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UNIT 4 Rule of Law and Citizenship • Introduction • In Anger: ”Inhuman” Immigration • Contents: 1. The Historic Conquest of Citizenship 2. Citizenship Under the Rule of Law 3. From Liberal Government to Social Government 4. Social Justice and The Separation of Powers • This Issue in the Press: The Separation of Power • Let’s Go to the Cinema: “A Man for All Seasons” • Looking Through Images: Reflections of Freedom, Democracy and Justice • The World of Literature: Baltasar Gracián • Final and Summary Activities • Find Out and Take Part

Let’s Work  The complexity of the concept of citizenship  The evolution of the concept of citizenship throughout history  The definition of the rule of law  The meaning of the expression “social and democratic rule of law”  The importance of the separation of power

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Introduction The exercising of our citizenship is always done in a historical context that is always evolving and changing. Therefore it is important to approach the exercising of citizenship from a historical point of view. That means, knowing that our pretentions to citizenship are not the first and will not be the last. In recent decades, moral philosophy and politics have not approached citizenship only in legal terms, as if the practise of the citizenship was only reduced to the relation between the people and the legal systems or legislation itself. Nowadays, as well as speaking of legal citizenship, we use terms such as social, cultural, economic and even intercultural citizenship. In order to refer to all of these things as part of peoples' democratic life we shall speak of "democratic citizenship". In this unit we will look at how the concept of citizenship has changed, and to what extent it has been related, from the very beginning, to political organisation. Sometimes we refer to political organisation in terms of government (polis, republic) and this is the reason why it is important to understand the relationship between citizenship and types of states. Nowadays we only speak of true citizenship when there is a state ruled by laws, values and human rights. We also describe political organisations as “democracy�, describing not only the forms of government, but also a form of participating in public matters, of identifying with a political community and promoting a worthwhile existence for all human beings. One of the most important institutions in the development of democratic citizenship is the Public Administration. It is a part of an executive power, not only in a national sense, but also in the context of an autonomous region and in a local sense. Nowadays, democratic citizenship is not only practised on a national level. On the one hand it is open to a cosmopolitan citizenship, where the people in a country consider themselves as citizens of the world; for example the way people in Spain are citizens of the European Union. On the other hand, democratic citizenship is open to an environment of proximity in which local and autonomous powers participate. In Spain, the city halls and autonomous regions are institutions that administer increasingly more public services every day. This idea of service has developed historically as the ideas of separation of powers and social justice have become part of citizens' democratic convictions.

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In Anger: “Inhuman” Immigration Immigration takes place when a person leaves his home and travels to another country looking for better living conditions for himself and his family. Sometimes immigration takes place under poor circumstances, to the point where the immigrant does not actually reach his final destination. When immigration takes place under these circumstances where there is a clear “lack of humanity” we cannot but express our anger. We can try and find the people responsible for this, but the anger remains. Un Estrecho cada vez más ancho Esta semana nos sorprendieron los teletipos de las agencias con una noticia sorprendente. Se nos decía que nueve madres perdieron a sus hijos en una patera que llevaba seis días a la deriva y que una de las que habían sobrevivido a la travesía desfalleció cuando comprobó que su hijo estaba bien. De los 48 tripulantes que habían partido de Marruecos, además de estos nueve niños, otros ocho adultos habían perdido la vida en el intento de cruzar el Estrecho de Gibraltar para alcanzar algún punto cualquiera de las costas españolas. Aunque las imágenes han sido conmovedoras, en la narración de la noticia me sorprendió la forma en la que un periodista tituló su noticia: Un Estrecho cada vez más ancho. Las mafias que regulan el tráfico de personas se está desplazando desde el Oeste hacia el Este. Desde el punto de vista geográfico, esto significa que se está incrementando la distancia que separa África y Europa. Desde un punto de vista moral y humano, esto significa que se incrementará la capacidad de resistencia de los tripulantes y, de la misma forma, que aumentará el dolor, el sufrimiento, la desesperación y la muerte entre un lado y otro del Estrecho. Mientras tanto, no está nada clara la fórmula que están utilizando las democracias europeas para afrontar esta situación. Como presidente de la Unión Europea durante este semestre, Sarkozy ha dejado claro está dispuesto a establecer políticas de inmigración más claras que las mantenidas hasta la fecha. Incluso el propio presidente del gobierno español está dando muestras de que esta legislatura no será como la anterior y está empezando a utilizar metáforas relacionadas con la responsabilidad. Es interesante hablar de España y Europa como una casa que no puede estar con las puertas de par en par ni tampoco cerrada con candados. A. Domingo Moratalla (Las Provincias, 13 de Julio de 2008)

Poster of the movie “Las cartas de Alou” (1990, M. Armendáriz). A movie that brilliantly shows the ups and downs of immigration.

A picture that shows the arrival of the “pateras” (small boats) through the Strait of Gibraltar (published in different digital media)

ACTIVITIES: 1. Look for information. What is a "patera"? How many immigrants have tried to cross the Strait in a "patera"? What do the immigration laws say about this? 2. What is touching about the situation described in the above document? 3. What does the sentence “a house can neither have its doors wide open nor locked shut” mean? 4. Not every attempt to emigrate has to be like this or has to end in tragedy. Tell the story of a positive experience of a friend, a relative or...your own story.

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Contents 1. The Historic Conquest of Citizenship Athens and Ancient Citizenship The concept of citizenship appeared in Greece in the 5th and 4th centuries before Christ. It describes the way free individuals, who because of their condition could take responsibility for the dealing with public matters, participated in city life. These cities were actually medium-sized towns called polis. This term refers to a city-state, which means, not only the union of citizens but also the way in which they were organised. Not everyone had the condition of citizen (politēs), because women, children and slaves were not considered capable of taking on the responsibility of running the city. The ones who had the condition of citizens were obliged to participate in the running of the city, holding positions in equality and changing positions from time to time. Rome and the Limits of Laws Another important moment in the history of citizenship came with the expansion of the Roman Empire. Rome developed the Greek idea of citizenship and spread it throughout the Mediterranean. Roman Law developed the procedures for taking part in the life of the Republic and obtaining citizenship. To be a citizen of Rome was a privilege and honour people from other places could achieve if they obeyed the laws of the Empire or the Republic. From the first century before Christ to the third after Christ, the concept of citizenship changed, not only because it spread throughout the Mediterranean, but because it raised a very important problem: could only those who obeyed Roman laws be citizens? Was it possible to have another law, another Republic and another way of being a citizen? Stoic philosophers like Seneca and Cicero set out an interesting transformation of the concept of the citizen and extended it to individuals capable of submitting to the laws of reason, as if the city in which they had to live was not a real city as had been seen up until then, but rather a “virtual” city in which all human beings could participate. National Citizenship, Modern Citizenship This tension between the real citizenship imposed by Rome and the virtual citizenship in which one took part only by using reason and considering himself to be part of the world, would mark the birth of the modern concept of citizenship. Apart from this tension between written and unwritten laws, from the 6th century onwards, the concept of citizenship would be directly related to the new ways of understanding the Republic which, from then on, would receive the name of “nation”. Citizenship became national and was limited by the state of belonging to a territory, by the link to a sovereign power and by the achievement of certain benefits in exchange for certain responsibilities. With the appearance of modern nations, sovereignty was the responsibility of the nation as a whole (national sovereignty) or of the people defined as a group formed by all individuals (popular sovereignty).

ACTIVITIES:

1. Create a “little” history of the idea of citizenship: Citizenship… in

ATHENS

ROME

“MODERN”

was characterised by..

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2. Citizenship and the Rule of Law From the State of Nature to the Rule of Law From the 17th century onwards a concept of citizenship was consolidated that has lasted until today. It is a citizenship we can call “legal” because it is related to the capacity to submit to laws or the Law and transform both laws and the Law. This double movement of observance and transformation of laws defines the concept of modern citizenship. To describe this double movement political philosophers thought it was important to differentiate between two ways of understanding the organisation of social and political life. On one hand, there is the primitive and gregarious form in which individuals are all in conflict because they consider each other as wolves (homo homini lupus). This form is called the state of nature and is not the state of civilised and intelligent people. On the other hand, there is an evolved and educated form in which individuals cooperate and are capable of giving way in their ambitions so that everyone can be a part of the project of the city. This form receives the name of rule of law, because the relation between laws and the Law is a criterion to measure the level of civilisation. The state of nature (barbarity) is in complete opposition to the rule of law (civilisation). The Rule of Law and the Social Contract This leap from barbarity to civilisation happens when individuals are capable of submitting to the rules of a contract. The citizen is the person who is ready to make this leap and assume the consequences. The rules, norms, laws and values that are treated in this contract form a rule of law. Citizenship according to Two Modern Philosophers: Locke and Rousseau J. Locke Essay on Civil Government Being men free, equal and independent by nature, none of them can be withdrawn from this situation and submitted to political power with his consent. This is given by an agreement celebrated with others to meet and integrate in a community destined to offer them a good, safe and peaceful life together. Two Treaties of Government

J. J. Rousseau The Social Contract This act of association creates a moral and collective body, composed of as many members as the assembly contains votes, and receiving from this act its unity, its common identity, its life and its will. This public person, so formed by the union of all other persons formerly took the name of city, and now takes that of Republic or body politic; it is called by its members State when passive, Sovereign when active, and Power when compared with others like itself. Those who are associated in it take collectively the name of people, and several are called citizens, as sharing in the sovereign power, and subjects, as being under the laws of the State. The Social Contract. Or Principles of Political Right

ACTIVITIES:

1. Define the following expressions: “State of nature”, “rule of law”, “social contract”. 2. Read Locke and Rosseau's texts carefully. What stands out in each of them? How do they understand political association (contract)?

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3. From Liberal State to Social State The Liberal Rule of Law After the liberal revolutions of the 17th, 18th, and 19th centuries, the rule of law was called “liberal rule of law”. This form of political organisation made individual freedoms the centre of democratic citizenship. These are the true freedoms, because public powers have the obligation to guarantee, consolidate and strengthen these individual freedoms as the basis of democratic citizenship. Social State and Welfare State After the socialist revolutions of the 19th and 20th centuries, the rule of law was called “social rule of law”. This form of political organisation makes social conditions, material necessities and economic resources the centre of democratic citizenship. So that fundamental rights were not just formal rights or rights only recognized on a paper, the defenders of the social state proposed equality as the centre of democratic citizenship. The social state did not promote equality of results but it did present equality of opportunities, so that the less capable citizens could participate as equals in public life. This concern for equality produced some new rights called “social rights”. Among these we can find the right to education, healthcare and cultural training. The social state not only protected citizens, it also trained them and promoted them in order to encourage their welfare. This is why we can say that we have passed from a social state to a welfare state. Social and Democratic Rule of Law The Spanish Constitution was one of the last European constitutions of the 20th century. When it was written it adopted aspects of the liberal and social state. This summary of political traditions is one of the biggest efforts of the constitution because liberal- and socialistinspired traditions can rule from it. A summary that does not refer to the existence of rights and laws but to the recognition of values that are not the property of any political or ideological tradition therefore receive the name of higher values.

Artículo 1 de la Constitución Española 1. España se constituye en un Estado social y democrático de Derecho, que propugna como valores superiores de su ordenamiento jurídico la libertad, la justicia, la igualdad y el pluralismo político. 2. La soberanía nacional reside en el pueblo español, del que emanan los poderes del Estado. 3. La forma política del Estado español es la Monarquía parlamentaria.

Artículo 10 de l’Estatut d’Autonomia de la Comunitat Valenciana 1. La Generalitat defenderá y promoverá los derechos sociales de los valencianos que representan un ámbito inseparable del respeto de los valores y derechos universales de las personas y que constituyen uno de los fundamentos cívicos del progreso económico, cultural y tecnológico de la Comunitat Valenciana. […] 4. La Generalitat, en el marco de sus competencias y mediante su organización jurídica, promoverá las condiciones necesarias para que los derechos sociales de los ciudadanos valencianos y de los grupos y colectivos en que se integren sean objeto de una aplicación real y efectiva.

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4. Social Justice and Division of Power Democratic Citizenship and Social Justice Without the rule of law democratic citizenship is impossible. There can be other forms of citizenship (legal, social, economic, global), but without a social and democratic rule of law there are no guarantees that individuals can develop within all the dimensions of their lives as citizens. They could do it as voters, as consumers, as patients, as believers, but democratic citizenship allows a complete development of all dimensions of life. One can be citizen in a non-democratic state, but citizenship would be limited and restricted. When we speak of democratic citizenship we describe the conditions of belonging to a political community and also the conditions of participation. The level of integration and participation facilitates the application of the values of liberty and equality. Furthermore, they make the justice within which they are expressed be not just a nominal or virtual justice, it also measures up to the people and is a justice with a human face, receiving the name of social justice. Democratic Citizenship and Separation of Power Unlike restrictive concepts of citizenship, democratic citizenship is a citizenship that limits power in general. When there is a real consciousness of democratic citizenship it is difficult to exercise power in an arbitrary or tyrannical way. Democratic citizenship is the best tool against despotism and tyranny because it promotes the separation of power. The three traditional powers are legislative power (creation of laws), executive power (governs according to the laws) and judicial power (applies laws and justice). The separation of power is what we could call a principle of democratic health, because it allows some powers to correct the others and these powers do not last over time. “Allowing citizens to be in charge of the administration of small matters, rather than presenting them with the governing of bigger matters means you interest them in the public good and you make them see the need that all people work to produce this good. …First you occupy the general interest and, by working for the wellbeing of fellow citizens, they acquire the habit and love of serving them.” Alexis de Tocqueville, Democracy in America. “El Estado de derecho no es sólo una cosa de juristas…el Estado y el derecho no son sino medios oportunos, puede que imprescindibles para un fin más esencial: no se hizo el hombre para ellos, sino ellos para el hombre…A quienes en rigor más importa que aquél exista, funcione y sea real y formalmente respetado, no es tanto a los gobernantes sino a los ciudadanos, a sus derechos, a sus libertades y a sus necesidades; y muy especialmente les interesa a aquellos que pueden protegerse menos, o nada, por sus propios medios, empezando por los de carácter económico.” E. Díaz, Filosofía del derecho. Legalidad y Legitimidad

ACTIVITIES: 1. What is democratic citizenship? Why is the separation of power so important? 2. Read the texts by Tocqueville y E. Díaz carefully. What title would you give each of them? What ideas are the authors defending?

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This Issue in the Press: The Separation of Power “El César no se conforma con lo suyo” “La historia se repite. El César no acepta que lo suyo tenga límite alguno. ¿Qué es eso de lo de Dios -dirá un socialista español- en un espacio público laico donde no hay lugar para ese nombre? Además, en todo caso, en una sociedad pluralista, en la que cada uno entiende lo de Dios a su manera, ha de ser el Poder del Estado, el César, revestido ahora con el manto democrático de la mayoría, encarnación de la voluntad suprema del pueblo soberano, la única instancia que establezca, mediante el ordenamiento jurídico positivo, las bases comunes de la convivencia, obligatorias para todos, la llamada moral pública. Es el César quien decide qué es bueno y qué es malo, que es justo y qué es injusto, a quién puede impedírsele nacer y quién puede/debe ya morir... ¿Sin sujeción a ninguna exigencia pre- y meta-jurídico-positiva? ¿A su arbitrio? ¿Sin atención a logos alguno? ¡Eso sí que es omnipotencia! En este tolerante mundo politeísta, cada uno -se nos dirá- puede practicar su religión a condición de que todos nos atengamos al culto común de lo que dispone el César. No se nos exige -por ahora- que rindamos culto a sus estatuas, pero sí que le ofrezcamos el incienso de nuestro silencio absoluto ante sus formalmente democráticas normas. No se admiten críticas ni objeción de conciencia alguna. La historia se repite. En aquel momento en que se fundían política y religión, la imposición, religiosa, del culto al emperador romano respondía a una exigencia política: Si el emperador era el único Poder sobre todo el imperio, había de ser también a la vez, como garantía de unidad, el único Dios para todo el imperio y a él habían de rendir culto todos, con independencia de que cada uno, tolerado el más amplio politeísmo, adorara además en su ámbito privado y, en todo caso, particular, a su particular dios. Los cristianos son los primeros en reconocer la existencia de un espacio en el que el poder político tiene su campo propio de acción, el ámbito autónomo de lo del César. Pero el César no se conforma con lo suyo. No le basta su autonomía, quiere la soberana independencia del Absoluto. Se erige en Dios. Eso es lo que los cristianos no pueden aceptar. Se niegan a rendir culto al emperador. Y esta postura, religiosa, resulta inevitablemente a la vez política, pues con ella se niega el presupuesto de que el poder imperial es absoluto, fuente última y fundamento único de toda normatividad. Los cristianos no ponen en cuestión el poder del emperador en su esfera, lo respetan y piden por el éxito de su gobernación, pero no podían entonces, como no pueden hoy, dejar de entrar en conflicto con el César, con el poder político, si éste se autodiviniza. Cuando esto ocurre, sólo con tan religiosa manifestación como la de dar culto al verdadero Dios y, por lo mismo, decirle al César Tú no eres Dios, ya se meten en política... Inevitablemente. En esa posición de obligados objetores coinciden con los cristianos de ayer y de hoy quienes, aunque no profesen fe religiosa alguna, afirman la existencia de un orden objetivo de verdades y exigencias fundamentales de orden moral, anteriores y superiores a la voluntad del César, a la política y a todo derecho positivo, verdades fundamentales en cuyo descubrimiento y afirmación hemos de converger, en esta sociedad pluralista, democrática, mediante un permanente esfuerzo dialogal. Ese ámbito es el que, en términos creyentes, constituye lo de Dios. La defensa del ámbito de lo Dios es justamente la defensa de la libertad de conciencia. Los mártires cristianos fueron los primeros que, con su negativa a rendir culto al poder político, defendieron la libertad de conciencia y sembraron la semilla de la democracia auténtica como sistema de libertades. Y es ese sistema el que, paradójicamente, el propio César de origen democrático hace desaparecer cuando no reconoce límites a su poder.” T. González Vila, ALFA Y OMEGA, nº 601, ABC, 10-VII-2008 ACTIVITIES: 1. Look up the words you do not understand in the dictionary. 2. Make an outline of the text with the main ideas. 3. What does the expression “dar al César lo que es del César y a Dios lo que es de Dios” ("Each person should take responsibility for the things they have responsibility for") mean? 3. What powers are described in the text 4. What should the separation of powers be?

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Let’s go to the Cinema: A Man for All Seasons The film knows how to express human dramas in an admirable way. It shows tensions, doubts, the crossroads in life, and it does it in an exemplary and paradigmatical way. The film “A Man for All Seasons” deals with the drama lived and suffered by Thomas More: whether to obey the law or follow his conscience. In this case, as in many others, conscience is not an issue of whim, but the demonstration of dignity and convictions. Conscience is another way of saying conviction, and another way of saying citizenship. ORIGINAL TITLE A Man for All Seasons YEAR 1966 LENGTH 120 min. COUNTRY United States DIRECTOR Fred Zinnemann SCREENPLAY Robert Bolt (Theatre: Robert Bolt) MUSIC Georges Delerue CINEMATOGRAPHY Ted Moore CAST Paul Scofield, Orson Welles, Vanessa Redgrave, Robert Shaw, Wendy Hiller, Leo McKern, Susannah York, Nigel Davenport, John Hurt, Corin Redgrave, Colin Blakely, Cyril Luckham PRODUCER Columbia Pictures (Information: www.filmaffinity.com) IT MAKES US WONDER ABOUT: - The value of truth and one's own convictions - The power of conscience - Ways of fighting against the arbitrary decisions of of the those who govern. WHAT IS IT ABOUT? The movie tells the story of the last days in the life of Thomas More (1478-1535), specifically the dilemma that will torment him: should he act following his convictions, even if it means his death? Or should he obey the pressures of the king, Henry VIII, who does not hesitate in changing the law to his convenience? The film invites us to live this dilemma with Thomas More, and like him, we will have to make a decision, one way or another.

THINK - If you watch the movie, make a list of the characters that appear and describe them briefly: what they are like, what they do, how they dress, how they react and, above all, how they argue. - Why is conscience so important? What does it have to do with dignity? And with citizenship? - You already know characters such as Socrates. What differences could be established between these two characters?

- Do we build our life by taking big or small decisions?

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Looking Through Images: Reflections of Freedom, Democracy and Justice EUGENE DELACROIX Painting that symbolises the fight against oppression and the defence of rights

LIBERTY GUIDING THE PEOPLE (1830, Louvre Museum)

Look for Some Facts - Look for information about other monuments to the Constitution (1978). Are there any in your city? Learn to Look - Describe the artistic composition. - What do you think the different elements mean? Think About the Image - Why do you think these monuments are important? - If you had to represent the Constitution, knowing what it itself represents, how would you do it? Try

Look for Some Facts - Who was Delacroix? - What historical events is he representing? Learn to Look - Briefly describe all the elements of the painting. - What does the painting express or communicate if we just look at it without any knowledge of the historical context? Think About the Image - The image symbolises a riot. Against what? In favour of what? - If you had to represent a revolution against unfair laws or a movement in defense of fair laws, how would you do it?

MONUMENT TO THE 1978 CONSTITUTION (MADRID): M. A. RUIZ-LARREA Located in the gardens of the Museo de Ciencias Naturales, on the corner of Calle Vitrubio and Paseo de la Castellana.

Look for Some Facts - Look for other representations of justice and the Law. Learn to Look - What elements appear in this painting and why do you think they are used to represent justice? Think About the Image - Do you think it is a correct representation? Why? - How would you represent justice? And the Law? KEEP THINKING AND IMAGINING - With what image, painting or drawing would you represent freedom? - If you had to organize an art exhibition under the title “Freedom�, which painters would you turn to? What kind of paintings would you choose?

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Justice, engraving by Gravelot and Cochin, 18th century.

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The World of Literature: Baltasar Gracián Baltasar Gracián is one of the most notable Spanish writers. He was a writer during the Spanish Golden Age (1601-1658). Among all of his work the most outstanding is El criticón, one of the most valued works in our country and above all, abroad. It is also worth drawing attention to his Oráculo manual y arte de la prudencia. It is a book that shows the reader how to behave in private and public life. It could be considered a real guidebook to citizenship. It expresses the necessary values for a critical and lively understanding of civic responsibility. Lleva una ventaja lo sabio, que es eterno, y si éste no es su siglo, muchos otros los serán La finalidad principal de la prudencia es no perder nunca la compostura. De ello da prueba el verdadero hombre, de corazón perfecto, porque es difícil conmover a cualquier ánimo elevado. Las pasiones son los humores del ánimo; cualquier exceso en ellas perjudica a la prudencia; y si el mal llega a los labios, la reputación peligrará. Uno debe ser tan dueño de sí que ni en la mayor prosperidad ni en la mayor adversidad nadie pueda criticarle por haber perdido la compostura. Así será admirado como superior. El sumo Derecho se hace tuerto... Saber estimar. Ninguno hay que no pueda ser maestro de otro en algo. Ni hay quien no exceda al que excede. Saber disfrutar a cada uno es útil saber: el sabio estima a todos, porque reconoce lo bueno en cada uno, y sabe lo que cuestan las cosas, de hacerse bien. El necio desprecia a todos, por ignorancia de lo bueno y por elección de lo peor. No todos los que ven han abierto los ojos, no todos los que miran ven Vivir es saber elegir. Se necesita buen gusto y un juicio muy recto, pues no son suficientes el estudio y la inteligencia. No hay perfección donde no hay elección. La Necedad siempre entra de rondón, pues todos los necios son audaces. Su misma estupidez, que les impide primero advertir los inconvenientes, después les quita el sentimiento de fracaso. Pero la Prudencia entra con gran tiento. Sus batidores son la Observación y la Cautela; ellas van abriendo camino para pasar sin peligro. Cualquier Acción Irreflexiva está condenada al fracaso por la Discreción, aunque a veces la salva la Suerte. Conviene ir con cuidado donde se teme que hay mucho fondo; que lo prepare la Sagacidad y que la Prudencia vaya ganando terreno. Hoy hay muchos bajíos en el trato humano y conviene ir siempre con la sonda en la mano.

FEELING AND THINKING WITH WORDS - Research into who Gracián was. When did he live? What was his level of importance and relevance? - Gracián wrote using aphorisms. What is an aphorism? What did he want to express with them? - Read the aphorisms we offer you. Choose some of them and comment on them briefly. - One of them says “el sumo derecho se hace tuerto”. What is meant by that? Look for an example to explain it. - Invent a short aphorism that has to do with what you have learnt in this unit.

La mitad del mundo se está riendo de la otra mitad, y ambas son necias. Según las opiniones, o todo es bueno o todo es malo. Lo que uno sigue el otro lo persigue. Es un necio insufrible el que quiere regularlo todo según su criterio. Las perfecciones no dependen de una sola opinión: los gustos son tantos como los rostros, e igualmente variados. No hay defecto sin afecto. No se debe desconfiar porque no agraden las cosas a algunos, pues no faltarán otros que las aprecien. Ni enorgullezca el aplauso de éstos, pues otros lo condenarán. La norma de la verdadera satisfacción es la aprobación de los hombres de reputación y que tienen voz y voto en esas materias. No se vive de un solo criterio, ni de una costumbre, ni de un siglo.

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Final and Summary Activities 1. Read the following articles and answer the questions: - Make a summary of the main ideas of each article. - What does each article guarantee? How do they take part in the constitution of citizenship? Articles 7 and 8 of the Declaration of Human Rights: Rights as Guarantee “7. All are equal before the law and are entitled without any discrimination to equal protection of the law. All are entitled to equal protection against any discrimination in violation of this Declaration and against any incitement to such discrimination. 8. Everyone has the right to an effective remedy by the competent national tribunals for acts violating the fundamental rights granted him by the constitution or by law.” Art. 3 del Decreto 39/2008 sobre la convivencia en los centros docentes de la C.V. “Todo el alumnado tiene los mismos derechos y deberes, sin más distinciones que aquellas que se deriven de su edad y de las etapas o niveles de las enseñanzas que cursen.”

Art. 54 de la Constitución Española. Del Defensor del Pueblo “Una Ley orgánica regulará la institución del Defensor del Pueblo, como alto comisionado de las Cortes Generales, designado por éstas para la defensa de los derechos comprendidos en este Título, a cuyo efecto podrá supervisar la actividad de la Administración, dando cuenta a las Cortes Generales.”

2. You have probably heard of the “public administration”. Answer the following questions: - What does "administer" mean? How would you define “public”? What is the public administration? Who does it run and how? 3. It is important to understand social institutions, because they help us to live and coexist. As an example we ask you to research into “civil protection” and “the office of immigration”.

Civil Defence

- What is it, on what does it depend and how does it work? - Who takes part?

Office of Inmigration

- What is it, what is it about and how does it work? - Who does it depend on and what are the procedures?

4. Legal questions sometimes affect more things than we think. Do you know if you have to ask permission to have a party on the street? Who gives it and what procedures are necessary? And what about permission to protest? Who gives it? What is the difference between a legal demonstration and an illegal one? What requirements are there?

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Find Out and Take Part Security, order and control are also important for the coexistence of citizens. Get information about “security�. To do this you can use the following chart:

SECURITY

Who does it depend on?

What are its functions?

How is it organised?

What elements are used to show its power?

How can you enrole?

National Police Force Civil Guard Regional Police Local Police School Security Customs Officers Guard Civil Defence Volunteers

Education for Citizenship and Human Rights. Unit 4

13

UNIDAD 4 INGLES  
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