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NEWS VOL 003 - JULY 2012

Syamsudin is now happy to join the ranks of the “Open Defecation Free” (ODF)

“I feel proud of our new toilet, especially knowing that we no longer contaminate the river that other people also depend on for their own needs. “ Syamsudin Sitaba, resident of Empoang Utara Village in Jeneponto, South Sulawesi.



My Toilet, My Pride

My Toilet, My Pride


11 Steps Towards Open Defecation Free


Mayor’s Decree Becomes Legal Umbrella for Communal Wastewater Treatment Plant 4 Good Customer Approach Is Key to Hike in Water Rates in Tebing Tinggi


Lessons Learnt on Microfinancing in Kudus 6 Promoting Clean and Healthy Lifestyles in Jayapura


Towards Open Defecation Free 2015 in Jeneponto


Syamsudin Sitaba, who hails from Jeneponto in South Sulawesi, decided to build his own toilet as a result of USAIDIUWASH advocacy efforts to put an end to open defecation. Jeneponto. Syamsudin and his family live in Empoang Utara Village in Jeneponto District, about 90 kilometers from Makassar, the capital of South Sulawesi. As in many areas of South Sulawesi and other provinces, open defecation is a common practice in the village. The Regional Development Planning Board (Bappeda) estimated that by 2012, only half of all households in Jeneponto have their own toilet. According to district health officials, open defecation directly contributes to the high rates of diarrhea in the region, and represents a major health hazard. Though traditionally unremarkable, the district government (led by the Bupati), the health office and many other agencies have made “Open Defecation Free” communities a key goal in the coming years. Based on this strong local commitment and with guidance from the Ministry of Health, particularly through the Community-based Total Sanitation program (locally known as STBM ), USAID-IUWASH has been supporting local health sanitarians conducting a series of

Prompted to act, Syamsudin and other members of the local community immediately started working together to end the practice of open defecation. Led by the Village Head, they obtained supplies from local businesses and patrons, and pooled their own labor and other resources to move the program forward. Syamsudin and 102 other village households brought in local masons to help them construct

Involving local masons to construct proper toilets with septic tanks Jombe Village households were willingly to pay between 35-75 US dollars for the materials needed to complete the new toilets.

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Toilet construction to promote STBM Head of Jombe Village, Baso Padewakang shared about toilet and water closet construction to USAID-IUWASH team and media. Working with the local community, this initiative was undertaken to promote community-based total sanitation (STBM) in Jeneponto.

proper toilets with septic tanks, paying between 300,000 and 700,000 rupiah (35-75 US dollars) for the materials needed to complete the new toilets. Syamsudin and his family have now joined the ranks of the “Open Defecation Free” (ODF), and are

living in improved health and dignity. They are aware that they are part of a much larger movement to improve the environmental health conditions of families and communities throughout Indonesia.  Ardita Çaesari/ Louis O’Brien, IUWASH Jakarta


Syamsudin’s family was just one of many households reached by this program. They were informed about the harmful effects of open defecation not only on them and their neighbors, but also on the river water that many downstream communities (including Jeneponto City) rely on for their water. Residents also appreciated that having a private toilet would give their families greater dignity.


“triggering” activities to improve the local people’s knowledge and understanding about the detrimental impact of open defecation, encouraging them to take action to stop this practice. The local health sanitarians arranged meetings and made door-to-door visits, while the sanitarians explained how to build proper toilets with septic tanks.



11 Steps Towards Open Defecation Free Developing “11 Steps towards Open Defecation Free”, IUWASH focuses on advocating engagement in sanitation regulations and financing, and increasing the capacity of local partners. IUWASH uses Community-led Total Sanitation (CLTS), which is a key pillar of the Communitybased Total Sanitation (STBM) program of Indonesia’s Ministry of Health, as one approach to develop improved sanitation and change behavior in urban areas by increasing demand for and providing sanitation services and toilet supplies.

11 Steps Toward Open Defecation Free

IUWASH works in 34 cities and districts across Indonesia. In the sanitation sector, IUWASH usually partners with the Drinking Water and Environmental Health Working Group and the Sanitation Working Group. In places where these groups are not present, the project partners with the local Development Planning Board (Bappeda) and the District or Municipal Health Office. IUWASH undertakes the following activities with its partners:

11 Steps towards Open Defecation Free

• Strengthening the capacity of health sanitarians and community cadres by training them on “triggering” techniques, community facilitation techniques, and implementation strategies for project activities;

IUWASH developed “11 Steps towards Open Defecation Free” as a holistic approach to increase access to individual toilets through communityled total sanitation (CLTS) following a review of similar programs by various stakeholders in water and sanitation.

• Engaging in advocacy with local stakeholders through discussions, mini-workshops and so on; • Holding promotion and “triggering” activities on sanitation issues by collaborating with institutions and organizations working in water and sanitation.

These 11 steps are: 1) baseline data collection, 2) program advocacy, 3) training for facilitators and triggering cadres, 4) sanitation marketing, 5) open defecation free declarations, 6) facilitator gatherings, 7) community triggering, 8) community technical assistance, 9) local budget planning for allocation of funds for STBM activities, 10) strengthening regulations, and 11) media advocacy.

A key aspect of this approach is the systematic flow of activities, focusing on advocating engagement in sanitation regulations and financing, and increasing the capacity of local partners. The 11 step approach endeavors to improve access to sanitation and increase the proportion of households with their own toilets. The community-based total sanitation program has five pillars. The 11-Steps towards ODF program focuses on Pillar 1—achieving Open Defecation Free through CLTS. This approach centers on just one behavior change: stopping open defecation. Advocacy efforts to stop open defecation are complemented by support for hand washing with soap, and safe water treatment and storage at home.  Ardita Çaesari/ Louis O’Brien, IUWASH Jakarta

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Mayor’s Decree Becomes Legal Umbrella for Communal Wastewater Treatment Plant Surakarta Mayor, Joko Widodo has signed a new decree that will be the legal basis for the construction of a communal wastewater treatment plant in Semanggi, Surakarta.

Decree No. 653.2/48-B/1/2012 was executed by Surakarta Mayor Joko Widodo on May 8, 2012. This decree has strategic significance, following the signing of a memorandum of understanding (MoU) between Surakarta Municipal government and IUWASH on February 1, 2012. The decree states that as part of Surakarta’s urban slum and sanitation development, land owned by the local government in RW 23, Semanggi, Pasar Kliwon will become the location of a communal wastewater treatment plant, whose construction be partially financed with IUWASH grants. IUWASH is providing grants to improve urban sanitation conditions in Semanggi Village because Surakarta’s existing City Sanitation Strategy (SSK) has flagged it as a sanitation priority. An Environmental Health Risk Assessment (EHRA) study has even declared it a “red zone”. As Nunung Setyo Nugroho, head of Surakarta Bappeda’s Spatial Planning and Environment Division, notes: “Construction of sanitation facilities in Semanggi village will not only help

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Surakarta. The Surakarta City government recently issued a decree concerning the location of an urban slum and sanitation development. The decree also implements the 2012 Area-based Slum Housing Management Program (Program Penanganan Lingkungan Perumahan dan Permukiman Kumuh Berbasis Kawasan or PLP2K-BK) of the Ministry of Housing and Settlement. It provides a legal umbrella for improving public health through the development of adequate infrastructure and sanitation facilities in a targeted area in pursuit of the Millennium Development Goal (MDG) targets for 2015.

Surakarta Mayor’s Decree No. 653.2/48-B/1/2012 A legal basis for the construction of a communal wastewater treatment plant in Semanggi Village, Surakarta City.

the local government to implement the sanitation program in the SSK document, but also facilitate implementation of IUWASH activities in Surakarta.” The new decree was developed following extensive consultation, including a series of coordination meetings with local government technical units (SKPDs) including the Regional Office of Finance and Asset Management Revenues (DPPKAD) and the Legal Bureau. In addition, before the mayor was asked to sign the decree, the draft had already been consulted with members of the local Sanitation Working Group and IUWASH.  M. Arif Wibowo/Yudi Wijanarko, IUWASH Central Java

Construction of sanitation facilities in Semanggi village will not only help the local government to implement the sanitation program in the SSK document, but also facilitate implementation of IUWASH activities in Surakarta Nunung Setyo Nugroho Head of Surakarta Bappeda’s Spatial Planning and Environment Division


Good Customer Approach Is Key to Hike in Water Rates in Tebing Tinggi

reaching the public, especially PDAM customers. Advertising slots needed to be selected carefully, and different messages were used to target different types of PDAM customers. This approach helped to improve the effectiveness of messages being delivered over a short timeframe, capturing a wider audience.

When Tebing Tinggi Municipal water utility wanted to raise its water rates substantially, it made effective use of communications channels to socialize the reasons for the increase to local water consumers.

In addition to these radio spots, a full explanation of the tariff adjustments was included in brochures distributed to the PDAM’s customers. This brochure had several purposes. First, it aimed to ensure that water customers understood the reasons for the tariff hike. Second, a comparison was made between the old and new tariffs along with a price comparison for piped water, which is much cheaper than bottled water or water refills.

Tebing Tinggi. PDAM Tirta Bulian, the water utility for the city of Tebing Tinggi, has successfully introduced a substantial increase in local water rates using a consumer-friendly approach. The 40 percent adjustment to the old rates, which had been unchanged since 2008, came into effect on February 1, 2012. The increase in water rates was needed to improve the performance of the PDAM, whose operating costs meant that it was running at a loss under the old rates. This hike in water rates was backed by the local government through the issuance of Tebing Tinggi Mayor Decree No. 690/259 of 2012 (as the legal basis for the increase.

information and explain the reasons for the new tariff. Learning from PDAM Tirta Bulian’s experience back in 2008, when it simply announced the increase in water rates, IUWASH suggested adopting a more open and interactive approach this time, one that prioritized two-way communications with water customers. PDAM Tirta Bulian and IUWASH agreed to use local radio and brochures to publicize the tariff increase. Two-minute radio advertisements announcing the change were broadcast five times a day for two weeks. These proved to be an effective means of

To improve its customer service, PDAM Tirta Bulian has re-opened the customer care hotline and promoted the number in the brochures being distributed. The telephone number for the customer complaints unit was also announced during the radio spots.  Virgi Fatmawati, IUWASH Jakarta/

Hetty Tambunan, IUWASH North Sumatra

Before announcing the decision to increase water rates, PDAM Tirta Bulian first consulted with Tebing Tinggi’s local council and mayor, considering that this policy would impact consumers. IUWASH facilitated PDAM Tirta Bulian in working with the local media to provide customers with additional


Director of PDAM Tirta Bulian, Ir. Oki Doni Siregar, is optimistic that this decision will benefit both the water utility and its customers, with the PDAM aiming to expand its coverage and provide better clean water services to currently underserved communities. However, the PDAM has faced a major challenge in achieving this goal as a result of rising production costs due to higher electricity tariffs and rises in the price of gasoline and other components. Ultimately, the water utility felt compelled to increase its tariffs in order to better serve customers.

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Lessons Learnt on Microfinancing in Kudus

Comparative study of microfinance program Thirteen PDAMs participated in a comparative study of the microfinance program effectiveness to provide water connections in Kudus District.

Kudus. Thirteen PDAMs from the five IUWASH working regions recently participated in a comparative study of the microfinance program for water connections in Kudus to learn more about the program. Partnering with Bank Syariah Mandiri (BSM), PDAM Kudus is offering microfinancing for water connections through a leasing scheme. By April 2012, PDAM Kudus had installed piped water for 770 lowincome households. IUWASH facilitated this comparative study on April 3-4, 2012. The 35 participants included staff from 13 PDAMs and their cooperatives as well as regional and national representatives of the bank. Activities included a microfinance workshop and visits to low-income households to meet with program beneficiaries. One of the participants in the study was Lutfil Hakim, Director of PDAM Mojokerto, who commented: “The microfinance scheme for water connections has clearly been effective in increasing the number of new household connections. We are going to introduce a similar scheme for piped water 6 | iuwashnews vol 003 - July 2012

connections shortly, partnering with two local banks —Bank Rakyat Indonesia (BRI) and BSM.” Amry, a manager attending on behalf of the Director of PDAM Jeneponto, added: “We are partnering with Koperasi Pasar Untung Bersama (Koppas Utama, a cooperative). We are targeting both drinking water connections and sanitation facilities. Of course, we would also welcome banks wanting to be our partners for the microfinance scheme.” The 13 PDAMs taking part in the comparative study came from Pematang Siantar, Langkat, Karawang, Serang, Semarang City, Semarang District, Kendal, Surakarta, Mojokerto, Sidoarjo, Surabaya, Makassar and Jeneponto District. They came away excited about the possibility of adopting similar microfinance schemes for water connections in their areas. Indeed, the PDAMs in Mojokerto and Jeneponto have since trained their staffs and partners in promoting microfinance so that they can immediately begin increasing the number of household connections (see box).  Gusril Bahar/Virgi Fatmawati, IUWASH Jakarta

Training on Microfinance Promotion for PDAMs in Mojokerto and Jeneponto After seeing the microfinance scheme at work in PDAM Kudus, Lutfil Hakim, Director of PDAM Mojokerto, formed a 16-strong marketing team on microfinance for water connections. The team undertook training on microfinance promotion on June 4-7, 2012 in Batu, Malang. The training, which was facilitated by IUWASH, also included staff from BRI and PT. Pos Indonesia (the national post office). Under the scheme, BRI will provide the financing and payments will be made through PT. Pos Indonesia. Similar training took place in Jeneponto on June 19-21, 2012. The 16-member PDAM Jeneponto marketing team was joined by representatives from Jeneponto’s Sanitation Working Group and Koppas Utama. Koppas Utama, which will provide microfinancing for both water connections and sanitation facilities, is ready to handle funds of up to a billion rupiah (US$100,000) for the program. These funds will come from the members of the cooperative and BRI. Within a week of signing the MoU for the microfinancing scheme, PDAM Jeneponto had already extended its piped water network to include four low-income households under the new scheme.



A successful microfinancing scheme to provide water connections to low-income communities in Kudus District, Central Java, which in a cooperation between the local water utility (PDAM), PDAM Tirta Makmur Cooperation and Bank Syariah Mandiri, has encouraged many other PDAMs to adopt similar schemes.

Mrs. Daeng Tija (Arungkeke Sub-District, Jeneponto) now able to reach clean water just by her front yard.


Promoting Clean and Healthy Lifestyles in Jayapura Health problems are usually associated with unhealthy behaviors. Meanwhile, clean and healthy lifestyle practices are still at a low level in Indonesia.


of issues, including the importance of sanitation, efforts to reduce infant mortality, and the threat posed by germs. Most participants came away eager to teach their families how to maintain clean home environment and adopt healthy behaviors. The second PHBS promotion was held two days later for 22 children and teenagers. Using images and puzzles, the IUWASH team showed how germs can be transferred from human waste to the mouth, and the associated health risks. As a simple but important solution, these young people were encouraged to practice proper hand washing with soap to prevent diarrhea.  Johanis Valentino, IUWASH South SulawesiEastern Indonesia/ Virgi Fatmawati IUWASH Jakarta

“Triggering” activities to promote PHBS IUWASH team explaining the threat posed by germs to the children. They also practice proper hand washing with soap to prevent diarrhea.

The Jayapura City Government is planning to build bathing, washing and toilet facilities (known as MCK++) in the villages of Ardipura and Pasir Dua using the Special Allocation Fund (DAK) for Sanitation. IUWASH has been supporting the plan by raising the local community’s awareness of the health risks of open defecation and encouraging them to take action to end the practice.

“Field officers and local health sanitarians have been conducting a series of “triggering” activities to discourage villagers from defecating in the open. Efforts to make villagers embarrassed about defecating outside are expected to motivate members of the local community to build their own toilets or start using public toilets. In another “triggering” activity, IUWASH has been promoting clean and healthy lifestyles (PHBS) and hand washing with soap in both villages. The PHBS promotion had two separate activities, each targeting a different age group. On April 28, 2012, 30 adults participated in a discussion on range


Jayapura. In the village of Ardipura, public awareness of clean and healthy lifestyles is pretty low. Of 44 households surveyed, only seven had basic toilets. Public toilets do not exist in this village. Many people go to their neighbors’ toilets or defecate in a nearby river.

A series of “triggering” activities in encouraging villagers to maintain clean home environment and adopt healthy behaviors.

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Towards Open Defecation Free 2015 in Jeneponto

Jeneponto. Through a media workshop and media visit in Jeneponto on May 29-June 1, 2012, IUWASH and AJI have been working together to improve journalists’ knowledge and understanding of sanitation, and make them aware of the campaign to achieve an open defecationfree environment by 2015. The media can play a key role by disseminating comprehensive information on proper sanitation to the public. IUWASH has backed Jeneponto Local Government in embarking on a Community-based Total Sanitation (STBM) program to make 14 villages open defecation free (ODF) by October 2012. Jeneponto City’s Development Planning Board (Bappeda) reports that many people in the area still defecate in the open, while, sanitation services (toilets) reach less than half of the 74,327 households in the city (48.81%, compared with the target of 51.59%). Back in 2010, the Jeneponto Government issued an instruction to implement STBM to change open defecation behavior. Eleven villages in Jeneponto have were declared ODF, while there are 102 villages still practicing open defecation.


IUWASH has collaborated with the Alliance of Independent Journalists (AJI) to hold a media workshop and media visit in Jeneponto, South Sulawesi as part of the Towards Open Defecation Free 2015 campaign.

Head of Jombe Village in Turatea sub-district, Dr. Baso Padewakang explains Community-based Total Sanitation activities applying the community-led total sanitation approach to journalists during a media visit as part of the Towards Open Defecation Free 2015 program.

The province of South Sulawesi has relatively poor water and sanitation services. Around 40 percent of people lack access to basic sanitation, while a recent basic health research report (Riskesdas) published in 2010 by Indonesia’s Ministry of Health noted that of South Sulawesi’s total population of eight million people, almost 20 percent still defecate in the open and 40 percent discard their waste on the ground, while less than 23 percent of households have A piped water. These IUWASH media events are part of IUWASH advocacy efforts towards improved access to sanitation and achievement of MDG targets by 2015. Reporters from several local and national print and electronic media attended the events, including newspapers (Kompas, The Jakarta Globe, Koran Tempo,

IUWASH News is a e-newsletter produced and distributed by the Indonesia Urban Water, Sanitation and Hygiene. Indonesia Urban Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (IUWASH) is a five years development project funded by U.S. Agency for International Development (USAID) and implemented by Development Alternatives, Inc. (DAI). The views expressed by the authors contributing to this newsletter do not necessarily reflect the views of the IUWASH, its partner organizations, USAID, or its government of Indonesia sponsors. IUWASH News is a forum for to share opinion and information on IUWASH project activities.

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Seputar Indonesia, Media Indonesia, Bisnis Indonesia, Gatra) and broadcasters (Celebes TV, Fajar TV, Sun TV and RRI Makassar). The journalists learned more about sanitation issues at the national, provincial and local level. They also visited the field to see community-led total sanitation in action in the villages of Empoang Utara and Jombe, where the local communities are being empowered to stop defecating in the open. Subsequent reports on the experience received an enthusiastic response from readers with one article published on being read by 9,212 people, receiving 229 “likes” and 29 comments.  Ardita Çaesari, IUWASH Jakarta

Indonesia Urban Water, Sanitation and Hygiene (IUWASH) Mayapada Tower 10th floor Jl. Jenderal Sudirman Kav. 28 Jakarta 12920, Indonesia Tel. +62-21 522 - 0540 Fax. +62-21 522 - 0539 twitter @airsanitasi

Iuwash news 03 july 2012 en