Architecture Architecture is both the process and the product of planning, designing, and constructing buildings and other physical structures. Architectural works, in the material form of buildings, are often perceived as cultural symbols and as works of art. Historical civilizations are often identified with their surviving architectural achievements. "Architecture" can mean: A general term to describe buildings and other physical structures. The art and science of designing buildings and (some) nonbuilding structures. The style of design and method of construction of buildings and other physical structures. The knowledge of art, science & technology and humanity. The practice of the architect, where architecture means offering or rendering professional services in connection with the design and construction of buildings, or built environments. The design activity of the architect,,from the macro-level to the micro-level . Architecture has to do with planning and designing form, space and ambience to reflect functional, technical, social, environmental andaesthetic considerations. It requires the creative manipulation and coordination of materials and technology, and of light and shadow. Often, conflicting requirements must be resolved. The practice of Architecture also encompasses the pragmatic aspects of realizing buildings and structures, including scheduling, cost estimation and construction administration. Documentation produced by architects, typically drawings, plans and technical specifications, defines the structure and/or behavior of a building or other kind of system that is to be or has been constructed.

What is Trigonometry? Trigonometry is a branch of mathematics that studies relationships involving lengths andangles of triangles. The field emerged in the Hellenistic world during the 3rd century BC from applications of geometry to astronomical studies. The 3rd-century astronomers first noted that the lengths of the sides of a right-angle triangle and the angles between those sides have fixed relationships: that is, if at least the length of one side and the value of one angle is known, then all other angles and lengths can be determined algorithmically. These calculations soon came to be defined as the trigonometric functions and today are pervasive in both pure and applied mathematics: fundamental methods of analysis such as the Fourier transform, for example, or the wave equation, use trigonometric functions to understand cyclical phenomena across many applications in fields as diverse as physics, mechanical and electrical engineering, music and acoustics, astronomy, ecology, and biology. Trigonometry is most simply associated with planar right-angle triangles. The applicability to non-right-angle triangles exists, but, since any non-right-angle triangle can be bisected to create two right-angle triangles, most problems can be reduced to calculations on right-angle triangles. Thus the majority of applications relate to right-angle triangles. One exception to this is spherical trigonometry, the study of triangles on spheres, surfaces of constant positive curvature, in elliptic geometry. Trigonometry on surfaces of negative curvature is part of hyperbolic geometry.

When do Architects use Trigonometry? By using Trigonometry an Architect can express the shapes and forms of a structure to

his exact specifications and they can be produced by any contractor.

To ensure the stability of a structure Architects must use trigonometry, caluculating exact angles an d distances an how much of a material is needed for a specific job.

Knowledge of Trigonometry in Architecture Gleaning Important Information From Triangles ď‚ˇ

One of the most common architectural uses for trigonometry is determining a

structure's height. For example, architects can use the tangent function to compute a building's height if they know their distance from the structure and the angle between their eyes and the building's top; clinometers can help you measure those angles. These are old devices, but newer ones use digital technology to provide more accurate readings. You can also compute a structure's distance if you know a clinometer angle and the structure's height.

Basic Structural Theory ď‚ˇ

In addition to designing the way a structure looks, architects must understand

forces and loads that act upon those structures. Vectors -- which have a starting point, magnitude and direction -- enable you to define those forces and loads. An architect can use trigonometric functions to work with vectors and compute loads and forces. For instance, you can use sine and cosine functions determine a vector's components if you express it terms of the angle it forms relative to an axis.

Truss Analysis and Trigonometry ď‚ˇ

Designing structures that can handle load forces applied to them is important for

architects. They often use trusses in their design to transfer a structure's load forces to some form of support. A truss is like a beam but lighter and more efficient. You can use trigonometry and vectors to calculate forces that are at work in trusses. An architect may need to determine stresses at all points in a truss with its diagonal members at a certain angle and known loads attached to different parts of it.

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Escritores Ivan Felipe Lauriano Dubuisson Cesar Enrique Mojica Tel茅fono/Fax/Correo electr贸nico:

Tel茅fono: 809-339-1275 Correo electr贸nico: Ilauriano@aluce.org

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