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SANITA EDITIOTION N

NEWS

VOLUME 6 - MARCH 2014

Towards Sustainable Urban Sanitation


Before you read IUWASH - ACCELERATING SUSTAINABLE URBAN SANITATION SERVICES

LOCAL TECHNICAL WASTE WATER IMPLEMENTATION UNIT: AN INTEGRAL PART OF SUSTAINABLE LOCAL SANITATION POLICY

IUWASH introduces urban waste water framework to support accelerating sustainable development of the urban sanitation sector in selected Indonesian partner cities. page 3

Combined triggering and training helps to speed up behavior change

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Sanitation entrepreneurship training boosts SME growth page 11

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SANITATION: A PROFITABLE NICHE IN THE MICROFINANCE BUSINESS

Community-Based Total Sanitation Program improves individual sanitation system page 12

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Through this project, a newly-built bathing, washing and toilet facility will benefit at least 150 families while the water supply system will reach 100 families in Semanggi village.

Sanitation working group receives commitment from Malang Legislative Council

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Ten steps to promote household connection for off-site sewerage system The promotion team of Tirtanadi Water Utility gained better understanding in planning, designing, sequencing and managing sewerage connection program using “10 Steps Promotion Toolkit�.

Water and Environmental Health Working Group of Jayapura city produces two important guidelines on sanitation

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Hygiene Village Project improves sanitation and water supply in Surakarta

Cooperatives working on microcredit scheme for sanitation

COMMUNITY WATER ASSOCIATION IN INDONESIA WINS AWARD

Mobile sludge removal service helps clean Belawan

Three districts in Central Java committed to improve urban sanitation system

National Conference on Drinking Water and Sanitation 2013

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IUWASH News is an e-newsletter produced and distributed by the Indonesia Urban Water, Sanitation and Hygiene. Indonesia Urban Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (IUWASH) is a five years development project funded by U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and implemented by Development Alternatives, Inc. (DAI). The views expressed by the authors contributing to this newsletter do not necessarily reflect the views of the IUWASH, its partner organizations, USAID, or its government of Indonesia sponsors. IUWASH News is a forum to share opinion and information on IUWASH project activities.

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Indonesia Urban Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (IUWASH) Mayapada Tower 10th floor, suite 01 Jl. Jenderal Sudirman Kav. 28 Jakarta 12920, Indonesia Tel. +62-21 522 - 0540 Fax. +62-21 522 - 0539 www.iuwash.or.id www.facebook.com/iuwash twitter @airsanitasi


IUWASH - Accelerating sustainable urban sanitation services

Regulation & Enforcement

SAN 1: On-site Systems

Household toilets through SME and Micro Credit

SAN 2: Communal System Communal septic tank, public toilets (by CBO)

SAN 4: Integrated Septage Management

SAN 3: Centralized (off-site) Systems Small scale, small bore, and citywide sewerage, treatment, disposal, and reuse

Collection, treatment, disposal, and reuse

City Sanitation Management Unit

Operator of Urban Sanitation system , customer relation, billing, O&M

Regulation & Enforcement

IUWASH commenced in March 2011 and will come to completion in February 2016 during which period IUWASH’s sanitation component is targeting access to improved sanitation facilities and services for 250,000 people (or 50,000 households) in 54 cities/districs, spread within the IUWASH regions of North Sumatra, West Java/Banten/ DKI, Central Java, East Java and South Sulawesi/East Indonesia.

Triggering Behavior Change

Capacity Development , Behavior Change communication, Sanitation Triggering, Sanitation Promotion & Marketing

Advocacy, Legislation, enforcement, financing and strategies

JAKARTA. IUWASH (Indonesia Urban Water Sanitation and Hygiene) is an innovative USAID-sponsored program that is supporting the implementation of the Government’s sanitation policies and programs at provincial and local government levels.

Advocacy, Legislation, enforcement, financing and strategies

IUWASH introduces urban waste water framework to support accelerating sustainable development of the urban sanitation sector in selected Indonesian partner cities.

IUWASH Urban Waste Water Framework

Besides this quantitative target, IUWASH is providing vital contributions to the future sustainability of the sanitation sector through a series of structured activities, including the promotion of behavior change communication for triggering community demand, support for the development of enabling regulations at local government level, identification of sources of finance for the improvement of household sanitation, and institutional strengthening through the establishment and capacity building of citywide operating Sanitation Management Units (UPTD).

For creating best possible synergies, IUWASH promotes “horizontal” collaboration between the 54 participating local governments through the exchange of technical materials, lessons learned, comparative study tours, and regional workshops, as well as “vertical” collaboration for disseminating national sanitation policies to participating local governments and for channeling field experiences back to the concerned national ministries for contributing to the development of adequate future national policies and sanitation support programming.

To achieve these ambitious targets, IUWASH strongly relies on partnerships with key government bodies, foremost BAPPENAS, the Ministries of Public Works, Home Affairs and Health; selected donor agencies and their relevant programs, including ADB/USRI (Urban Sanitation and Rural Infrastructure), World Bank/WSP (Water and Sanitation Program), AUSAID/IndII (Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative); and other institutions, both public and private.

For supporting the sustainability of the Indonesian waste water sector, IUWASH introduced, and is now intensively promoting at national and local levels, a forward-looking “Urban Waste Water Framework” (see chart above) that integrates the various drivers of domestic waste water management into a comprehensive citywide urban waste water management framework, which comprises in its core the following key elements:

 Enabling regulatory and institutional environment  Behavior change communication and demand triggering  Capacity building for City Sanitation Management Units, and  Access to improved waste water management facilities and services, which are promoted under the synonyms SAN 1 for individual household sanitation improvements; SAN 2 and SAN 3 for connecting individual households to either community based sanitation systems or centralized sewerage; and SAN 4 for promoting regular desluding of individual and communal septic tanks. The objectives of these four key elements of the Urban Waste Water Framework are as follows: Enabling regulatory and institutional environment Accountable governance, enabling regulation, and adequate institutional settings are key drivers for the development of equitable access to improved sanitation facilities and

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services in urban areas. Facilitating the development of governance for improving public sanitation services involves the active participation of the beneficiaries, local government bodies, and representatives of the local parliament. Whilst it is the local governments’ responsibility to lead the betterment of citywide sanitation services for the benefits their communities, IUWASH is advocating with the participating local governments the promulgation of policies and regulation in support of developing improved sanitation services. More specifically, IUWASH is providing technical assistance to local governments for identifying policy gaps and developing best possible regulatory and institutional practices. Behavior change communication and demand triggering The objective of demand triggering, in conjunction with sanitation promotion and marketing, is the elimination of open defection and other inappropriate sanitation practice through the improvement of individual sanitation facilities or the opportunity for connecting to an off-site reticulation system. Hence, IUWASH is supporting the capacity building process for community demand triggering through behavior change communication for increasing, the access to improved sanitation facilities and services. In Indonesia, the method is commonly implemented through various government and donor sponsored “Community-Led Total Sanitation� programs. Following the successful implementation of a community demand triggering process is the brokering of community access to funding for improving the immediate sanitation conditions within the household boundaries. Capacity building for city sanitation management units The sustainability of public sanitation services at local level largely depends on the availability of a competent government agency in charge of citywide waste water services, which includes (i) regular desludging of individual and communal septic tanks,

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(ii) oversight and operational support for an increasing number of decentralized communal sanitation systems, and (iii) direct management of centralized sewerage systems. Consequently, IUWASH is fostering the establishment of functional City Sanitation Management Units (UPTD), which is considered as the most suitable intermediate institutional strategy for carrying out integrated waste water management functions at local government level. IUWASH is supporting the development and strengthening of managerial and operational aspects of newly established UPTDs in the areas of financial management, community outreach and customer care, asset management, and human resources, which is accompanied by advocating local governments for the allocation of adequate annual operational budgets for sanitation services. Access to improved waste water management facilities and services Within the Urban Waste Water Framework, IUWASH developed four core competencies for improving the access to safe urban sanitation, as follows: Program SAN 1: increased access through individual sanitation (on-site) systems In the absence of significant coverage of urban waste water services through either decentralized communal sanitation systems or centralized urban sewerage, IUWASH is promoting on-site sanitation as a viable interim solution for the improvement of community hygiene and environmental protection.

The technical key elements to on-site sanitation are the availability of water and the disposal of domestic waste water to a suitable septic tank. The elements of IUWASH interventions for this component include (i) training of local sanitarians for effectively implementing the community triggering process, (ii) strengthening the supply chain comprising cooperatives, SMEs, religious and community groups and skilled labor; and (iii) facilitating the access to finance through microcredit options or government subsidies. The SAN 1 program started in mid-2012 and is now collaborating with about 35 local governments. Program SAN 2: Increased access through communal systems Community-managed sanitation systems are considered as the next-best technical interim option to centralized sewerage. These systems are successfully promoted in Indonesian cities during the last two decades by the Government, NGOs, and donor agencies for supporting sanitary improvements for vulnerable urban communities. IUWASH is promoting communal sanitation though the provision of grants for building pilot systems within eight local governments. The scope of work for these systems includes community surveys and demand triggering, technical design, tendering and supervision of works, and training of cadres and community groups in charge of the operation and maintenance of the systems.

IUWASH is also closely collaborating since 2012/2013 with the ADB-financed Urban Sanitation and Rural Infrastructure Program (USRI), which is managed by the Waste Water Division of the Improved Ministry of Public Latrine (SNI) Works. In total, Community Supply USRI will build over 1,300 communal systems in 34 local government Trigger Provide Strengthen jurisdictions, Demand Finance Supplier including more than 500 units in 14 IUWASH locations. Demand and supply chain for improvement of individual latrine


IUWASH is directly assisting these programs through a variety of preconstruction activities including: training of trainers (TOT), and training of sanitarians, cadres and field facilitators in the areas of demand triggering, promotion, hygiene practices and gender awareness. These activities are implemented complementary to the training of the community groups in charge of operations and maintenance of the constructed communal systems. Program SAN 3: Increased access through off-site sanitation (sewerage) IUWASH supports community access to sewerage by either facilitating the construction of new household connections to existing sewerage system, such as in Medan, Jakarta, Bogor and Surakarta, or by supporting local governments that are in the process of constructing small-scale sewerage systems. Typically, IUWASH interventions for these systems are in the areas of demand triggering, promotion and marketing, technical support for limited pilot locations, and institutional strengthening measures for the cityowned operators. To strengthen the process of demand triggering and the promotional of access to centralized sewerage, IUWASH collaborates with SPEAK, a local NGO for introducing a “10-Step Promotion Toolkit” to local governments and their technical operators. This program includes the joint development of a sewerage promotion strategy, promotion materials, and the actual setting-up of promotion campaigns in agreed pilot areas. Since 2013, IUWASH is also closely collaborating with the AUSAID-financed IndII/sAIIG program, which is operating in more than 30 local governments, of which 11 are overlapping with IUWASH locations. Specific IUWASH support for the sAIIG systems includes both pre-construction support for demand triggering, promotion, and post-construction support for the establishment of city-owned City

Pryatin M. Santoso/IUWASH JAKARTA

IUWASH is now supporting a similar program, financed by the Islamic Development Bank (IDB), which has started in 2014 for developing additional 1,800 communal sanitation systems.

Two trained masons installed the septic tank using fiber mold as part of construction process of improved ‘healthy toilet’ with septic tank.

Sanitation Management Units and subsequent development of capacity building plans and support.

level the availability of sufficient sludge transportation capacity and sludge treatment units (IPLT).

Program SAN 4: Improved urban sludge management With an increasing number of septic tanks advocated through the SAN 1 program and the accumulation of significant septic sludge volumes within the many communal sanitation systems (explained under SAN 2 above), it is an imperative for regulating and developing appropriate sludge management practices local government level.

For limited pilot locations, IUWASH supports the implementation of technical reviews of existing IPLTs or the design for the construction of new sludge treatment facilities. In any case, for sustaining USM, IUWASH is supporting the establishment of a regulatory and institutional framework that allows regular desluding and the introduction of a service fee.

Upon the completion of initial studies for testing the feasibility of improved Urban Sludge Management (USM), IUWASH has begun developing the concept of scheduled desludging services in some selected pilot locations, including Makassar, Surakarta, Probolinggo and Bogor. The key element of improved USM is an integrated sludge management approach on the basis of a clear institutional mandate that allows scheduled desludging services. The building of scheduled desluging services comprises among others the establishment of a customer base, the involvement of the private sector (where suitable), and the introduction of a revenue stream through a customer service fee for achieving cost recovery of the operational cost over time. However, preconditions for effective sludge management are, at the consumer’s end the availably of suitable septic tanks, and at local government

Summing it up The success of the IUWASH approach requires close collaboration between local governments and national stakeholders including Bappeda, the Ministries of Public Works, Home Affairs, Health and various key donor agencies such as The World Bank, ADB, and AUSAID. About 35 local governments across all five IUWASH regions have expressed strong interest in establishing City Sanitation Management Units (UPTD) for providing citywide waste water services, and it is expected that a significant number of the proposed UPTDs will be operational by the end of the IUWASH program in 2016. Emphasis is given to cities where IUWASH is also supporting the ADB-financed USRI program and the AUSAID-financed sAIIG program. For more information please log into the IUWASH homepage www.iuwash.or.id Virgi Fatmawati, Foort Bustraan, Lutz Kleeberg/IUWASH Jakarta

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Triggering Behavior Change SAN 1: On-site Systems

SAN 2: Communal system

SAN 4: Integrated Septage Management

SAN 3: Centralized (off-site) systems

City Sanitation Management Unit

Combined triggering and training helps to speed up behavior change USAID IUWASH combined a triggering method with practical training to build “healthy toilets”, and provided financing options to build or improve sanitation facilities at home, which have greatly increased people’s demands for better toilets with proper septic tanks.

Manuals of STBM program

Dwi Prihanto/IUWASH EAST JAVA

The Implementation Manual and Technical Manual of the National Secretariat for the STBM program contain important principles of triggering activities, such as no subsidies for the construction of sanitation facility that the triggering should begin with unimproved sanitation ladder as community’s ability to change their hygiene and sanitation behavior is highly valued.

Local community members were encouraged to build individual toilets after participating in triggering activities held through community gathering.

JOMBANG. Triggering is a method for persuading people to change their hygiene and sanitation behavior. It is commonly used in a Community-Led Total Sanitation (STBM) approach for a community to completely stop open defecation. With STBM being an “unsubsidized program” that strongly encourages people to build their own toilet with septic tank, USAID IUWASH combined the triggering method with practical training to build “healthy toilets”, and provided financing options to build or improve sanitation facilities at home, which eventually has greatly increased people’s demands for better toilets with proper septic tanks.

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Combining triggering activities with financing options IUWASH has developed an individual sanitation system or toilet with proper septic tank at home by adhering to key STBM manuals, a national program whose goal is to reduce diarrhea incidence and other diseases related to poor sanitation and hygiene behaviors. The triggering of a community, in conjunction with various activities to bring about behavior change to stop open defecation, are initial steps to improve sanitation facility. Once community perception – that open

defecation is bad practice – has been triggered, the next step is to empower a community to fund or use other financing options such as microfinance or revolving funds to build proper new toilets or improve their current ones. In October 2012, IUWASH started to support the Community-Based Total Sanitation (STBM) program in Jombang district, where the program has been implemented since 2008. The collaboration focused on three STBM pillars: free from open defecation, washing hands with soap and management of household drinking water. These three pillars are regarded as important points in increasing access to an improved individual sanitation system. As part of a pre-triggering phase, IUWASH collaborated with Jombang Health Office to identify potential targeted areas that required toilet improvement. In October 2012, a series of joint monitoring activities was conducted to evaluate the STBM program previously implemented by the Health Office and to formulate a more suitable community-based approach to enhance the STBM triggering program.


signed up to build toilets at their homes. With increasing demand, we need to find an affordable funding system,” said Effendi.

Community-Based Total Sanitation (Sanitasi Total Berbasis Masyarakat, STBM)

Working with trained masons To optimize the revolving funds provided by IUWASH to build septic tanks, Usman and Suteja worked with well-trained local masons to develop a microcredit system with monthly installments that allows households to build toilets. During the triggering activity, 12 households in Mojoagung, whose houses were chosen as training venues, were entitled to use Rp 750,000 in revolving funds to build a new toilet with a proper septic tank at a cost of Rp 1.2 million. Each household makes a Rp 200,000 down payment and pays the remaining in 10 monthly installments. This microcredit system attracted 35

It is an approach to change hygiene and sanitation behaviors through community empowerment using “triggering” method. STBM is a cross-sectoral national program in sanitation sector, whose goal is to reduce diarrhea incidence and other environmental diseases related to poor sanitation and hygiene behaviors. The program was launched in August 2008 by the Minister of Health based on Ministerial Decree No. 852/2008. STBM has five pillars that lead to improved individual sanitation system: free from open defecation, washing hands with soap, household drinking water management, household liquid waste management, and proper household solid waste management.

other households in Mojoagung to access the same service. A similar microcredit scheme to build individual toilets was implemented in the area of Pulolor Community Health Center. According to Purwaningsih, a local sanitarian, 11 households have built new toilets with septic tanks using IUWASH revolving funds and small loans from a community revolving fund. In total, by September 2013, this initiative successfully helped 58 households in Jombang and Mojoagung to establish a new toilet at their homes. Having seen the postive results, IUWASH is considering the replication of this initiative in other areas that badly need individual sanitation systems. Dwi Prihanto, Ristina Aprilia/IUWASH East Java, Virgi Fatmawati/IUWASH Jakarta

Coping with financial constraints Based on the findings from the pretriggering phase, financial constraints hampered many low-income households from building even a simple toilet (at a cost of about Rp 1.2 million or US$ 120). To raise community willingness, IUWASH and local sanitarians facilitated a series of practical training sessions on “healthy toilet” construction in seven villages in Jombang and Mojoagung subdistricts. IUWASH also provided a revolving fund of Rp 13 million to help build 17 septic tanks at each location where the training took place.

“There is huge enthusiasm from the local community to build individual toilets after participating in the triggering activities we held through various community events, such as religious gatherings and community lotteries. In May 2013, for example, right after a triggering activity that was combined with training on toilet construction in Johowinong village, eight households

IUWASH EAST JAVA

The combined training and triggering activities turned out to be effective in convincing community members to build affordable toilets. Usman Effendi and Suteja, two sanitarians from Mojoagung subdistrict who facilitated the training, were kept very busy with a waiting list of households that signed up to build new toilets.

Monitoring the practice of healthy toilet construction in Plosorejo, Johowinong village, Mojoagung subdistrict.

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Triggering Behavior Change SAN 1: On-site Systems

SAN 2: Communal system

SAN 4: Integrated Septage Management

SAN 3: Centralized (off-site) systems

City Sanitation Management Unit

Sanitation: a profitable niche in the microfinance business

Siti Ngaisah/IUWASH EAST JAVA

IUWASH turns sanitation into a profitable business niche by tapping into microfinance and working with cooperatives and small medium enterprises.

Affordable microfinance scheme allows low-income communities to construct toilet at their homes. Working closely with sanitarians to create demand then involving small and medium enterprises will also scale-up the access to improved sanitation facilities.

JAKARTA. In urban areas, where land is limited and owning a toilet at home is seen as part of a clean and healthy lifestyle, local government programs encourage communities in those areas to build toilets with septic tanks to avoid further damage to the environment. However, a complete home sanitation facility could cost as much as Rp 2.5 million (about US$ 208). This amount of money is not readily available to those in low-income urban communities. Addressing this issue, IUWASH introduced a microfinance scheme and encouraged local banks to pitch in. The microfinance for sanitation uses the Grameen Bank method, where single or several buyers of a toilet and septic tank system can pay a small upfront fee and the remaining cost in manageable,

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weekly installments within an agreed period of time. As the demand for healthy toilets or proper toilets and septic tank systems increased, IUWASH helped local sanitation stakeholders to seek additional capital from local banks and cooperatives. At present, IUWASH has three models to implement the microfinance scheme in urban areas with financial backup from local banks: community cooperatives, microfinance scheme in established cooperatives and cooperation with small and medium enterprises or small sanitation contractors. However, the essential condition that determines the most suitable model is water availability in the area.

Community cooperative Encouraging a community to set up its own cooperative to manage microfinance funds for sanitation takes a lot of effort and time, and it depends largely on a group of highly committed individuals in combination with local sanitarian and community leaders. Following these initial steps, IUWASH conducts workshops and training to introduce business management to the committed group. In November 2012, local sanitarians in Probolinggo city established a cooperative called Saniman. Saniman is currently awaiting the issuance of a legal permit from the local Cooperatives Office so that its operations can commence. Microfinance in established cooperative Cooperatives are popular business models that many Indonesians know and feel comfortable with. Working with an established large cooperative that has 2,000 or more members, IUWASH introduced its microfinance scheme for sanitation. The scheme is similar to a credit union for regular trading, in which the cooperative adds healthy toilets as a product that their members can buy through a loan and repay it via small installments. The large cooperative can offer a sanitation package to its own members and thereby attract new members. In Tangerang, Banten, IUWASH will support two cooperatives that have around 30,000 members – Koperasi Abdi Kerta Raharja (AKR) and Koperasi Pemberdayaan dan Pengembangan (KPP) – with training for construction workers to build healthy toilet units at affordable prices, and will connect


Pryatin M. Santoso/IUWASH JAKARTA

A meeting with the Deputy Assistant of Program Financing at the Ministry of Cooperatives and Small Medium Enterprises. IUWASH has facilitated four cooperatives to discuss the opportunity to access financial support for providing water and sanitation services through Revolving Fund Management Institution of the Ministry of Cooperatives and Small Medium Enterprises (LPDB-KUMKM).

them with sources of financing to secure more substantial funds. Working with established cooperatives and small and medium enterprises Small and medium enterprises are usually local sanitation contractors that sell sanitary products and construct toilets and septic tank systems. Involving small and medium enterprises is a good way to rapidly build more toilets. They provide a better guarantee that the efforts of IUWASH and the government of Indonesia on reducing open defecation will continue without being dependent on donors and government funding. With this scheme, cooperatives provide additional financial capital to small and medium enterprises working in the sanitation business, which will then use the additional capital to boost their microfinance for sanitation initiatives. In East Java, IUWASH supported the development of small and medium sanitation enterprises and financed start-up activities in two cities. In Probolinggo, the project worked with

local sanitarian to establish a small enterprise called Wahana Tirta, which produces low cost toilets. In Mojokerto, IUWASH facilitated the establishment of N-Vitech. Overall, about 300 toilets and septic tanks have been built to date, in partnership with these small and medium enterprises. The loans to construct the facilities range from Rp 800,000 to Rp 1.2 million (US$80 to $120). In Surabaya, East Java province, IUWASH organized a business meeting in partnership with Bank Syariah Mandiri to bring together small and medium enterprises and microfinance partners from 11 cities in East Java, including the heads of Bank Syariah Mandiri branch offices. This meeting encouraged the scaling up of current partnerships and initiated collaboration in new locations. N-Vitech, for example, managed to obtain a Rp 140 million loan from Bank Syariah Mandiri. The active role of Bank Syariah Mandiri led Bank Rakyat Indonesia in Mojokerto to provide similar support to cooperatives for sanitation microfinance.

In North Sumatra and Central Java, IUWASH plans to replicate successful initiatives in microfinance for sanitation by conducting rapid assessments for potential cooperatives or credit unions and small businesses interested in establishing a microcredit scheme that would allow households to amortize the cost of individual sanitation facilities. IUWASH will also seek to expand the number of new sanitation facilities constructed in East Java and build on this model in other locations, such as in Tangerang, Banten. IUWASH strengthens the role of small and medium enterprises in the sanitation sector by providing training on installation, operation and maintenance of sanitation facilities at home and in the neighborhood, as well as giving marketing support to increase the visibility of these businesses. To obtain more financial support, IUWASH has collaborated with various banks and engaged with the Ministry of Cooperatives and Small-Medium Enterprises to find funding. Ardita Çaesari/IUWASH Jakarta

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Cooperatives working on microcredit scheme for sanitation

Triggering Behavior Change SAN 1: On-site Systems

SAN 2: Communal system

SAN 4: Integrated Septage Management

SAN 3: Centralized (off-site) systems

City Sanitation Management Unit

Local cooperative provides house improvement scheme with affordable credit limit and flexible installments that enable families to build healthy toilets with proper septic tanks. and KPP-UMKM initiated capacity building and promotional activities for KPP-UMKM members and community facilitators. At the moment, KPP-UMKM has more than 56,000 members, most of whom are low-income residents from urban slum and rural areas in 117 villages in Tangerang. Based on KPP-UMKM assessment, more than 50 percent of its members do not have proper and individual sanitation facilities.

Harod Novandi/ IUWASH WEST JAVA

The core activity of KPP-UMKM is to provide microcredit for small-scale business development or generating alternative income activities. Once the family’s economy is improved and the loan installments are paid, they may apply for other loans such as for school tuition or house improvement. KPPUMKM has so far provided 1,358 loans, ranging from Rp 2 million to Rp 5 million each, for toilet and house renovation, as well as shallow well construction under the house improvement scheme.

Construction of septic tank rings using fiber molds in Jambe village, Tangerang district.

TANGERANG. IUWASH has been working with Abdi Kerta Raharja Cooperative (AKR) and the Cooperative for the Empowerment and Development of Micro, Small and Medium Enterprises (KPP-UMKM) to promote microcredit for water supply and sanitation in Tangerang district since 2012. Earlier this year, IUWASH

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Recently, KPP-UMKM set up a separate scheme for sanitation. Considering that toilet construction needs to comply with Indonesian National Standards (SNI), IUWASH developed a technical guidance for design, materials quantity composition and septic tank construction, and provided 10 sets of fiber molds to install septic tank rings. IUWASH also facilitated a series of field training sessions for KPP-UMKM technical facilitators, community cadres and masons on how to install and construct a standard septic tank in Jambe village, Sukamanah subdistrict. Madrosi is one of the first two family heads to receive a loan for sanitation. He has been a member of KPP-UMKM

for years and has already received at least six loans from KPP-UMKM for business development, school tuition and now for sanitation. Madrosi had already built a toilet at his home, so he allocated the recent loan for septic tank construction. Madrosi’s wife, Asiah, said the KPPUMKM microcredit was really helpful for her family.

“It has enabled us to improve our small-scale business, pay for school tuition and renovate our house. Through this sanitation microcredit scheme, we are now able to build a healthier toilet with a proper septic tank. The credit limit and the range of installments are also very flexible, which suits us” Asiah KPP-UMKM Member

KPP-UMKM has adopted the Grameen Bank model in implementing this microcredit scheme. To collect installment payments, KPP-UMKM facilitators visit debitors on a weekly or monthly basis. Harod Novandi, Usniati Umayah, Endah Shofiani/IUWASH West Java, Virgi Fatmawati/IUWASH Jakarta


Sanitation entrepreneurship training boosts SME growth

Triggering Behavior Change SAN 1: On-site Systems

SAN 2: Communal system

SAN 4: Integrated Septage Management

SAN 3: Centralized (off-site) systems

City Sanitation Management Unit

Training for sanitation entrepreneurs has stimulated the growth of two small to medium enterprises in Lamongan and Mojokerto districts, giving a real boost to improved access to toilets and septic tanks at home. MALANG. In collaboration with the World Bank-funded Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) and Indonesia Sanitation Management and Empowerment Association (APPSANI), IUWASH held sanitation entrepreneurship training in East Java in January 2013.

Community water and sanitation association expands into sanitation The Community Association of Drinking Water and Sanitation Users (HIPPAMS) was established in 2004 to facilitate households that could not obtain a water connection from the Water Utility of Lamongan district. HIPPAMS’ coverage service recently reached 72,000 households in 474 villages in the area. Kiswanto, a board member of HIPPAMS, gained his knowledge from the sanitation entrepreneurship training. “In HIPPAMS, we didn’t have a proper theory and practice manual for our sanitation service. We usually support the households who want to get a water connection, and sometimes

N-Vitech Mojokerto

The four-day program aimed at increasing the capacity of Health Office staff, sanitarians, community cadres and community-based organizations in terms of marketing strategy for the sanitation sector and construction of individual toilets with proper septic tanks. The workshop was attended by 34 participants from nine IUWASHsupported cities/districts in East Java. The workshop has inspired several participants to start their own small sanitation businesses and prompted a community organization to diversify their business into sanitation.

Mohammad Toha (right) met a happy family in Bangsal village, Mojokerto district after having a newly built healthy toilet constructed by N-Vitech.

build individual toilets. However, we did not know how to build a standard septic tank. This workshop has improved our knowledge, particularly about good practices in a communityled total sanitation program,” said Kiswanto during the training. The knowledge was shared with fellow HIPPAMS members, and the organization finally decided to expand its service to microfinance for sanitation. In February 2013, HIPPAMS purchased four septic tank molds that cost

Rp 5 million each from APPSANI in Kediri and Sidoarjo districts. HIPPAMS found it easy to obtain a loan from Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) to buy the molds since both had previously collaborated in prefinancing water supply construction. N-Vitech; the sanitation SME pioneer The strong commitment from the Health Office of Mojokerto district to reduce open defecation was welcomed by the local community, which increasingly demanded improved sanitation facilities.

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The head of the Disease Control and Environmental Health Division (P2LP) at Mojokerto Health Office, Titis Murwati, who has been actively conducting STBM-triggering activities with facilitators and sanitarians, noticed the high demand for individual toilets although most low-income families in the area still needed financial support to construct them. While considering an alternative solution, Titis recommended the STBM facilitator and sanitarians from Mojokerto Health Office to participate in sanitation entrepreneurship training that IUWASH held in collaboration with WSP and APPSANI in January 2013. As a result, Mohammad Toha, a local sanitarian then collaborated with a local materials supplier called

Triggering Behavior Change SAN SAN 1: 1: On-site On-site Systems Systems

SAN 2: Communal system

SAN 4: Integrated Septage Management

SAN 3: Centralized (off-site) systems

City Sanitation Management Unit

N-Vitech to establish a small and medium enterprise (SME) that offers a microfinance scheme for sanitation. Together with the STBM facilitators, Toha also trained several local masons on technical construction of “healthy toilets” with a proper septic tank. As the market demand for “healthy toilets” is increasing, Titis and Toha took the initiative to seek financial support from banks, which was facilitated by IUWASH. In partnership with Bank Syariah Mandiri, IUWASH organized a meeting in Surabaya that brought together SMEs and microfinance partners from 11 cities in East Java, including the head of Bank Syariah Mandiri from each city. This regional business meeting was meant to encourage partnerships and

provide financial support for SMEs and cooperatives in promoting sanitation. Through this effort, N-Vitech managed to obtain a Rp 140 million loan, which enabled them to build 175 toilets with septic tanks via a microfinance scheme by September 2013. IUWASH East Java showed much progress in applying the scheme for sanitation, with a total of 351 toilets built via a weekly installment of Rp 15,000 or Rp 150,000 monthly at the most. The proactive role of Bank Syariah Mandriri in Mojokerto had a positive impact as it also persuaded Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) in the same district to provide similar support for sanitation microcredit. Siti Ngaisah, Ristina Aprilia /IUWASH East Java, Virgi Fatmawati/IUWASH Jakarta

Community-Based Total Sanitation Program improves individual sanitation system Capacity-building in Community-Based Total Sanitation (STBM) program and triggering activities help to improve individual sanitation system in Probolinggo.

Training on CommunityBased Total Sanitation IUWASH started to support the Community-Based Total Sanitation (STBM) program in Probolinggo in October 2011. Twenty-eight health officers, including the staff

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IUWASH EAST JAVA

PROBOLINGGO. The city of Probolinggo recently registered substantial success in increasing access to improved individual sanitation facilities via the triggering method. In 2011, about 38 percent of the city’s 216,967 population still defecated in the open. The community-led total sanitation program undertaken by the local government to reduce the open defecation rate has since involved the development of public toilets and support for individual toilet improvements.

The triggering process and educational awareness of healthy behaviors in Kedopok village, Kedopok sub-district, Probolinggo city.


of the Health Office, Public Health Center (Puskesmas) and sanitarians in Probolinggo, have been trained on the STBM program. This training was followed with a study visit to Jombang district to learn about how to develop and manage individual sanitation systems. IUWASH also provided a range of direct support for triggering activities in several locations in Probolinggo. During the triggering activities, IUWASH facilitated the construction of standard toilets with septic tanks in 10 locations in Maron and Leces subdistricts to encourage local communities to cease their open defecation practices. As a result, the trained health officers have continued to promote the development of individual toilets in their respective working area. The Head of the Environmental Health Division at Probolinggo Health Office, Sena Setya Aji, expressed his pride on the city’s recent STBM progress.

“We have been aware of the CommunityLed Total Sanitation (CLTS) program since 2006. But only after being introduced to the Community-Based Total Sanitation (STBM) approach in 2011 we did achieve more progress on sanitation improvement in Probolinggo” Sena Setya Aji Head of Environmental Health Division Probolinggo Health Office

“Probolinggo Health Office also encouraged Local Government Working Units (SKPD) to allocate more in their budgets for the sanitation sector. By doing so, triggering activities have been conducted in collaboration with IUWASH to increase community awareness of improved sanitation facilities. It is also interesting how small and medium enterprises can offer alternative funding via microfinance schemes,” Sena added. Saniman cooperative and Wahana Tirta small and medium enterprise In November 2012, local sanitarians and STBM facilitators in Probolinggo established a cooperative, Saniman, to respond to increased demands from the local community to construct individual toilets. Saniman Cooperative is currently awaiting the issuance of a legal permit from the local Cooperatives Office so that its operations can commence. A small enterprise named Wahana Tirta has been established accordingly. Sulistyo Triantono, a sanitarian at Community Health Center of Wonoasih sub-district who has been actively promoting triggering activities with IUWASH, is in charge as technical advisor to the healthy toilet microcredit scheme that Wahana Tirta is developing.

“Such a microcredit scheme for sanitation needs more financial support to accelerate increased access to improved individual toilets; otherwise, its progress will be quite slow” Sulistyo Triantono Sanitarian Community Health Center, Wonoasih

“We are aware that STBM promotion alone is not enough. We need to act together with the health staff to facilitate people who need to build toilets at their homes” Umi Wijayanti Founder Wahana Tirta Small and Medium Enterprise

To date, Wahana Tirta has built 256 toilets – with 60 households still on the waiting list – by providing loans ranging from Rp 650,000 to Rp 2,500,000 per toilet with repayments of Rp 10,000 to Rp 15,000 per week. IUWASH facilitates additional financing from banks and financial institutions to increase SME’s business capital. This endeavor synergizes with the city’s program to improve the sanitation sector. IUWASH is also expanding technical support for a communal sanitation system funded by the central government, and is facilitating the integration of several local government programs to enhance their impact. The programs being considered for integration into Probolinggo’s planning are the STBM program of the Health Office, Community-Based Environmental Sanitation (SLBM) and Community-Based Urban Sanitation programs of the Public Works Office. These initiatives include a triggering program to educate community on healthy behavior at six SLBM sites to stop open defecation and create demand to manage and maintain communal sanitation facilities constructed by the Public Works Office under SLBM programs. Eko Purnomo, Ristina Aprilia/IUWASH East Java, Virgi Fatmawati/ IUWASH Jakarta

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Triggering Behavior Change SAN 1: On-site Systems

SAN 2: Communal system

SAN 4: Integrated Septage Management

SAN 3: Centralized (off-site) systems

City Sanitation Management Unit

Community water association in Indonesia wins award

Virgi Fatmawati/ IUWASH JAKARTA

The Community Association of Drinking Water and Sanitation Users (HIPPAMS) in the Lamongan district of Indonesia was chosen as one of 12 winners of the 2013 Drinking Water and Environmental Health Award from the National Working Group on Drinking Water and Sanitation. “The winners make us optimistic that there are always solutions for water and sanitation problems. Innovations abound. Money does not become an issue. It’s about mind-set, passion, and enthusiasm to find breakthroughs to boost water and sanitation development” Nugroho Tri Utomo Head of National Working Group on Drinking Water and Sanitation, Indonesia

JAKARTA. The HIPPAMS association, established in 2004, serves remote households with no access to the Lamongan district’s piped-water network. Coverage now reaches 72,000 households in 252 villages, which made them a natural partner for work in sanitation as well. In February 2013, HIPPAMS participated in training that promoted entrepreneurship among Community-Based Total Sanitation programs. The training – sponsored by the U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID)-funded IUWASH project, the World Bank-funded Water and Sanitation Program, and the Indonesia Sanitation Management and Empowerment Association –

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helped the association expand into the microfinance-for-sanitation sector. The association also facilitated the construction of 39 toilets with septic tanks for low-income households with a loan from Bank Rakyat Indonesia. Demand for individual toilets continues to grow, so IUWASH recently helped the association access alternative financial support from Bank Syariah Mandiri. “The awards are not only a great opportunity to highlight the important work being undertaken across Indonesia to improve living conditions for millions, but an effective means of raising the profile of water supply and sanitation issues nationally and among the country’s key decision-makers,” said Louis O’Brien, IUWASH Chief of Party.

HIPPAMS Lamongan

The Chairman of HIPPAMS, Kasdan S.Pd (right) and the Technical Director of HIPPAMS, Ir. Atekan Andiono (left) took picture with the Director of Housing and Settlement at National Development Planning Agency (Bappenas)/Head of National Working Group on Drinking Water and Sanitation, Nugroho Tri Utomo, MURP (middle) after receiving the award.

HIPPAMS staff in one of the healthy toilet constructions in Sugio village, Lamongan district.

The award winners were invited to the biannual National Conference on Drinking Water and Sanitation in Jakarta on October 29 to 31, 2013. Virgi Fatmawati, Ardita Çaesari /IUWASH Jakarta, Danielle Jaffee/DAI


Triggering Behavior Change SAN 1: On-site Systems

SAN 2: Communal system

SAN 4: Integrated Septage Management

SAN 3: Centralized (off-site) systems

City Sanitation Management Unit

Hygiene Village Project improves sanitation and water supply in Surakarta

IUWASH/Ali Lutfi

Through this project, a newly-built bathing, washing and toilet facility will benefit at least 150 families while the water supply system will reach 100 families in Semanggi village.

Deputy Chief of Mission at the U.S. Embassy to Indonesia, Kristen Bauer, with the Mayor of Surakarta, FX. Hadi Rudyatmo looking on (right), lays the first stone of the new USAID IUWASH-funded public toilet and communal septic tank construction in Surakarta city, Central Java.

SURAKARTA. On April 20, 2013, Deputy Chief of Mission at the U.S. Embassy to Indonesia, Kristen F. Bauer, launched the Hygiene Village Project, which will improve access to sanitation facilities and water supply for the people of Semanggi village, Surakarta city, Central Java, under the United States Agency for International Development’s (USAID) IUWASH program.

“Water is a basic human need, but for many, accessing safe, clean water is not a reality. The United States is pleased to help provide local communities with water connections for low-income families. We hope this project can be replicated in other parts of Indonesia to benefit more people” Kristen F. Bauer Deputy Chief of Mission at the U.S. Embassy to Indonesia

IUWASH NEWS VOL 006 - MARCH 2014 | 15


IUWASH/Ali Lutfi

Mrs. Semi (right), a resident of Semanggi village explains her shared toilet experience to Deputy Chief of Mission at the U.S. Embassy to Indonesia, Kristen F. Bauer (left) during the Deputy’s visit to Surakarta city to launch Hygiene Village Project.

The project is focused on the administrative unit of RW 23, Semanggi village, Pasar Kliwon subdistrict, which is in serious need of sanitation and water supply development. With a population of 1,750 living in the area, only 10 percent of households have a toilet at home, while 40 percent of village residents still defecate in the open. The community also has a six-doors public toilet, washing and bathing facility and one public hydrant for clean water supply. However, available facilities are insufficient for serving the area’s population of 350 households. The Hygiene Village Project will be implemented by the Organization for Rural Technology Development (LPTP), a non-governmental organization based in Surakarta city that was

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awarded a competition-based grant from USAID IUWASH. During the visit, Kristen Bauer talked to Ibu Semi, whose toilet is shared with a couple of neighboring households. Ibu Semi was glad to hear about the new water supply and sanitation facility in the neighborhood. “I hope it will be done soon and work well,” she said. Under the Hygiene Village Project, the bathing, washing and toilet facility will benefit 150 families, while the water supply system will reach 100 families in RW 23 in Semanggi village. The project will also provide hygiene education for 350 households and ensure proper use and maintenance of new sanitation and water supply facilities. Virgi Fatmawati/IUWASH Jakarta (Compiled from USAID Indonesia, Joglo Semar, Suara Merdeka)

“We plan to build similar facilities in denselypopulated areas and will ask the Surakarta Development Planning Board to make the grand design” F.X. Hadi Rudyatmo Mayor of Surakarta


Triggering Behavior Change SAN 1: On-site Systems

SAN 2: Communal system

SAN 4: Integrated Septage Management

SAN 3: Centralized (off-site) systems

Ten steps to promote household connection for off-site sewerage system

City Sanitation Management Unit

SPEAK Indonesia

The promotion team of Tirtanadi Water Utility gained better understanding in planning, designing, sequencing and managing sewerage connection program using the “10 Steps Promotion Toolkit”.

Installation of household connections to off-site sewerage system in Medan, North Sumatra.

MEDAN. While it is estimated that less than two percent of Indonesia’s urban population has access to sewerage services, several cities are working to develop and/or expand their investments in this critical area. This is with the understanding that sewerage systems, though expensive, offer an effective means of reducing stresses on the environment and improving the health prospects of citizens.

Off-site sewerage system in Medan As Indonesia’s third-largest city with a popuation of around 2.9 million (2013), Medan, in North Sumatra province, completed an off-site waste water treatment plant in 1999 in the Cemara area of the city, which was designed to serve 18,000 domestic customers. The Cemara off-site waste water treatment plant handles

all kinds of liquid waste from daily domestic operations such as kitchens, toilets and bathrooms. Although able to accommodate a relatively large number of customers, the system remained grossly underutilized as many households were unfamiliar with such systems and unwilling to connect. As part of efforts to increase the number of households

IUWASH NEWS VOL 006 - MARCH 2014 | 17


SPEAK Indonesia is a local NGO that specializes in developing communications strategies and institutional capacities. It used its “10 Steps Promotion Toolkit” to help Tirtanadi Water Utility market the household connection of its off-site sewerage system to residents of Zone 6 and Zone 8 of Pandahulu II city village.

connecting to an off-site waste water sewerage system, USAID IUWASH carried out various campaigns and marketing efforts. In Medan, IUWASH worked with NGO SPEAK Indonesia to assist Tirtanadi Water Utility, as the operator of an off-site waste water sewerage system, to develop a communications and campaign strategy that would encourage citizens of Medan to connect to the off-site system.

10 steps promotion toolkit This is a set of tools to help institutions with planning, designing, adjusting and finding the best key message(s) and communications channel(s) to roll out a social marketing campaign. Unlike a commercial marketing campaign that tends to stress the strengths of the campaigner, a social marketing campaign focuses on the benefits for the audience and aims at changing behavior of the target group by increasing its awareness on certain issues and providing options for better ways to address the issue.

SPEAK Indonesia

The toolkit helps local government officials and water utilities staff take a step-by-step approach to the design, pretesting, implemention and evaluation of a promotional campaign. It combines international best practice in behavior change communications, marketing and mobilization, with tested change principles. It also offers guidance on essential elements of a successful promotional campaign.

The construction workers installed the piped connections as part of the Tirtanadi Water Utility’s target to have 13,250 houses connected to Medan’s off-site sewerage system by 2015.

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SPEAK Indonesia used the Toolkit to provide both capacity building and technical assistance for Tirtanadi Water Utility to be able to scale up its campaign for domestic sewerage service in Medan. The toolkit served as the main guidance to train and build capacity and knowledge of staff of the water utility to develop, plan and design, and implement a social marketing campaign. As the construction of household connections to the off-site sewerage system was done before the campaign rolled out, SPEAK Indonesia focused the campaign on ensuring better understanding of sewerage services among customers; for those already connected, the campaign ensured that customers had a better understanding of sewerage services.

The staff of Tirtanadi Water Utility received full-fledged training on the whole 10 Steps Promotion Toolkit from April 2012 to March 2013. Following the training, the organization provided technical assistance for the water utility team to implement their campaign. Improved capacities to promote connection results in increased connections An independent survey to target groups of the project confirmed that the household connection campaign had facilitated some degrees of behavior change of the targeted community. The campaign also successfully involved local government stakeholders to support the campaign. In the end, the promotion team of Tirtanadi Water Utility gained a better understanding of planning, designing, sequencing and managing a sewerage connection program using the 10 Steps Promotion Toolkit. Some of the team members rose to become facilitators and were able to conduct effective focus group discussions as part of their promotion plan. Most importantly, the team was able to improve coordination between the water utility and external stakeholders by handling complaints on low-quality connection, dealing with the city legislative council to ratify sewerage system regulation – thus making it mandatory for citizens to connect – and move forward a regulation that has been there for the past four years. The 10 Steps Promotion Toolkit contributed to 1,943 households newly connected to sewerage services of Tirtanadi Water Utility by February 2013. By the end of 2015, Tirtanadi Water Utility aims to have 13,250 houses connected to Medan’s off-site sewerage system. As of April 2013, it managed to achieve 31.70 percent of the target. At present, the city government pays the household connection fee, thus making it free for customers. However, the actual cost that will apply after 2012 is around Rp 3 to 6 million for each connection and the average monthly billing is Rp 22,000 for each household. Ardita Çaesari, Louis O’Brien/ IUWASH Jakarta


Mobile sludge removal service helps clean Belawan

Triggering Behavior Change SAN 1: On-site Systems

SAN 2: Communal system

SAN 4: Integrated Septage Management

SAN 3: Centralized (off-site) systems

City Sanitation Management Unit

For as low as 50 US cents per month, a mobile sludge removal service is available to help a low-income community in Belawan to start leading a healthier life for a cleaner Belawan area.

Lack of clean water, no space for toilet and septic tank construction and lack of information on technological options for septic tanks drive families to defecate in the ocean, relying on receding tides to wash the sewage away. Water is the prerequisite for improved access to sanitation. It is essential for toilet use and for emptying septic tank or desludging, which requires about 20 liters of water. It will also encourage people’s willingness to pay a fee for scheduled sludge removal. In 2006, USAID Environmental Services Program (ESP) collaborated with Tirtanadi Water Utility to develop a community-managed “master meter” system, whereby the utility provides one main connection to a group of households. Within two years, the system managed to reach over 4,000 households in Medan Belawan. In terms of sanitation, the same program conducted a trial project where fiberglass septic tanks with biofilter technology were installed under household toilets. By 2011, the city government of Medan installed 1,799 units and plans to install 500 more in 2014 using its resources.

Mohammad Yagi/ IUWASH NORTH SUMATRA

BELAWAN. Welcome to Medan Belawan subdistrict, north of the North Sumatra capital of Medan, where about 100,000 people are living cheek by jowl on a 21.82 square kilometer area above the ocean, in wooden stilt houses with the roof made of corrugated steel. Here, access to clean water and sanitation is a luxury.

Mobile sludge removal carts ready for its operation in densely populated area of Bagan Deli village, Belawan.

Addressing water crisis Unfortunately, Medan city has experienced a water supply crisis since 2010. The lack of water was coupled with damaged pumps in the water treatment plant, making the water unable to reach Belawan, 25 kilometers north of the city. To address the crisis, the local government and water utility, with technical assistance from USAID IUWASH, obtained the funds to build a new water treatment plant in Martubung to supply water to 75,000 people, which will be operational by 2015. They would also rehabilitate 4,000 household connections that were abandoned and partly damaged due to the water crisis.

The challenges of mobile desludging While the containment of sewage from toilets in the fiberglass septic tanks has been successful, an appropriate system for emptying or desludging the septic tanks has not been put into place. To solve this matter, Medan administration agreed to provide fiberglass septic tanks with biofilter technology, while IUWASH would handle the sludge removal. Learning from the experience of using a successful mobile sludge removal vehicle created by Mercy Corps Indonesia in Bekasi, West Java, IUWASH and a local company spent about six months on designing, developing

IUWASH NEWS VOL 006 - MARCH 2014 | 19


and building two mobile sludge removal carts, each with a 600-liter capacity. In September 2013, the sludge removal carts took to the streets across Belawan. The sludge removal service targeted owners of functioning septic tanks installed by the local government in 2011. Only half of the total of 1,799 fiberglass septic tanks installed remained functional, as the water crisis affecting the area has rendered them useless. The sludge removal service offered complete and scheduled service to its customers, from sludge removal at home to a movable tank of three cubic meters capacity located nearby, as agreed by the community.

Supiani, a local villager, is also aware of the sludge removal benefits. “Since my septic tank was emptied it has been much cleaner. I feel more comfortable. I’m worried if it gets full,” he said. Willingness to pay for desludging service creates sustainability IUWASH helped the desludging community group to develop a simple business model, which will sustain the service in the future. The monthly sludge removal fee of 50 US cents (or US$ 6 a year) is affordable by the local community. As a clam seller whose daily income is around US$3, Zulkifli can allocate 80 cents for the desludging service monthly fee. Supiani, a single parent with five children, is willing to pay the same amount in monthly fees, adding, “I don’t mind paying fees. This is for our health. I’m not defecating in the ocean anymore.”

Sam Cart Operator Medan Belawan The local community understands the importance of sludge removal and why it matters for its well-being. “The sludge in my septic tank needs to be removed to avoid overfilling, foul smells and overflowing to the ocean,” said Zulkifli, whose house was part of the trial sludge service.

IUWASH also talked to the City Sanitation Office to address desludging service problems. Medan Sanitation Office agreed to issue a certificate for the Scheduled Sludge Removal Community Group to act as service provider in Medan Belawan subdistrict. The community group would be responsible for the scheduled desludging service from septic tanks to the temporary movable tank. The sludge removal truck from the City Sanitation Office would regularly pick up the sludge and transport it to Cemara Sewage Treatment Plant every other day. The certificate also creates new opportunities for the community group to serve residential areas with wider streets, which means more houses and more revenue.

Mohammad Yagi/ IUWASH NORTH SUMATRA

Sam and his two friends are members of the Scheduled Sludge Removal Community Group. They needed one day to remove sludge from around three septic tanks within one kilometer.

“In two months, we have removed sludge from septic tanks at around 200 houses. This service needs three people at one time: one to check the toilet, one to watch the pipe and another to operate the cart”

Community-based desludging management was developed to support the sustainability of mobile sludge removal service.

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At present, a complete and official scheduled sludge removal program from all houses situated above the ocean in Belawan to Cemara Sewage Treatment Plant is still awaiting water supply from Medan’s new water treatment plant in Martubung, which will be fully operational in 2015. Ardita Çaesari, Foort Bustraan/IUWASH Jakarta


Three districts in Central Java committed to improve urban sanitation system

Triggering Behavior Change SAN 1: On-site Systems

SAN 2: Communal system

SAN 4: Integrated Septage Management

SAN 3: Centralized (off-site) systems

City Sanitation Management Unit

New and revitalized sewage treatment plants in Central Java that will cost around Rp 1 billion each show real commitments from three districts to improve their city sanitation systems.

The governments of Sukoharjo and Rembang districts in Central Java province are among those that wish to obtain budget assistance through the Settlement and Environmental Health Development Working Unit (Satker PPLP) in the province to build their sewage treatment plant. Rohmat, a planning department staff of Satker PPLP Central Java said, “We have prepared the detailed engineering design for the sewage treatment plant for Rembang in 2010 and for Sukoharjo in 2011”. However, submitting detailed engineering design does not guarantee that budget assistance will automatically be granted. The readiness criteria have numerous prerequisites, such as the availability of land to construct a sewage treatment plant, the provision of sludge trucks, operational cost and the preparedness of institution managements. IUWASH observed that the problem was caused by the absence of followup due to a communications gap between local and central governments. IUWASH then took the initiative to facilitate a cooperation workshop held in January 2013 between key stakeholders in the waste water sector. The workshop brought together district, provincial and central governments, and the Settlement and Environmental Health Development (PPLP) Working

Oni Hartono/IUWASH CENTRAL JAVA

SEMARANG. The Central Government provides significant budget assistance to develop the sanitation sector in every province. However, such assistance has stringent requirements known as “readiness criteria” that should be fulfilled by local governments before being rewarded with budget assistance for developing sanitation infrastructures.

The poor condition of Randu Kuning Sewage Treatment Plant in Batang district. The aeration pool were mossy while the plat settler is damaged.

Unit participated in the workshop to motivate the local governments in order to obtain budget assistance. Following the workshop, IUWASH continued to support Sukoharjo and Rembang district governments to meet the readiness criteria. Currently, Rembang has come up with institutional studies, while Sukoharjo has prepared the land for sewage treatment plant construction. Both districts are looking forward to establishing their sewage treatment plants via the budget assistance, which is estimated to reach Rp 1.5 billion to Rp 2 billion for each plant. “We would be very proud if our district could construct a new sewage treatment plant in the near future. We would like to thank IUWASH for the support,” said Endang Tien Maryani, the head of the Physical and Infrastructure Division at Sukoharjo Planning and Development Agency.

Meanwhile, Satker PPLP of Central Java Province is currently also in the process of supporting the development of Randu Kuning Sewage Treatment Plant in Batang district, which has been unusable for two years due to cracked container tanks and damaged mechanical equipment. Concerned with the damage, the Head of Batang district, Yoyo Riyo Sudibyo, urged IUWASH, in a Visioning Workshop initiated by IUWASH and Batang Sanitation Working Group in January 2013, to promptly revitalize the plant. Satker PPLP then included the plant in its budget proposal for 2014. “The budget allocation to revitalize the plant is estimated at Rp 1 billion,” said Rohmat from the planning division of Satker PPLP Central Java. Oni Hartono/IUWASH Central Java, Virgi Fatmawati/IUWASH Jakarta

IUWASH NEWS VOL 006 - MARCH 2014 | 21


Triggering Behavior Change SAN 1: On-site Systems

SAN 2: Communal system

SAN 4: Integrated Septage Management

SAN 3: Centralized (off-site) systems

City Sanitation Management Unit

Local Technical Waste Water Implementation Unit: An integral part of sustainable local sanitation policy

Ismail/IUWASH SOUTH SULAWESI-EASTERN INDONESIA (SSEI)

USAID IUWASH is introducing the benefit of establishing Local Technical Waste Water Implementation Units to operate all sanitation systems at city/district level.

The Waste water Local Technical Implementation Unit in Makassar city operates seven desludging trucks with the capacity of 3,500 liters (as shown in photo), two mobile desludging vehicles and two mobile toilets to serve Makassar city.

JAKARTA. A Local Technical Waste water Implementation Unit (Unit Pelaksana Daerah Pengelolaan Air Limbah or UPTD PAL) will manage sludge and sewerage systems at city/district level and, when necessary, provide oversight of all communal sanitation systems built in the city/district. The unit is suited to the current government structure and will

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be the easiest to develop. Eventually, it will ensure technical and financial sustainability of all sanitation facilities built by the government of Indonesia and its partners. The government of Indonesia works hard to develop an enabling environment to ensure that targets of sustainable access to water and

sanitation set in the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) will be met by the end of 2015. At the national level, the responsibilities for water and sanitation sectors are shared by the Ministries of Public Works, Health and Home Affairs, the State Ministry for the Environment and the National Development Planning Agency.


Problems of sanitation sector At district level, the decentralization process started in 2001 helped local government to have greater freedom in budget spending and the provision of water and sanitation services. However, they often lack clear understanding of the roles of different departments to manage sanitation. The results were ad-hoc planning and implementation, and hardly any consideration of longterm sustainability of constructed sanitation systems. During the course of the project, IUWASH realized that there was no provision for a strong sanitation management unit at local level that could operate and maintain the sanitation systems built with the support of central government and donor agencies. A management unit that fits in with the local government structure and will be easiest to develop is the Local Technical Waste water Implementation Unit. To establish such units, it is crucial for local governments to work closely with the Ministry of Home Affairs, as the units will need to obtain funding and regulatory support. The need for local sanitation operators With strong interest and support from local governments, IUWASH introduced the concept of the Local Technical Waste water Implementation Unit (UPTD PAL) as an integral part of sustainable sanitation policy. The UPTD PAL will be responsible for managing sewage from household septic tanks, small and large sewerage systems, as well as supervising and helping community groups manage their community-based systems. It will serve as operator of these sanitation facilities at district level and reports to the head of the district office responsible for managing the UPTD PAL. Examples of established UPTDs in Indonesia are those operating in market, tourism and hospital services that sometimes manage solid waste

or sludge treatment plants. As the operator, an UPTD is authorized to collect a payment for its services, which is handed over directly to the local government. An UPTD receives a city/district budget for its operational costs. Thus the challenge lies in ensuring the collected revenue covers its operational costs before it can become a Local Public Service Agency (BLUD) or local waste water company (PD PAL), which is at the similar level as local water utilities and has more independence. An UPTD is established either as a new entity or by expanding its services. The first requirement is a local regulation signed by the district head. IUWASH facilitates the development of this regulation by analyzing core tasks and functions of local government offices (SKPD) and providing recommendations to the local government. Once it is ready, IUWASH will strengthen its responsibilities via a variety of technical assistance activities, such as development of standard operating procedures, staff training, financial modeling of cost and revenues and development of a business plan. The UPTD PAL will contribute to the development of policies on and charges for scheduled sludge removal. It will also ensure the sustainability of sanitation facilities built by the government and other stakeholders. In collaboration with local government stakeholders, by September 2015, IUWASH will have supported the establishment of UPTD PALs in over 30 locations across its project sites. IUWASH also works closely with the Ministry of Home Affairs and other donors (especially USDP and the Indonesia Infrastructure Initiative or IndII) to provide national-level regulatory support as a base for developing ministerial regulation on establishment of UPTD PAL. In addition, IUWASH has already supported technical exchanges between local governments of more than 20 cities with potential and interest in developing an UPTD PAL for Makassar, which is a model of successful UPTD setup.

"Many of our staff do not have a background in environmental engineering or environmental health. We need help to improve the capacity of our staff, especially on sanitation engineering and management. We also need to master outreach and promotion techniques" Zuhaelsi Zubir Head of UPTD PAL Makassar city

The success of UPTD PAL in Makassar The Head of UPTD PAL Makassar, Zuhaelsi Zubir, sees a communal waste water treatment plant as a starting point for the city-wide sewerage system that Makassar will build in the near future. She also supports the scheduled sludge removal system that IUWASH introduced for potential customers, especially as the commercial sector can easily subscribe to the system and it opens up revenuegenerating possibilities for the local government. At present, IUWASH is putting in a lot of effort into developing and strengthening UPTD PAL to push local government to prioritize budgeting for the sanitation sector. In the cities of Bogor and Malang, IUWASH is also providing technical support to UPTD to promote household sewerage connections to their small-scale sewerage systems, as well as introducing an improved sludge management system. Ardita Çaesari, Foort Bustraan/IUWASH Jakarta

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Triggering Behavior Change SAN 1: On-site Systems

SAN 2: Communal system

SAN 4: Integrated Septage Management

SAN 3: Centralized (off-site) systems

City Sanitation Management Unit

Sanitation working group receives commitment from Malang Legislative Council A hearing with Malang Legislative Council’s Commission D, which handles development issues, has sealed a commitment to include sanitation funding in the district budget in 2014.

The Sanitation Working Group and IUWASH team during a hearing session held with Legislative Council’s Commission D of Malang district.

MALANG. Malang district allocated only Rp 4,700 per capita per year to its sanitation budget, while the education sector receives Rp 85,554 and health Rp 31,221. The meager sanitation budget has caused the district to lose Rp 33 billion annually. The Sanitation Working Group raised this matter in a hearing on July 10, 2013, with Malang Legislative Council’s Commission D, which handles development issues. The Group teamed up with the heads of the District Development Planning Agency and the Environment, Housing and Irrigation Offices when meeting the 12 members of Commission D. The result was a joint commitment signed by the Sanitation Working Group and the Council to establish the “Caring for Sanitation Movement”. Shanti Rismandini, the Head of Facilities at Malang Development Planning Agency, said the decision-makers in the district should have a better understanding about the sanitation

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problems raised by the Working Group. When she revealed that 19 percent of the population still defecated in the open, it shocked Commission members. “I did not think the untreated sludge amounted to that much,” said lawmaker Basuni Ghofur, having read that the potential volume of untreated sludge is equal to the volume of 36 elephants. Basuni said he had never thought sanitation issues were crucial and posed a serious threat to public health and welfare. He always thought that sanitation issues belonged to the irrigation sector and that there was no problem whatsoever. Meanwhile, legislator Achmad Andy was intrigued when Renung Rubiyatadji, the Head of the Settlement Section at the Public Works Office, said that only 50 percent of Malang population used water from the local water utility. The data showed that the local water utility needed a sufficient budget to improve access to water and that a district regulation on clean water management

At the end of the meeting, the Commission D was committed to the following: 1) To draft formal minutes of the meeting for the head of Malang Legislative Council; 2) To ask every local government working unit to include sanitation funding in the 2014 district budget; 3) To facilitate the Sanitation Working Group to discuss the sanitation budget with Commission B, which handles economic and welfare issues.

“We will ensure that the budget gets into House Budget Committee” Sugeng Pujianto Head of Commission D, Malang Such a commitment from the Regional Legislative Assembly was a positive assurance and a good start for improvements to sanitation in Malang. Arief Riyadi/IUWASH East Java, Ardita Çaesari/ IUWASH Jakarta

Arief Riyadi/IUWASH EAST JAVA

Arief Riyadi/IUWASH EAST JAVA

would ensure adequate budgetary allocations to the water sector.

Signing of “Caring for Sanitation Movement”, a joint commitment by the Sanitation Working Group and the Council members.


Water and Environmental Health Working Group of Jayapura city produces two important guidelines on sanitation

Triggering Behavior Change SAN 1: On-site Systems

SAN 2: Communal system

SAN 4: Integrated Septage Management

SAN 3: Centralized (off-site) systems

City Sanitation Management Unit

JAYAPURA. The Working Group for Water and Environmental Health (Pokja AMPL) of Jayapura city has been actively implementing a variety of programs in the water and sanitation sectors since 2009. In the following year, Pokja AMPL of Jayapura city successfully completed the preparation and revision of two important guidelines to boost sanitation development in the city, namely the Sanitation “White Book” and City Sanitation Strategy. As part of the city’s effort to participate in the Accelerated Urban Sanitation Development project, a national program to speed up sanitation development, Pokja AMPL prepared three requested documents: Sanitation “White Book” or the baseline data on the city/district’s current condition of its sanitation sector as guidelines for the preparation of the City Sanitation Strategy; the City Sanitation Strategy; and a Program Memorandum for the Sanitation Sector. Once these documents were ready, the Group oversaw all sanitation improvement activities as drafted in the City Sanitation Strategy and Program Memorandum, in order to gain financial support from the city/district budget or from other funding sources. In March 2013, Pokja AMPL Jayapura held a public consultation on the Sanitation “White Book” and City Sanitation Strategy to present the latest results and the improved content of the important documents, which have been reviewed by the Pokja AMPL to obtain inputs from key stakeholders. Pokja AMPL will then finalize the documents prior to quality assessment by Pokja AMPL at the national level.

Johanis Valentino/IUWASH SSEI

After working for a year, the Working Group for Water and Environmental Health (Pokja AMPL) of Jayapura city finally completed its Sanitation “White Book” and City Sanitation Strategy.

A public consultation to present the latest result and to get inputs from key stakeholders on the improved contents of Sanitation White Book and City Sanitation Strategy prepared by Pokja AMPL of Jayapura city.

Attending the public consultation were representatives from Jayapura Development Planning Agency, Public Works Office, also the core team of the Sanitation “White Book” and City Sanitation Strategy, namely the Provincial Health, the Environment, Sanitation and Parks Offices; as well as other key stakeholders in the water and sanitation sector in Jayapura. Drs. Frans Pekey, M.Si, the Head of Jayapura Development Planning Agency who also Chairman of Pokja AMPL, said the documents were the results of Pokja AMPL’s hard work and would become strategic documents for the city to improve access to drinking water and sanitation towards the fulfillment of Millennium Development Goals by 2015. “These documents should be seriously implemented by the Technical Local Government Working Unit (SKPD) via the proposal of appropriate programs and financing,” said Pekey.

Jayapura Mayor, Drs. Benhur Tommy Mano, MM, expressed his commitment to fully support the implementation of the “White Book” and City Sanitation Strategy. He said that his administration would prepare the budget and regulation as the documents were in line with the vision of Jayapura to achieve the Clean City (Adipura) Award, which requires, among other things, improved access to water and sanitation. The mayor also thanked IUWASH for its assistance to Pokja AMPL in preparing the documents. Firdaus Failu, SE, MM, a member of Pokja AMPL Jayapura from the Public Works Office, pointed out that the completion of the documents was very time-consuming as they did not have proper understanding of their importance, and because Pokja AMPL members had other commitments. “However, we are determined to push the city government, especially the SKPD to implement the strategy in the near future,” said Failu. Johanis Valentino/IUWASH SSEI, Virgi Fatmawati/IUWASH Jakarta

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IUWASH GALLERY

National Conference on Drinking Water and Sanitation | Jakarta, October 2013

IUWASH infiltration pond mock-up on display during the conference. Thanks to the Mission Director of USAID Indonesia, Andrew Sisson and team, also to all enthusiastic visitors for stopping by.

“Towards 40% Coverage of Off-site Sewerage System in 2025”, a parallel session organized by IUWASH, SPEAK Indonesia and the Ministry of Public Works.

Welcome to the Sanitation City..

Water and Sanitation Program (WSP) scheduled desluging service mock-up on display during the conference, using the “4 is Healthy & 5 is Perfect” formula to ensure sustainable sludge management service.

AMPL AWARDS were given to 12 winners (local government and community representatives) in October 31, during the closing ceremony of National Conference on Drinking Water and Sanitation.

Virgi Fatmawati/IUWASH JAKARTA

Conference session on “Increasing the Local Governments’ Readiness in Mobilizing Local Government Budget (APBD) to Support Sanitation Development in Indonesia” with the Deputy Minister of Bappenas, Dr. Lukita Dinarsyah Tuwo, MA as the keynote speaker and Rosiana Silalahi as the moderator.


Iuwash news 06 march 2014 en