

PREVIOUS WORKS

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Virtual Environments (2011) The design criteria involved crea ng a 3D model using RHINO to be worn over a part of the body; using a natural process or pa ern as the ini al inspira on. My model was derived from water pa erns, par cularly the light manipula on passing through rippling water and the results the bending light creates.

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It was from designing that I found the poten al of parametric design to design and fabricate complex forms eďŹƒciently and accurately. 1 INSIDE OF VIRTUAL ENVIRONMENTS LANTERN MODEL, 2011 2+3 ILLUMINATED LANTERN MODEL

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| ABPL30048 ADS: AIR

| PART 01

| CASE FOR INNOVATION

Part 1 case for innovation

01 A.1. architecture as a discourse

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| PART 01

| CASE FOR INNOVATION

| A.1. ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE

ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE

“...architecture is as much a philosophical, social or professional realm as it is a material one, and it is through the consideraƟon of architecture as discourse that one can engage with it as visual culture.” (Williams 2005)1

Architecture as an en ty is very ambiguous discipline too narrow to be understood through the scope of a singular discipline, but one which requires a collec on of in- depth prac ces.

In its social and urban environment, architecture has the power to influence its public domain, where “[it] is as much a philosophical, social or professional realm... and it is through the consideraƟon of architecture as discourse that one can engage with it as visual culture” (Williams 2005). It is also able to reflect the space it inhabits, but also one to invoke local feedback as a social mediator to engage and interact with the social masses. As an ar orm, one may not see beyond the discipline’s sterotypes, and overlook the double standards that places architecture that differen ates itself from buildings. Williams (2005) outlines the high expecta ons imposed on what architecture should be- permanent, expressions/ statements of me peroids; superhuman standards that society expect from them. As men oned above, urban spaces are a product of social spaces; with Henri Lefebvre describing architecture being the culmina on of experiences of the urban environment. Experiences where architectural elements are to be viewed through what role they play in the social system, and what the concequen al reac ons are from local society. Just as architecture are more than just fancy buildings designed for others to occupy, architecture can be seen as a social experiment; a discipline covering the network of debates, prac ses and philosophies about the built environment.

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Williams, R. ‘2005 Architecture and Visual Culture’, in Exploring Visual Culture: Defini ons, Concepts, Contexts ed. (Edinburgh, Edinburgh University Press) -7-


| A.1. ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE

| TOYO ITO

Sendai Mediatheque

| SENDAI MEDIATHEQUE

1995-2001 Toyo Ito

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The Sendai Mediatheque has been an interest of mine because of it’s styled to ressemble a series of trees as the “trunk” of the structure. What had a racted me was not only the simplicity of the design, but the characteris c of being the “roots” of a technological resource building.

Just as a modern architectural structure can represent elements of the modern world, the Sendai Mediatheque represents, at least to me, how extensive the informa ve or technolical reality has become apart of the modern world. Yet I find that this building isn’t solely u litarian, but it also serves to have a natural, aesthe c purpose.

Ito, T. 1995-2001, Sendai Mediatheque, photograph, viewed 16 March 2013, <h p://3.bp.blogspot.com/_ Ien3q8fUKFQ/TD65YksgrwI/AAAAAAAABk8/nY4HW2COLZ4/s1600/Sendai+Mediatheque+2.jpg>

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| ludwig mies van der rohe | farnsworth house

Farnsworth House

1945-51 Ludwig Mies van der Rohe

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The Farnsworth House has been an interest to me because it focuses on the connec ons between the individual and society. The inhabitant should be able to coexist with the present culture, but by adhering to a structured framework in order to coexist. Just as a building can be an extension of its user’s personality, I believe the Farnsworth House enables the ability for people to reconnect with the natural surroundings; an issue that has become increasingly apparent in today’s society.

While some buildings can be built purely for u litarian purposes, I view the Farnsworth House as living alongside its inhabitant. Physical elements such as the ligh ng and switches are concealed to provide subtle ligh ng, an aspect I find appealing as it bathes its surroundings in a glow than as harsh ligh ng. 1 SENDAI MEDIATHEQUE 2 FARNSWORTH HOUSE, PHOTOGRAPH

Mies Van Der Rohe, L. 1945-51, ‘Farnsworth House’, photograph, viewed 16 March 2013, <h p://www. designinforma onalliance.org/sites/default/files/visits-discoveries-images/farnsworth_house_gmad06_3_0.jpg>

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| ABPL30048 ADS: AIR

| PART 01

| CASE FOR INNOVATION

Part 1 case for innovation

01 A.2. computational architecture

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| PART 01

| CASE FOR INNOVATION

| A.2. COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE

“In a radical departure from centuries old radiƟons and norms of architectural design, digitallygenerated forms are not designed or drawn as a convenƟonal understanding of these terms would have it, but they are calculated by the chosen generaƟve computaƟonal method.” (Kolarevic, B. 2003)1

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Kolarevic, B ‘Architecture in the Digital Age: Design and Manufacturing’, (New York, London, Spon Press, 2003) -11-


| A.2. COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE

| COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE

introduction to computational architecture The role that computers play in design processes are not intended to formulate ideas for the architect, but to supplement and aid them by crea ng virtual replicas of ideas to test its desired effect coincides with those intended by the architect. As well as to generate virtual designs, CAD programs conforms to ra onal forms that are restricted to a series of parameters to reflect the refi nement process based on the final product’s feasibility and ability to meet the design’s criteria. As a major issue for designers is to create 3D designs, computers subs tutes much of the physical dra ing or sketching to reduce me and effort spent by designers on a process. Two paradigms of the architectural design process involves the trasi ons Puzzle Making and Problem Solving to produce goals and solu ons to suit problems as well as to a ain goals to fulfi l expecta ons. As computers follows mul ple parameters pre- programmed, their generated designs are ra onal and rule based to constrain to the limita ons of the project.

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| A.2. COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE

| COMPUTATIONAL ARCHITECTURE

computational architecture

The role that contemporary computa onal designs play in the design process should, as Yehuda Kalay argues, be one that assists its designer by taking care of the minor specifica ons and detailings while the designer focuses on fulfiling the goals set to develop the project’s expecta ons. This ensures CAD systems to bolster the designer’s toolkit by making changes to the design when the designer changes the specifica ons to save me and effort otherwise consumed when dealing with a hand-drawn equivalent. Computer so ware can also help visualise complex forms and aid in the fabrica on process by fabrica ng the desired components to be assembled. Addi onally, such techniques also eliminated the factor of human error during the dra ing phase, where minor discrepancies can have detrimental concequences in the final product. The computa on method allows the poten al of architectural designs not to be limited by the designer’s visualisa on and the fabricator’s abili es. As the developed design is refined by way of ra onalisa on, the refinement process works to iden fy problems and solve them by imposing constraints that makes the final outcome possible to fabricate.

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| A.1. ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE

| vittorio giorgini

| liberty centre

vittorio giorgini liberty centre (1962)

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Due to the computa onal architecture, various design methods have evolved. One of the intriguing computa onal architectural discourse is topology. Topology allows the designer to focus upon the intrinsic, qualita ve geometric forms unaffected by changes in size or shape; allowing them to focus more on the rela onal structure between an object’s edges and ver ces rather than its geometry outline.

As the topological transforma ons affect the rela onal structure, this can in turn change the object’s resul ng form. A par cularly interes ng element of topology is its dominance over the forms of the rela onal structure.

Giorgini V. 1962, ‘Liberty Centre’, photograph, viewed 23 March 2013, < h p://archpaper.com/uploads/Giorgini_ LibertyAerial.jpg>

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| A.1. ARCHITECTURE AS A DISCOURSE

| vittorio giorgini

| liberty centre

1 BIRD’S EYE VIEW OF LIBERTY CENTRE 2 LIBERTY CENTRE, PHOTOGRAPH

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An interes ng example of topological architecture was Vi orio Giorgini’s wire- mesh construc on Liberty Centre constructed in upstate New York, designed to be a community centre for the town of Parksville. The structure is comprised of mul ple curvatures similar to those found in a mobius strip.

This structure was constructed in 1976 by students of the Pra Ins tute under Giorgini’s supervision, and was intended to be concreted yet was eventually demolished due to a lack of funding. As such, the topology has the effect to “blur” the dis nc ons between the exterior and interior spaceso to avoid the dis nc ve quali es between “inside” and “outside”.

Giorgini V. 1962, ‘Liberty Centre’, photograph, viewed 23 March 2013, < h p://cdnimg.visualizeus.com/thumbs/ d3/5b/architecture,rebar,reinforced, concrete,under,construc on-d35b013ac109d0 4ca5cca79e8dab-5d1_h.jpg>

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| ABPL30048 ADS: AIR

| PART 01

| CASE FOR INNOVATION

Part 1 case for innovation

01 A.3. parametric modelling

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| PART 01

| CASE FOR INNOVATION

| A.3. PARAMETRIC MODELLING

At first glance, Parametricism seems to allow designers to access a new dimension of designing possibili es. I find that the act of simply defining the design’s parameters allows a wider freedom to fabricate ideas, and that much of the workload is removed and taken care of by the so ware. It would seem like the ideal answer, with Patrik Schumacher hailing parametricism as a “creditable, sustainable answer to the crisis of modernism that resulted in 25 years of stylisƟc searching” (Schumacher 2010).1 An excep onal element in the realm of parametrics is also its defini on as a program where the style or design can be researched. However its key feature also seems to be the limita on of the stylewhere the created form may only exist in a laptop or computer so ware. Preceeding styles, including modernism and deconstruc vism, share dis nguishing features that are defined as a style. Parametricism, on the other hand, relies more on the rela onships between the nodes within a system for the form’s aesthe c value. Would architecture reach a point where designing becomes less from the human factor, but a product of algorithms and mathema cs? I believe that parametric architects need to consider more about the nodes and how they relate to each other to con nue thinking crea vely. Just as pens, erasers and rulers can aid the designer, the computer is also a tool to bolster the individual’s work. But they should be careful that their designs are not reduced to computerised limita ons and parameters, but control these tools to support the designer, rather than replace them. 1

Schumacher, P. 2010, ‘Patrick Schumacher on Parametricism- “Let the style wars begin”’, Architect’s Journal, Greater London House, Hampstead Road, London, viewed 30 March 2013, < h p://www.architectsjournal.co.uk/the-cri cs/ patrik-schumacher-on-parametricism-let-the-style-wars-begin/5217211.ar cle>

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| A.3. PARAMETRIC MODELLING | VARIOUS ARTISTS

Various artists yorkshire diamond (2009)

| YORKSHIRE DIAMOND

The Yorkshire Diamond consists of a diamond la ce structure made up of inflatable tubes with an excavated interior. The la ce structure is arranged to the atomic structure of a diamond and the tubing pa erned geometrically. Each tube has been precision cut by a computer controlled cu ng machine to ensure each component and shape is uniform when it’s inflated. I find that using computer so ware has allowed this design to be possible, even with scale models it would be virtually impossible to fabricate the individual piece, much less determine without virtual simula on whether it its possible to build.

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Various Architects 2009, ‘Yorkshire Diamond’ (Cafe- Lounge Interior), viewed 01 April 2013, <h p://ad009cdnb. archdaily.net/wp-content/uploads/2009/02/1264202964_cafeloungeinterior.jpg>

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1 DIGITAL PHOTO OF YORKSHIRE DIAMOND 2 PROPOSED MODEL OF CAFE- LOUNGE INTERIOR 3+4 NATURAL VENTILATION AND DOUBLE- LAYERED SKIN OF THE LATTICE STRUCTURE’S TUBING

The la ce structure incorporates established inflatable technology to create a stable 3D structure; adding stability to a mul ple domed units made up of a triangulated network of tubing with double layered cushions. Due to the pressurisa on system and the closely monitored fans installed, the structure will remain structurally rigid; even when the surface has been pierced or damaged. Various Architects 2009, ‘Yorkshire Diamond/ Yorkshire Renaissance Pavilion’, viewed 31 March 2013, <h p:// www.archicentral.com/wp-content/images/1125720871_ diagram-ligh ng.jpg>

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The structure weighs seven tonnes , consists of 98 seperate towers and made up of over two thousand unique pieces. The design is based on a triangular grid, with each of the towers 3.8 meters high each built from about 600 wooden parts intersec ng the sculpture at a precise angle of 25 degrees whilst immita ng the tower’s founda on pa ern. 2

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Libeskind, D. 2005, ‘Futuropolis’, photograph, viewed 01 Apr. 2013, <http://www. designtoproduction.ch/content/view/12/41/> Libeskind, D. 2005, ‘Futuropolis’, photograph, viewed 01 Apr. 2013, <http://www. designtoproduction.ch/content/view/12/41/>

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Daniel Libeskind Futuropolis (2005)

5 1+5 FUTUROPOLIS, PHOTOGRAPH 2 ASSEMBLY PROCESS OF FUTUROPOLIS SCULPTURE- INDIVIDUAL PIECES ARE ASSEMBLED TOGETHER IN GROUPS 3 VIRTUAL OUTLINE OF MODEL, ENLARGED SECTION OF ONE ELEMENT SHOWS HOW THE PIECES CAN FIT TOGETHER 4 TECHNICAL SPECIFICATION OF CONNECTION

One benefit of parametric design, such as Vectorscript, allows designers to model their parametric model digitally. The Futuropolis design is a seemingly complex structure based on simple parameters and defini ons set out by the designers that the computer obeys to digi se the proposed form.

The structure incorporates simple virtual parameters to create principles and limita ons for the Vectorscript so ware to use to digi se the sculpture. The design is based on an algorithm to restrict the design to manufacture and construct the sculpture to serve as the basis for manufacturing and construc ng the structure.

With the help of parametric design so ware, Daniel Libeskind has been able to fabricate the Futuropolis sculpture within two weeks and saving over 70% of produc on costs.

Libeskind, D. 2005, ‘Futuropolis’, viewed 01 Apr. 2013, <http://dinofracchia.photoshelter.com/image/ I00008CkvgIjpi1w>

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| ABPL30048 ADS: AIR

| PART 01 | CASE FOR INNOVATION

Part 1 case for innovation

01 A.4. algorithmic explorations

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| PART 01

| CASE FOR INNOVATION

| A.4. ALGORITHMIC EXPLORATIONS

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1

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Iâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;ve extended on the grasshopper commands covered in the weekly tutorial videos, with my first a empt created by combining a few of the commands to experiment with the result.

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4 1-4 DELAUNAY EDGES COMMAND CREATED FROM LOFTED SURFACE USED 5-6 SUBTRACTING ELEMENTS FROM VORONOI 3D COMMAND

As I understand the parametric so ware processes the inputs via the command, I have experimented with the poten al models by feeding suceeding commands with respec ve inputs. Compared to crea ng from RHINO or physical dra ing, parametric modelling reduces much of the workload I would have undertaken. This research, I believe, has worked to further expand on the poten al of the used commands, and to explore the extent that the parametric design can be taken. On the le are a sequence of stages to develop the form using poten al Grasshopper commands, though much of the work came through trial and error. While most of the designing workload was gone, it was replaced with compu ng inputs and outputs to reach the final outcome.

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| ABPL30048 ADS: AIR

| PART 01 | CASE FOR INNOVATION

Part 1 case for innovation

01 A.5. conclusion A.6. Learning outcomes

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| 01 CASE FOR INNOVATION

| A.5. CONCLUSION

| A.6. LEARNING OUTCOMES

a.5. conclusion The introduc on of parametric so ware has created new poten als and possibili es in Architectural design. The use of parametric modelling has allowed the crea on of new architectal structures to be possible. Such building structures allows the form to become more organic and fluid, allowing more freedom to designer’s poten al. As the form responds to its immediate environment to affect the audience’s experience, a well- designed form will create discourse in the local popula on to encourage social discussions and debates. Just as architecture can be seen as a social experiment; parametric modelling is the design medium where the network of architectural conversa on can exist and thrive in the built environment.

a.6. learning outcomes From my experiences with parametric modelling over the past few weeks, I realise this new discipline requires a new way of thinking. Unlike the RHINO so ware during Virtual Environments, parametric modelling requires understanding of how elements of the nodes relates to one another. Ini ally, my opinions was that architectural compu ng aids the designer but feared it removed the human input from the design process. While the algorithms control the resul ng form, it is humans who designed the algorithms, and the human element will be ever- present in architectural prac se. If I had this knowledge during Virtual Environments, the final product would be very different as a new dimension of poten al ideas would be availible to explore. Addi onally, the algorithmic codes would reduce the workload to give freedom to discover new designs. -25-


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