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In Focus Vice President for Research Annual Report 2012


Table of Contents 1

Introduction

2

Daphnia, tiny model, powerful research tool

6

The changing foundations of medical research

9

Exploring the ‘myth of closure’

4

Early career excellence

8

Living, and writing, with cancer

2011 American Association for the Advancement of Science Fellows •

Carl Bauer, Professor and Chair, Department of Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, College of Arts and Sciences

Katy Börner, Victor H. Yngve Professor of Information Science, School of Library and Information Science

David Clemmer, Robert and Marjorie Mann Chair and Professor, Department of Chemistry; associate dean, College of Arts and Sciences

18 A school for philanthropy

David L. Dilcher, Professor Emeritus, Department of Biology, College of Arts and Sciences

20 When Internet meets opera

Patricia Foster, Professor, Department of Biology, College of Arts and Sciences

Peter Ortoleva, Distinguished Professor, Department of Chemistry, College of Arts and Sciences

Jonathan A. Plucker, Professor, School of Education (former)

32 A ‘natural history’ of cavities

Roderick A. Suthers, Professor, School of Medicine

34 Honoring poetry from Indiana and beyond

Roger Temam, College Professor, Department of Mathematics, College of Arts and Sciences

Virginia J. Vitzthum, Professor, Department of Anthropology, College of Arts and Sciences

10 Determining toxicity in grasses

11 A new era in public health research 12 The art of community health

14 Translating science, supporting research 15 Helping toddlers with autism 17 ‘The day in its color’

19 Preserving the history of sound 23 Tracking DNA mutations

24 Studying soil prepares ground for student opportunity 26 The evolution of sex

28 Creating a different kind of score 29 Caring for the aging brain

30 Improving street-crossing safety

31 Treating disease by the numbers 33 Developing an antidote to suicide 35 Hearing it new for half a century 36 Research Highlights 40 Awards and Expenditures


Research and Creative Activity at Indiana University It gives me great pleasure to present the 2012 Indiana University Vice President for Research annual report, covering the research and creative activities of IU Bloomington, Indiana University-Purdue University Indianapolis, and IU regional campuses across the state.

IU Vice President Jorge José and President Michael McRobbie

In fiscal year 2012, Indiana University received $533 million in grants and awards for research and other sponsored programs. This amount represents the second-highest annual total ever at IU. In the past five fiscal years combined, IU has received $2.6 billion in sponsored program awards. The university’s total research expenditures—the dollars spent on research and creative activities during the fiscal year—totaled more than $511 million in FY 2012.

Political Science. Both are faculty members in the College of Arts and Sciences at IU Bloomington. Professor of English Karen Kovacik from IUPUI was elected as our state’s Poet Laureate, and Jacobs School of Music Professor André Watts received a 2011 National Medal of the Arts. Anantha Shekhar, director of the Indiana Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute, was elected as president of the Association for Clinical and Translational Science.

I’m excited to share this report containing information about some of the major awards received at IU during FY 2012, including $15 million from IU Health for a Strategic Research Initiative with the IU School of Medicine; nearly $3.5 million from the U.S. Department of Education to Hannah Schertz, an assistant professor of special education in our School of Education; and $6.25 million awarded to IU Bloomington professors Patricia Foster, Michael Lynch, and Haixu Tang for their ongoing research as part of the U.S. Army Research Office’s Multidisciplinary University Research Initiative.

It takes a vigorous university infrastructure to support such research, scholarship, and creative activity, and there are few leading universities that can boast a more efficient research infrastructure than IU. In FY 2012, IU’s Office of Research Administration received the Technology Innovation and Application Award from the Society of Research Administrators International. ORA received the award for its development of My Research Administration, (MyRA), an online dashboard that makes it easier for faculty to track grant proposals, awards, and expenses on grant accounts.

Of course, funding and expenditures are not the only measures of IU’s excellence in research, scholarship, and creative activity. Another measure is recognition by peers, and in this area, IU faculty excelled as well. During FY 2012, the American Association for the Advancement of Science awarded the distinction of Fellow to a record 10 IU faculty members. The new Fellows (listed on the opposite page) included seven from the College of Arts and Sciences and one each from the School of Education, the School of Library and Information Science, and the School of Medicine.

This report demonstrates that even in an era of limited resources, IU faculty continue to compete successfully with researchers and scholars from across the nation and the world. I’m consistently impressed with the depth and breadth of the work IU faculty do, and I am pleased to bring some of our faculty’s accomplishments to your attention.

IU faculty members were recognized in other ways as well. The American Academy of Arts and Sciences elected three IU faculty members in FY 2012, including IU President Michael A. McRobbie, who became the first sitting president of the university to be elected to the prestigious academy. Also elected were Scott Russell Sanders, Distinguished Professor Emeritus of English, and Edward G. Carmines, Warner O. Chapman Professor and Rudy Professor of

Sincerely,

Jorge V. José Indiana University Vice President for Research www.indiana.edu/~vpr/

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Daphnia, tiny model, powerful research tool

If you had to guess, which animal would you say has the most genes? Here’s a hint: it’s not humans. Or chimpanzees. Or dolphins, elephants, or any other large, sophisticated creature whose size and complexity might seem to indicate a record-breaking number of genes. In fact, according to scientists associated with the Center for Genomics and Bioinformatics at Indiana University Bloomington, the exact opposite is the case. The prize for having the largest number of genes—around 31,000—goes to Daphnia pulex, a near-microscopic freshwater crustacean also known as the water flea. Not only does Daphnia have a record number of genes, but more than a third are not found in any other creature—a feature that has helped Daphnia emerge as a model organism for environmental genomics (a new field of science that examines how the environment affects genes). Daphnia are especially sensitive to environmental stimuli. For example, in the presence of predators, some types of Daphnia develop defensive spines, neck-teeth, or helmets. According to CGB scientists, Daphnia’s highly developed sensitivity to environmental stressors could help reveal how pollutants affect human health. One of the more curious aspects of Daphnia’s interaction with the environment is how some types respond to disease outbreaks. Working with the Indiana Division of Forestry and the Division of Fish and Wildlife, IU Bloomington biologist Spencer Hall Hall studied what happened when Daphnia in several Indiana lakes were exposed to yeast parasite epidemics of various sizes. The study, completed with colleagues from the Georgia Institute of Technology and Michigan State University, appeared on the cover of Science in March 2012. In the aftermath of a particularly large yeast parasite epidemic in the lake due to low fish predation and high nitrogen content, the Daphnia population was dominated by organisms more resistant to the disease. Survival of the fittest,

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as it were, prevailed. But when fish predation was high and nitrogen level low, resulting in relatively small epidemics, the opposite occurred: Daphnia more susceptible to the yeast parasites dominated. “At first thought it certainly seems surprising that host populations could evolve increased vulnerability to infection from virulent parasites like this yeast, a parasite that reduces survival and offspring production from infected individuals,” Hall says. “It defies common sense.” But upon further reflection, the counterintuitive result began to make more sense. Some types of Daphnia have developed a trade-off wherein they give up greater disease resistance in exchange for the ability to produce more offspring. So if an epidemic is small enough to not inflict massive damage, more susceptible Daphnia tend to thrive. Even though Hall had used mathematical theory to predict the outcome, “it still amazed us to actually see the prediction borne out repeatedly.” So why does this research matter beyond the world of Daphnia scholarship? For Hall, the key is the ways in which changing environmental factors—such as the number of fish and nitrogen in the lakes he studied—can influence the size of disease outbreaks and, in turn, how organisms at risk of being infected evolve. “By altering the density of predators and by fomenting eutrophication [the over-enrichment of water by nutrients such as nitrogen], humans can strongly influence the size of disease epidemics and the evolutionary fate of hosts suffering from those outbreaks,” Hall explains. “Although we are only beginning to uncover the implications of these connections, our study shows how mathematical theory can help guide our understanding of disease outbreaks in an increasingly changing world.”


Daphnia pulex (commonly called water flea). Image by Dr. Jan Michels (Christian-Albrechts-Universit채t zu Kiel)

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[innovation]

Early Career Excellence “Excellence in any department can be attained only by the labor of a lifetime; it is not to be purchased at a lesser price.” –Samuel Johnson, poet, critic, and lexicographer By Samuel Johnson’s measure, four Indiana University faculty members have recently scored a bargain, as each has earned prestigious awards for research excellence attained early in their careers. Mohammad Al Hasan, an assistant professor of computer science who joined the School of Science at Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis in 2010, has received a National Science Foundation CAREER Award. According to the NSF, the award supports early-career faculty members who “exemplify the role of teacher-scholars through outstanding research, excellent education, and integration of education and research.” Hasan will use his five-year grant to develop methods to more efficiently analyze large amounts of data. He intends to create algorithms that will improve data mining in the life- and social-sciences fields, with a specific focus on systems biology problems such as predicting disease pathways. Yogesh Joglekar, an associate professor of physics who joined the IUPUI School of Science in 2005, also received an NSF CAREER Award. Joglekar studies the properties and possibilities of graphene, oneatom-thick sheets of carbon whose strength, flexibility, and electrical conductivity have opened up new horizons for physics research and hightech applications. In particular, he is examining “excitonic condensates,” a quantum-mechanical phenomenon that makes zero-resistance electronic transport possible. Joglekar calls graphene “an exceptionally versatile, clean, and tunable electronic material.” A frequent mentor to young people, he plans to include high-school and undergraduate students in his research. Erin Carlson, assistant professor of chemistry in the College of Arts and Sciences at IU Bloomington since 2008, is also a regular mentor of young scientists, some of them as young as first- or second-graders.

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Carlson herself got an early scientific start at age 14, working in the laboratory of her father, also a chemist. Today, she leads her own laboratory team in exploring the mechanisms of bacterial growth and the development of disease to identify potential therapeutic agents. This research has earned Carlson a National Institutes of Health Director’s New Innovator Award, designed to support creative new investigators at an early stage. (In early FY 2013, Carlson also received a Cottrell Scholar award recognizing early-career research and teaching as well as an NSF CAREER Award.) With her NIH award, Carlson will tackle the “ever-growing and significant problem of antibacterial resistance,” she says, by pursuing the discovery of new drug compounds from “nature’s vast reservoir of antibacterial natural products found in plants and microorganisms.” The ultimate goal, she says, is to identify “more effective and long-lifetime treatments for drug-resistant infections.” Research to improve the use of the drug vincristine earned IU School of Medicine scientist Jamie L. Renbarger her early-career recognition. Renbarger received a Presidential Early Career Award for Scientists and Engineers (PECASE), presented by President Obama. A member of the IU faculty since 2002, Renbarger is associate professor of pediatrics and associate director of the Indiana Institute for Personalized Medicine.

project centered on optimizing use of vincristine using novel tools to identify susceptibility genes, as well as several projects related to stem cell transplants used to treat children with cancer. Renbarger and colleague Jodi Skiles have been studying children being treated with vincristine in Eldoret, Kenya, where the IU and Moi University schools of medicine collaborate on a health-care program. While the data are still being analyzed, it appears that the incidence and severity of side effects in Kenyan children is small and they might benefit from higher vincristine dosages— findings which could have implications for children everywhere. “It is a privilege to enjoy a career as a physician-scientist, participating in research that I love,” says Renbarger. “It is exciting to make discoveries from research based on practical clinical questions that allow us to improve the treatment of children with cancer. And it is especially gratifying to be recognized for my efforts in that research.”

Winners of the PECASE are selected by the White House for their pursuit of innovative research at the frontiers of science and technology and their commitment to community service. A PECASE prize is the highest honor bestowed by the U.S. government on science and engineering professionals in the early stages of their research careers. Renbarger received the award for studies of how to optimize the use of vincristine in the treatment of children with cancer. The widely used drug can cause side effects that range from jaw pain to foot drop to severe constipation. Thanks to work from Renbarger and her colleagues, as well as the medical school’s investment in pharmacogenomics, IU has taken a national leadership position in efforts to better understand the impact of medicines on children and how to use them more effectively. With Renbarger as the local primary investigator, the IU School of Medicine has been named a federal Center of Excellence in Pediatric Pharmacology, one of four in the country. The IU center focuses on the search for biomarkers in pediatric cancer, with a

Carlson

Hasan

Joglekar

Innovative. Outstanding. Excellent. Prestigious. Those are just some of the words used to describe the achievements of Hasan, Joglekar, Carlson, and Renbarger in the early years of their academic careeers. As another poet, Robert Browning, put it, “the best is yet to be.”

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The changing foundations of medical research Like buildings set astride a geological fault line, the foundations of academic biomedical research are shifting.

status of “comprehensive,” which would recognize it as one of the top-tier cancer centers in the nation.

Money is tight at the National Institutes of Health, the primary source of medical research in the United States—indeed, less than 10 percent of new research proposals are getting funded. Meanwhile, the era of solitary researchers making laboratory discoveries, getting them published in highimpact journals, and moving on to the next scientific question is receding. Increasingly, discoveries come from large collaborative teams. The focus is now on translational research—work that will turn basic science discoveries into products and therapies that will benefit patients.

For David Wilkes, associate vice president for research at IU and executive associate dean for research affairs at the IU School of Medicine, the key word in the initiative’s development was “transformative.”

At the IU School of Medicine, one response to these trends was to collaborate with clinical partner IU Health to create the Strategic Research Initiative. In an agreement announced in April 2012, the School of Medicine and IU Health will invest $75 million each over five years into basic and translational research projects in cardiovascular disease, cancer, and neurosciences. These targets are areas of scientific strength at the School of Medicine and areas that are key to IU Health as it works to leverage its affiliation with Indiana University and efficiently provide advanced patient care.

Wilkes

The SRI’s goal is to speed up both scientific discovery and the process of getting the discoveries to patient bedsides and the market. For the IU Melvin and Bren Simon Cancer Center, an additional goal is to attain the National Cancer Institute’s top

“We want to fund proposals that will fundamentally change our understanding of these diseases and bring important new therapies to patients,” he says. Although reaching such goals is not something that happens overnight, within a few months of the SRI’s announcement, the hiring of a molecular geneticist and genetics counselor meant some IU Health cardiovascular patients were already seeing changes with the start of the state’s first comprehensive program of genetic testing in research and clinical care of heart disease. Most of the early Strategic Research Initiative activity was less visible, though crucial. Seed money was applied to pilot projects meant to build stronger cases for NIH funding, such as developing small molecules to inhibit papillomaviruses and the many types of cancer they cause, or new therapeutic approaches to treat relapses in acute lymphoblastic leukemia. New faculty were recruited to fill in gaps in the school’s research expertise. And new programs in chemical biology and drug discovery were funded. In other words, work has begun on a new research foundation flexible enough to move with the fault lines.

“We want to fund proposals that will fundamentally change our understanding of these diseases and bring important new therapies to patients.” 6


[initiative] 7


Living, and writing, with cancer Indiana University Ruth Halls and Distinguished Professor Emerita Susan Gubar is author or coeditor of well over a dozen books, including the iconic, Pulitzer Prize–nominated The Madwoman in the Attic: The Woman Writer and the 19thCentury Literary Imagination. Over the years, Gubar’s feminist and literary criticism has earned countless accolades and awards, but her most recent publication stands apart from all the rest. In 2012, Gubar published Memoir of a Debulked Woman: Enduring Ovarian Cancer. Described by the New York Times as “at once a memoir, a review of sobering medical facts, a compilation of cancer reminiscences and of descriptions of illness in literature and art—delivered in a voice that is intelligent, feminist and devastatingly honest,” Memoir of a Debulked Woman is Gubar’s unflinching first-person account of living through her cancer treatments. (“Debulking” refers to the standard treatment for ovarian cancer of removing the tumor along with multiple abdominal organs.) Gubar

Following publication, the book and its author received attention from around the country. The Wall Street Journal declared it “exquisitely written.” The New Yorker noted the book’s “graphic honesty, scholarship, and intelligent grace.” Fellow writer Joyce Carol Oates called it “an extraordinary testament to the human spirit.” The New York Times Book Review named it a Notable Book of the Year.

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Gubar, who taught at IU Bloomington for more than 36 years, credits the support of her husband, Donald Gray, professor emeritus and Culbertson Chair Emeritus of English at IU Bloomington, and the Bloomington community for making the book possible. “For me,” she says, “Bloomington offers the intimacy of a network of caring friends in a bucolic environment that leaves me free to zone out, protect my privacy, work at what I love, and nurture a great public institution of learning that probably does not need me but that I need and whose students receive a great gift being here.” Gubar also credits the writing itself for helping her through cancer treatments so arduous that they left her with the realization “that there might be worse conditions than mortality.” “The composition of this narrative kept me sane during a hard time,” she writes. “It let me come to terms with my attitudes toward death, with my ideas about the resonant role played by the arts as we live with awareness of death, and also with my family history and the loves of my life.” Shortly after the publication of Memoir of a Debulked Woman, the New York Times asked Gubar to do a twice-monthly blog, which the Times editor and Gubar decided to call “Living with Cancer.” In a recent post, some four-and-a-half years after her initial diagnosis, Gubar reflects on the anxieties that beset her when she wakes in the dark, then concludes, “I am slowly awakening to the idea of my final sleep, but I’m taking it slow.”


Exploring the ‘myth of closure’ It’s rare that books by academics make the “best-of” lists that popular media produce. Killing McVeigh: The Death Penalty and the Myth of Closure by Jody Lyneé Madeira, an associate professor in the Indiana University Maurer School of Law in Bloomington, is an exception. Andrew Cohen of The Atlantic magazine put Madeira’s book on his list of the eight best books about justice published in 2012—and praised it generously. “Madeira’s book does a great service to the nation,” he wrote, “because it helps explain, using a tragedy and a trial we all remember, how differently victims of crime react to the legal process that takes hold in a highprofile case.” Cohen, who is also a legal analyst for 60 Minutes and chief analyst and legal editor for CBS News, reviewed the book at length when it first came out in June 2012.

[insight] negotiated McVeigh’s media presence, capital trial, and execution. In a Huffington Post blog entry published at the time of her book’s release, Madeira wrote, “I am writing about [McVeigh] because I am afraid that we will forget him. … McVeigh’s execution feeds into the myth of closure in that it contributed to a silence that some could mistake for finality. But with finality comes the temptation to forget, and with forgetting comes the chance that we might relax our vigilance, closet our fears, and commit the fatal mistake of overlooking someone like McVeigh. And so we must continue to remember, and watch, and wait, honoring our pasts but taking care to protect our futures.”

She spent seven years conducting research and face-to-face interviews for her book on the aftermath of the Oklahoma City bombing. The attack, which occurred on April 19, 1995 when Timothy McVeigh detonated a truck bomb in front of the Alfred P. Murrah Federal Building, killed 168 people, including 19 children.

In her book, Madeira notes that her father’s sudden death in a car crash started her own journey toward “closure,” a phenomenon she has come to see as “entirely unlike the rudimentary concept currently bandied about in popular culture.” Closure is not finality, she writes; it is “not a state of being, Madeira a quality, or even a realization. If closure exists at all, it must be a process.” Her book, she explains, is an effort to reveal the “lived experience” of closure, which she calls a kind of “sensemaking pilgrimage” through which survivors and family members each construct their own stories.

McVeigh was executed by lethal injection in 2001 in the federal death chamber in Terre Haute, Ind., before 232 live and closed-circuit witnesses. Killing McVeigh explores how family members and survivors

“Their closure journey, like mine, is ongoing,” she writes of the people who lost loved ones in the Oklahoma City bombing. “But their stories, like footprints, give us myriad ways of understanding this terrible crossing.”

As a member of the Maurer School of Law faculty, Madeira focuses on examining the intersection of law and emotion in criminal and family law, looking especially at the effects of legal proceedings, verdicts, and sentences on victims’ families.

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Determining toxicity in grasses Toxic grasses that could poison grazing livestock—that’s the focus for research by T.J. Sullivan, assistant professor of molecular ecology in the Department of Science, Mathematics, and Informatics at Indiana University Kokomo. With funding from the National Science Foundation, Sullivan and a collaborator from Hope College in Holland, Mich., are studying the relationship between toxic and non-toxic grasses. Toxic grasses can ultimately affect livestock and cause considerable economic losses. “The effects of toxic grass can
 slowly poison livestock if they eat
 too much of it,” Sullivan says. “The 
cattle or sheep will not gain
 weight, will have a decrease in 
milk production, and, in severe cases, can get gangrene in their hooves.” Sullivan’s study focuses on Canada wild rye, a species of grass that is native to much of North America. His goal is to determine why fungi can be toxic in some grasses, but not in others. “We’re looking at the association between Canada wild rye and its fungal endophytes, which are fungi that grow inside the leaves,” says Sullivan. “We’ve collected seeds from natural populations of Canada wild rye ranging from Texas to Minnesota so we’ve got lots of samples to work with.” Sullivan

Using a powerful genotyping technique called high resolution melt analysis, Sullivan is developing methods to examine genetic variation in fungi from all the samples in the collection. Assisting him in this work are a number of IU Kokomo students, who have a unique opportunity to partner with Sullivan as he prepares conference presentations and journal articles, making professional-level scientific research an integral part of their education.

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A new era in public health research Until 2012, there were no schools of public health in the state of Indiana. Now, there are two: the Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health on the IU– Purdue University campus and the IU School of Public Health—Bloomington, formerly known as the School of Health, Physical Education, and Recreation. With complementary strengths, the two schools offer a robust approach to public health issues in a home state that ranks in the bottom 25 percent of many public health measures. For example, according to the United Health Foundation’s 2012 America’s Health Rankings, the state of Indiana has one of the highest prevalences of smoking in the United States, with more than 1.25 million adults who smoke. In Indianapolis, with connections to the IU School of Medicine and other health sciences schools, the Richard M. Fairbanks School of Public Health concentrates on urban health, health policy, biostatistics, and epidemiology. The Fairbanks School is named in recognition of a $20 million gift from the Richard M. Fairbanks Foundation. Paul K. Halverson, former director and state health officer for the Arkansas Department of Health, has been named founding dean of the new school. Among the school’s leading researchers is Lisa K. Staten, associate professor and department chair for social and behavioral sciences, who has focused her career on reducing the risk of chronic diseases in vulnerable populations. With a three-year, $900,000 grant from the Walther Cancer Foundation, Staten and colleagues are working to expand and enhance the ability of the Fairbanks School to work effectively in community settings, focusing on the primary prevention of cancer, cancer survivorship research, and training the next generation of public health students in community-based cancer research. Staten also has current funding through the IU Collaborative Research Grants program to work with IU partners on a research initiative to examine the impact of community investment and economic development on health in Indianapolis neighborhoods. “Research has shown that there are many mechanisms by which the physical and social characteristics of neighborhoods may influence health,” Staten

says. “Health researchers have long understood that where people live influences their health, but new methods are leading to new understandings about the complex relationship between place and health.” The Bloomington school focuses on rural community health, building on existing strengths in social and behavioral health, environmental health, wellness, and epidemiology. Among the researchers at work in the IU School of Public Health—Bloomington is Ka He, the first chair of the school’s new Department of Epidemiology and Biostatistics. He has received a five-year, $2.3 million grant from the National Institutes of Health to examine possible associations between trace elements in the environment and residents’ risk for stroke in the nation’s “stroke belt,” an area of the United States that includes Indiana. The study will focus on blood or urinary levels of arsenic, cadmium, mercury, magnesium, and selenium. “This research will help identify individuals who have an elevated risk for stroke, thus providing important data identifying whether stroke risk can be reduced by dietary, supplemental, lifestyle, or environmental changes that modify trace element patterns,” He says. Mohammed Torabi, Chancellor’s Professor and former chair of the Department of Applied Health Science who is now dean of the IU School of He Staten Public Health—Bloomington, notes that the new school benefits from its rich history of health and wellness research. “We are in an enviable position with outstanding collaborators from across the campus,” Torabi says. “Faculty researchers are already deeply engaged in collaborations around important questions of public health, and the new school will catalyze more collaborations that will benefit citizens in Indiana and across the globe.”

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The art of community health Helen Sanematsu likes to take her art to the streets. An assistant professor of visual communication in the Herron School of Art and Design at Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis, Sanematsu uses her creative problem-solving skills to help community groups tackle health-related issues. She’s become a familiar face in the community as she gathers information about the ways people behave and how they use knowledge. Her goal is to help people and neighborhoods make more informed decisions and move forward on their own terms. “IUPUI is a nexus for innovation and a frontier for knowledge in areas like medicine, health care, and health communication,” Sanematsu says. “What we need to do now is apply that knowledge so it makes a difference in people’s lives.” Critical to this effort is the Community Health Engagement Project (CHEP), part of the Indiana Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute, where Sanematsu is a collaborator. “CHEP is all about looking at things through the eyes of the community,” Sanematsu says. “We focus on how the university can better match its strengths to community needs, and vice versa. Our aim is to incorporate the community’s values and perspectives into health research. We really are translators, and we work to find common ground and see that everyone has a voice in this process. When it comes to health, we are all in this together.”

Following a career as a designer for publications such as Newsweek and Martha Stewart Living, Sanematsu is now one of more than 100 TRIP���Translating Research into Practice—faculty members on the IUPUI campus. She has been a co-investigator for a number of interdisciplinary studies with the IU School of Medicine, the Indiana State Department of Health, and the School of Liberal Arts and Sciences at IUPUI. In 2011, she worked with Sarah Wiehe, assistant professor of pediatrics at the IU School of Medicine, on the project Communicating Life in Our Community/ Communicando la vida en nuestra comunidad (CLIC). The program was developed to strengthen dialogue between the growing Latino population in Indianapolis and the School of Medicine. During the project, participants told stories of their lives using photography, video, blogs, and drawings. Such activities helped to expand understanding between community-health researchers and people whose health is at stake. Issues of community health are personal for Sanematsu. Growing up in California, she experienced first-hand the problems that families of limited means can face. “I was a sickly kid, always going to the doctor,” she recalls. “I knew it was expensive, so I was constantly worried about how it affected my family. That’s how I connect to health—through my family’s experience. It has an impact on you for the rest of your life.”

“Our aim is to incorporate the community’s values and perspectives into health research. We really are translators, and we work to find common ground and see that everyone has a voice in this process. When it comes to health, we are all in this together.” 12


[involved] Sanematsu

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Translating science, supporting research An organization like the Indiana Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute can’t be summarized by a couple of numbers, but for Anantha Shekhar, there’s a particular number—a ratio actually—that stands out: 20 to 1.

campuses in Indianapolis, Bloomington, West Lafayette, and South Bend. Electronic medical records have been made widely, and securely, available. CTSI teams have consulted with hundreds of scientists in the state.

That’s $20 returned for every $1 invested. That, says Shekhar, director of the Indiana CTSI, is the leverage from a key innovation of the institute, created to help move research discoveries from laboratory to the market and patient care.

One of the innovative features of the Indiana proposal was the creation of the project development team program, an idea that has worked even better than expected, says Shekhar, associate dean for translational research and Raymond E. Houk Professor of Psychiatry at the IU School of Medicine. Shekhar is also an assistant vice president for research at IU.

The Indiana University School of Medicine received its initial five-year, $25 million Clinical and Translational Science Award in 2008, making it one of a select group of centers of excellence within the then-new National Institutes of Health initiative. Nearly five years later, Shekhar is confident that IU and the state have created one of the country’s most successful such institutes. Clinical and translational research activities have been implemented at the state’s four major research

Shekhar

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The faculty teams, organized by specialty, meet with researchers whose science has produced discoveries and who now need advice on how to proceed. They also provide pilot project funds. The return on investment from these activities has been remarkable: From about $3.5 million invested, researchers have attracted more than $65 million in outside funds. The Indiana CTSI also has made strides on the clinical side of the equation, Shekhar says, by implementing research partnerships with the IU Health and Wishard health-care systems. These partnerships are built on policies that encourage recruitment of patients into clinical trials at IU Health facilities across Indiana. The partnerships are also built on steps that encourage efficiency and cost effectiveness, such as negotiating the use of discounted Medicare reimbursement rates for research-related hospital services, which will save scientists significant amounts of money. The institute has also created statewide systems to mentor future researchers, coordinate technology sharing across universities, and implement a statewide tissue biobanking program. Shekhar and his team have applied with confidence to the NIH for a second round of CTSA funding. While CTSA renewal decisions are not expected until fall 2013, the Indiana CTSI is proceeding with plans to build on its already impressive track record. New initiatives will bring an increased emphasis on personalized medicine, linking the state’s already strong electronic medical records expertise with its advanced Internet2 and supercomputing resources, and integrating its strong medical imaging programs with the biobanking resources that have been developed with CTSI assistance.


Helping toddlers with autism In recent years, the prevalence of autism spectrum disorders (ASD) has grown dramatically, and as a result, so has the number of toddlers with ASD who need early intervention support. Hannah Schertz, an Indiana University School of Education assistant professor of special education, is carrying out research aimed at helping those children—toddlers younger than 2½—and their parents. With nearly $3.5 million in funding from the Institute of Education Sciences under the National Center for Special Education Research (a part of the U.S. Department of Education), Schertz and colleagues are conducting a four-year project to determine the effectiveness of an approach called Joint Attention Mediated Learning. This approach targets social communication—a key difficulty in ASDs—at the preverbal stage, when neurological development is more malleable.

Schertz and her colleagues developed the Joint Attention Mediated Learning intervention through several previous studies. At the conclusion of her current project, Schertz Schertz hopes her findings will confirm the effectiveness of Joint Attention Mediated Learning in helping children with ASDs learn language and feel more comfortable and competent with social engagement. “We hope this will translate into better long-term outcomes across the lifespan for children with autism,” Schertz says. “We also want to see parents feeling positive about their child’s potential and about their ability to positively influence their children’s development.”

“The purpose is to begin at a very young age before difficult patterns of social interaction have become set,” Schertz says, “and to focus on their greatest area of challenge, social communication.” She describes Joint Attention Mediated Learning as an intervention implemented through natural parent-child interaction. The method has three phases, starting with helping the child to focus freely and often on a parent’s face. In the second phase, the parent engages with the child in simple, back-and-forth play. The goal is to help toddlers wait for the parent’s turn and to understand that the parent shares their interest but has a different perspective. The third phase helps the child achieve “joint attention.” Joint attention is sharing interest about something, for example, exchanging looks between a toy and the parent while showing social interest by smiling. Schertz says this precursor to language is an important milestone typically achieved by 12 months but not seen in infants who go on to receive a diagnosis of autism spectrum disorder.

[inform] 15


Charles Cushman, Yavapai Point, Grand Canyon National Park

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[inspiration]


‘The day in its color’ For 30 years, Charles W. Cushman documented a dying landscape in living color. A 1917 Indiana University graduate, Cushman crisscrossed the United States from 1938 to 1969, driving roughly a half-million miles with his wife, Jean, and his camera, capturing a country in transition. Traveling from New York to New Orleans, Chicago to San Francisco, Cushman amassed nearly 14,500 Kodachrome slides depicting farms, highways, factories, small towns, big cities, and people. In 1972, shortly after Cushman’s death, the bulk of his work was donated to the IU Archives. Since then, the IU Archives and its Digital Library Program have preserved the Cushman slides, creating the online Charles W. Cushman Photography Collection, which was launched in 2003.

Left: IU Archives (P01688). Right: Photo of Eric Sandweiss by Eric Rudd.

It was in the IU Archives that Eric Sandweiss had a revelation. “When archivist Brad Cook showed me the collection of Cushman’s 14,000 Kodachrome slides that he and his colleagues had digitized, I felt like Dorothy waking up in Oz,” says Sandweiss, the Carmony Chair and associate professor of history in the College of Arts and Sciences at IU Bloomington. That revelation led Sandweiss to write The Day in Its Color: Charles Cushman’s Photographic Journey Through a Vanishing America, published in 2012. The title comes from a poem by Wallace Stevens. At a time when the world was still photographed largely in black and white, Cushman’s early use of color was transformative. “Pulling the little Kodachromes out of their slide boxes, I realized how thoroughly the gray shades that, for me, defined America before the late 1950s had distanced me from

everyday lives lived before my own,” says Sandweiss, who is also editor of the Indiana Magazine of History. “Each black and white picture reminds you that it is a document—not the thing itself. It pronounces its own pastness. I couldn’t help imagining that during that thirty-year interval [of Cushman’s photography], the nation had turned from gray to color.” Since the publication of The Day in Its Color, Sandweiss, like Cushman, has been crisscrossing the country to lecture, be interviewed, and oversee exhibitions about the book, Cushman’s photographs, and the surprising photographer himself. (Cushman was a first cousin by marriage to writer John Steinbeck, for example.) The book has received attention from The New York Times, Chicago Magazine, NPR, and Huffington Post, among others. Sandweiss says that writing the book (which was supported in part by a fellowship at IU’s Institute for Advanced Study) was “useful and challenging,” but adds that he’s learned even more since the book was published. “I’ve gotten more mileage (literally) out of taking Charles Cushman’s story back out to the sites that he himself visited,” he says. “Talking about the project before audiences in New Sandweiss Mexico, California, Chicago, and even Posey County, Ind., I’ve had an opportunity to revisit scenes he photographed and to take stock of what’s changed—and what hasn’t—in the American landscape. Traveling since the book’s publication, I’ve come to feel much closer to the man and his work than I did in the process of writing it.”

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A school for philanthropy With the establishment of the Indiana University Lilly Family School of Philanthropy, located on the IU–Purdue University Indianapolis campus, IU has created a school that builds on the strengths of IU’s Center on Philanthropy, an internationally recognized center for philanthropy research, education, and training founded at IUPUI in 1987. The formation of the school is testament to the growth of philanthropic studies into a recognized field of academic study focusing on how the philanthropic sector operates domestically and internationally. “Philanthropy and nonprofit organizations are fundamental to a healthy society, and they operate in a constantly changing, ever-more-complex environment,” says Gene Tempel, founding dean of the school. “These challenges call for extraordinary efforts by universities to understand the philanthropic landscape and to equip philanthropy professionals, nonprofits, donors, and volunteers to effectively achieve their missions.” One researcher who regularly provides such insights is Una Osili, director of research at the School of Philanthropy. Osili leads numerous research projects that offer information and insights to nonprofit leaders, policymakers, and donors.

Osili

Among the ongoing research projects conducted at the School of Philanthropy is the Bank of America Study of High Net Worth Giving. The 2012 High Net Worth study, which Osili and her team recently completed, examines the giving patterns, priorities, and attitudes of America’s wealthiest households for the year 2011.

The study is the fourth in a series on the giving practices of high-net-worth households. Among the new study’s findings is the observation that high-networth donors have become more strategic about their giving in recent years, focusing on particular causes or geographical areas. In 2011, high-net-worth households were most likely to give to education (79.6 percent), basic needs such as food banks or homeless shelters (79.3 percent), and arts and culture (68.8 percent). Osili’s research also looks at global aspects of philanthropy, a perspective shaped by her own international experiences. Born in New York to a Nigerian father and an American mother, Osili moved with her parents to Nigeria when she was 6 months old. Her research on international philanthropy focuses on the charitable giving habits of immigrants. “Generosity is part of every culture that we know about, every religion, every part of the world,” says Osili, who is also an associate professor of economics at IUPUI and a longtime consultant for the Federal Reserve Bank of Chicago. “What makes some countries rich, some countries poor, some communities rich, some communities poor?” says Osili. “What types of policies can actually help promote growth? Those questions led me to study all the different aspects of how a community can thrive.”

“Generosity is part of every culture that we know about, every religion, every part of the world. What makes some countries rich, some countries poor, some communities rich, some communities poor? What types of policies can actually help promote growth? Those questions led me to study all the different aspects of how a community can thrive.” 18


Preserving the history of sound When Patrick Feaster describes what he does, it sounds like magic— creating sound from printed images. But using modern technology at Indiana University Bloomington, Feaster does just that. In 2012, he resurrected the voice of the father of the gramophone, Emile Berliner, reciting Friedrich Schiller’s ballad “Der Handschuh” from an image in a 19th-century German magazine. Berliner’s voice, from 1889, can be considered the oldest record we can listen to today—the earliest audible progenitor of vintage vinyl.

A leading sound historian, Feaster stumbled on the image of Berliner’s recording when he was searching for different material at IU Bloomington’s Herman B Wells Library. Coming across an article on the gramophone, Feaster was surprised to find a printed replica of the early gramophone recording. Using such printed pictures, Feaster accomplishes his seemingly impossible work by scanning the record-shaped image, unwinding—or “de-spiraling”—the scan, and cutting and pasting the resulting sections to create a linear file that looks much like a modern-day audio clip. He then runs it through specialized software to create a sound file. To date, Feaster has played back several paper prints of gramophone recordings. During a two-month fellowship at the Smithsonian Institution in fall 2011, Feaster also played a key role in discovering a collection of hollow waxcylinder recordings—among them a recording marked “violin recorded on Eiffel Tower, Nov. 6, 1889”—and an experimental copper disc from 1881 that Feaster determined was one of the oldest known American sound recordings. His rare discoveries and sound restoration work have been covered widely, from the New York Times to Science magazine. A two-time Grammy nominee, Feaster recently published Pictures of Sound, a CD packaged in a 144-page book that offers a compilation of recordings Feaster has converted from pictures, including the Berliner recitation as well as the oldest known identifiable recordings of the human voice (1857–60).

Feaster

photo by Ronda Sewald

At IU Bloomington, Feaster is adjunct lecturer in the Department of Communication and Culture and a member of the Media Preservation Initiative. The Media Preservation Initiative began in 2009 to preserve the more than 560,000 audio, video, and film items housed on the Bloomington campus, many of which are seriously endangered. With Feaster’s help, those silenced voices may be heard again.

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When Internet meets opera An opera on global climate change, composed by an Indiana University– Purdue University faculty member and a University of Virginia colleague, won an award from the Internet2 consortium in 2011. Scott Deal, professor of music and director of the Donald Louis Tavel Arts and Technology Research Center at IUPUI, and collaborator Matthew Burtner won an Internet2 Driving Exemplary Applications (IDEA) award “for innovation in advanced network applications for collaborative research and education.” The collaborators received the award for their creation of Auksalaq—a Telematic Opera. Telematic art, explains Deal, is “an inherent art form of the Internet.” Combining music, movement, videography, and audience interaction, Auksalaq (the Inupiat word for “melting snow/ice”) explores roughly 40 years of climate change in the Arctic region. The opera received its world premiere in 2012. Deal is founder of the Telematic Collective, an Internet performance group comprised of artists and computer specialists, and a founding member of the computer-acoustic trio Big Robot. Also a trained percussion artist, Deal recently performed on Four Thousand Holes by composer John Luther Adams, which was named one of the best classical music recordings of 2011 by Alex Ross of The New Yorker magazine. As co-creator of Auskalaq, Deal’s special focus was on the media content and IT production design. The telematic opera takes place across five different sites simultaneously, with the Deal musicians, actors, and dancers interacting with performers in remote locations. Each site has its own audience and own version of the performance. “A virtual wall enables [audience members] to post thoughts during the performance from their own computers or handheld devices,” Deal explains. “As a result, audiences become participants in the performance.”

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Reviewing the opera in National Geographic, writer Michael McBride called Auksalaq “a significant cultural event” that marries science, art, and culture. Throughout the opera’s performance, audio, video, and scientific data are incorporated along with commentary from various climatechange experts. Joel Chadabee, president of the Electronic Music Foundation, calls Auksalaq a “pioneering work” that is “the single best and most important realization of meaningful opera for today’s world that I have heard in decades of producing events in New York and elsewhere.” For Deal’s part, he simply hopes that his artistic contributions through Auksalaq will prompt people to think more deeply about the effects of climate change. “Putting anything in front of someone is not a neutral act; there’s always some activism behind it,” he says. “As an artist I felt that I could take this idea and help create a conversation, and that when I retire, I can look back on it as something that I feel really good about.”


[invention]

21


E. coli

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[inquiry]


Tracking DNA mutations Evolution works according to two basic principles: natural selection driven by environmental forces, and random genetic mutations that result in variation within a species. But just how random are mutations? Is it possible to predict how often and how quickly an organism’s DNA mutates? That’s what IU Bloomington biologist Patricia Foster aimed to discover in her study of the bacteria E. coli. Looking at samples of the bacteria that had undergone more than 200,000 generations of growth untroubled by natural selective pressures in her lab, Foster found that the rate of mutation was three times lower than expected. “Since mutations are the source of variation upon which natural selection acts, a lower mutation rate means that, in the absence of other forces, the bacterium is evolving at a slower rate than we had thought,” says Foster, a professor of biology who is also an associate vice provost for research at IU Bloomington. “Now we have to find out if that rate is changed under different environmental conditions and if mutation rates in other bacteria are the same, higher, or lower.”

Another practical application of Foster’s work is forensics. In the unfortunate instance of an outbreak of a deadly bacterial disease, scientists may need to determine if the disease occurred naturally or if it was the product of a bioterrorist attack. “If we know how the bacterium mutates under different conditions, we might be able to determine if it was grown in a cow or in a test tube,” Foster says. “And if we understand exactly what genetic changes a bacterium will undergo, we might be able to predict if and how fast it can become resistant to a new antibiotic.” Before those types of applications are feasible, much more data, analysis, and modeling are required. Foster’s research has gotten that effort off to a strong and promising start.

Foster’s research collaborators are IU Bloomington School of Informatics and Computing Associate Professor Haixu Tang, Distinguished Professor of Biology Michael Lynch, and student researchers Heewook Lee and Ellen Popodi. Steven Finkel of the University of Southern California is also a collaborator. The significance of how quickly (or slowly) bacteria mutate is more than just academic. As Foster notes, people are intimately connected with harmful and beneficial bacteria, many types of which live in and on our bodies. “Understanding how those bacteria evolve can help us predict how our associations with bacteria may change in the future or under different conditions,” she says.

Tang

Lynch

Foster

Furthermore, bacteria serve as models for higher organisms, especially concerning how DNA is damaged, replicated, and repaired. Understanding these processes in bacteria, Foster says, “will help us to understand them in more complex creatures, such as humans, where changes in the genome can lead to genetic diseases such as cancer.”

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Studying soil prepares ground for student opportunity With funding from the National Science Foundation, researchers at Indiana University East and Earlham College are studying the prevalence and diversity of soil bacteria in soybean fields and cornfields, with the goal of using the data to assess soil health and improve U.S. agricultural practices. Along the way, they are also nurturing educational opportunities for undergraduate students. The interdisciplinary research project is being carried out by Earlham College faculty Christopher R. Smith, assistant professor of biology; Peter L. Blair, associate professor of biology; and Charles F. Peck, associate professor of computer science, along with IU East faculty Hitesh Kathuria, assistant professor of chemistry; Neil Sabine, associate professor of biology; and Parul Khurana, visiting assistant professor of biology.

As the faculty scientists and students examine questions such as how different crops and agricultural practices affect soil bacteria communities, they are not only advancing research collaboration between IU East and Earlham, but also expanding opportunities for underrepresented students to participate in research. Approximately 40 percent of students at IU East are first-generation college students, and Earlham College promotes involvement of underrepresented groups through the federal Ronald E. McNair Postbaccalaureate Achievement Program, designed to help underrepresented students attain Ph.Ds.

The technology used to describe the soil bacteria communities generates a massive quantity of data in the form of DNA sequences. The Earlham–IU East research team is integrating the data into courses so students can help analyze and mine the data. To date, the faculty team and students have completed the sample collection, DNA isolation, and sequencing.

Sabine

Khurana

“In this collaborative opportunity, students and faculty at both universities are working alongside each other to address the scientific queries via a problem-based learning approach,” says Kathuria.

One of the primary goals of the project is to increase research activity in the classroom. Throughout the project, the faculty and students will be conducting in-class research using computational approaches and integrating principles of molecular and organismal biology. In addition, course materials are being developed for dissemination to other researchers and educators. photo by Susanna Tanner, Indiana University East

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[integrate]

25


The evolution of sex Based on what we know about evolution, cross-fertilization is the norm, while self-fertilization is a rarity, even if it would be much more efficient, and make eminently more evolutionary sense, for reproduction via self-fertilization to be the dominant mode. Why? That’s what Curtis Lively, Distinguished Professor of Biology at Indiana University Bloomington, and colleagues set out to determine in a series of experiments. Specifically, they tested the veracity of theory known as the Red Queen hypothesis, the name drawn from Lewis Carroll’s children’s fantasy Alice in Wonderland, in which the Red Queen instructs Alice that “It takes all the running you can do to keep in the same place.” In biology, the Red Queen hypothesis posits that sexual reproduction via cross-fertilization is necessary to stay one step ahead of extinction by producing offspring with enough genetic variation to resist infection by parasites coevolving to infect them. In other words, both hosts and parasites are running (i.e., evolving) as fast as they can to stay in more or less the same place. Self-fertilization, on the other hand, endangers species by rendering them less genetically variable and consequently more vulnerable to parasites.

Lively

fertilization, or by a mixture of both in the same population, and then exposed the worms to the bacteria, which were either allowed to co-evolve with their hosts or were prevented from coevolving. The results of the more than 70 experiments Lively and colleagues ran strongly supported the Red Queen hypothesis. The self-fertilizing worms, lacking genetic variety, were quickly driven to extinction by the bacteria. But worms that reproduced via cross-fertilization created enough genetically variable offspring able to resist the bacteria and avoid extinction. Furthermore, in the worm populations where both sex and self-fertilization occurred, the evolutionary state of the parasite determined the best strategy. When the bacteria did not coevolve to target the worms, self-fertilization reigned supreme. But when the bacteria did coevolve, cross-fertilization was dominant. “The work shows the value of genetic diversity in reducing disease spread,” Lively says. “The findings have direct applications to agricultural systems and conservation efforts and also to combating human disease caused by parasites similar to the ones we study.”

To test the hypothesis, Lively and his colleagues used the microscopic roundworm Caenorhabditis elegans as a host and the pathogenic bacteria Serratia marcescens as a parasite to create a host-parasite coevolutionary system. They genetically engineered the worms to mate either sexually, by self-

“The work shows the value of genetic diversity in reducing disease spread. The findings have direct applications to agricultural systems and conservation efforts and also to combating human disease caused by parasites similar to the ones we study.” 26


[ingenious]

C. elegans

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Creating a different kind of score It’s no secret that whenever we’re stuck for an answer or need a bit of information, the solution is typically just a web search away. Less well known, though, is that most of the information available on the Internet is made possible by optical character recognition (OCR)—a method of digitizing printed (and handwritten or typed) text so that it can be searched, stored, and displayed online. But while OCR has been used to digitize uncountable amounts of text, very little symbolically represented music is available online, due largely to the lack of highly functioning OCR technology to digitize musical scores. That may soon change, though, thanks to the efforts of IU Bloomington computer scientist and Professor of Informatics Christopher Raphael, who has received grants from both the National Science Foundation and the National Endowment for the Humanities to develop optical music recognition (OMR) software. “The software will allow us to create symbolically represented music that can be searched, compared, transformed, and analyzed in myriad ways,” Raphael says. The technology will be particularly valuable for digitizing music collected by the International Music Score Library Project (IMSLP), an open library consisting mostly of scanned public domain classical music scores. “Digitizing the contents of the IMSLP could bring the community together in a Wikipedia-like collaboration to mine this valuable resource,” Raphael adds. Raphael

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Raphael is not the first to attempt to create optical music recognition technology, but previous efforts have proven problematic, producing digitized scores marred by copious errors. “OMR is much harder than its OCR counterpart due to the fundamentally two-dimensional layout of music, which makes it difficult to cast the problem in terms of familiar recognition paradigms,” explains Raphael, who is also director of the music informatics program at IU Bloomington. “So the primary focus of my work is to create and implement an appropriate recognition paradigm suitable for the twodimensional structure of music notation, building in knowledge of notation conventions and allowing for automatic adaptation.” Raphael notes that the potential impacts of this research are far-reaching. Digitizing musical scores will provide widespread access for musicians, music researchers, and music lovers worldwide as well as enable systems for music information retrieval, expressive performance, automatic music accompaniment, transcription and arranging, and more. “The [International Music Score] Library will also enable important commercial applications,” Raphael says. “For example, many expect that devices such as the iPad will form the sheet music ‘delivery systems’ of the future. The benefits of basing such digital music readers on symbolically represented music are compelling, including automatic page-turning and content-based annotation.”


Caring for the aging brain When IU School of Medicine researcher Malaz Boustani showed in a pilot study that the right program of care can make a fundamental difference for elderly patients with dementia, it impressed the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services. The agency gave a three-year, $7.8 million Health Care Innovation Award to Boustani and his team to expand their Aging Brain Care model to serve about 2,000 Medicare patients at 11 Wishard Health Services facilities as well as IU Health Arnett in Lafayette. Now Boustani, associate professor of medicine and a Regenstrief Institute investigator, and his team must demonstrate that a combination of integrated, individualized, and interdisciplinary care, along with careful evaluation of medications, can make the same big difference among a much larger group of patients. But that’s not all. The real key, Boustani says, is to figure out how to accomplish the same results on a larger scale in a way that’s affordable—that is, in a way that doesn’t require a $7.8 million grant for every 2,000 patients. “We know from experience that publishing a journal article, having data online, developing a one-week course, or consulting with other healthcare systems for a couple of days will not result in better health and better care at lower cost,” Boustani says. The goal of the Aging Brain Care system is to do just that: provide better health care at lower cost to older adults with dementia or depression via an interdisciplinary health care team that maps out a plan for each patient, enabling them to continue to live in the community.

The results of Boustani’s earlier pilot study were impressive: Emergency room visits were reduced by 45 percent, and hospitalizations were cut by 54 percent. Numerous factors play an important role Boustani in the model such as the use of a unique software program that collects cognitive, functional, behavioral, and psychological symptoms; tracks the stress levels of family members; employs algorithms that connect patient needs assessments with protocols to meet their goals; and monitors how well those goals are being met, both on an individual and population levels. Now, with the Centers for Medicare and Medicaid Services grant, a new workforce of about 25 people has been hired and trained; patients have been recruited; the website, www.agingbraincare.org, is up and running; and program services have begun. Which brings back the question of translating the program into something that’s widely applicable at affordable cost. “That’s very hard,” Boustani says. “Part of the new grant is to make us think about that platform. The School of Medicine, Regenstrief, and Wishard are brainstorming how to build a standalone platform, one that will be a hybrid between academia and private companies, to implement the Aging Brain Care program and sustain it.”

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Improving street-crossing safety Choosing when to cross the street seems a nearly automatic decision for most of us, but consider having to make that choice with a visual impairment. Suddenly street-crossing becomes high-risk. To help evaluate and mitigate that risk, Indiana University Assistant Professor of Optometry Shirin Hassan is studying ways to enhance the street-crossing decision-making behaviors of pedestrians who are elderly, visually impaired, or blind. The IU School of Optometry professor’s research is supported by a $1.9 million grant from the National Institutes of Health/National Eye Institute. Hassan is investigating the effectiveness of a current orientation and mobility street-crossing training program used across the country. She wants to determine whether the street-crossing training program provides enough scope and skill to enable older adults with low vision to cross a street safely. Her research represents the first time the training program has been assessed and measured. “In today’s aging population, there is increasing incidence of low vision,” Hassan says. “To support older adults and help them cope with the changes of aging, in particular with visual impairments and blindness, we need increased efforts to improve pedestrian safety that will maximize an individual’s independence and quality of life.” Hassan also is conducting a series of other street-crossing experiments in real, outdoor traffic environments. Using a measuring technique that she developed in an earlier study, Hassan is evaluating whether an individual’s perception of his or her street-crossing decision-making performance corresponds to actual performance. Other experiments will determine how an individual’s street-crossing decisionmaking performance changes with different road configurations, such as two-way streets or roundabouts. The research will help determine the impact of age, walking speed, and level of vision loss on an individual’s streetcrossing decisions.

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Hassan

Hassan says the importance of assessing street-crossing decision-making in real-world conditions can also provide the framework for developing recommendations for use by low-vision optometrists and health-care professionals. “With my clinical recommendations, optometrists and clinicians will have the tools to recognize early on when patients should receive street crossing training,” Hassan says. “This is the next critical step in patient care for people needing low-vision rehabilitation.”

[investigate]


Treating disease by the numbers Mathematics and eye disease may seem to have little in common, but researchers at the School of Science at Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis and the IU School of Medicine are putting the two together to address debilitating eye disease.

her approach of using data and feedback to determine a model. She previously used modeling to better understand blood flow from the heart.

With funding from the National Science Foundation, among other sources, Giovanna Guidoboni, associate professor of mathematics in the IUPUI School of Science, and Alon Harris, professor of ophthalmology and director of clinical research at IU’s Eugene and Marilyn Glick Eye Institute, are using mathematical modeling to better understand the causes of glaucoma. In particular, they are looking at alterations of blood flow in the eye and the relationship of those alterations to the damage glaucoma produces.

“We approach this as a pure math question, where you try to solve a certain problem with the data you have,” says Guidoboni, co-director of the School of Science Institute for Mathematical Modeling and Computational Science at IUPUI. Julia Arciero, assistant professor of mathematical sciences at IUPUI, is a co-principal investigator on the project.

Glaucoma—a disease in which the optic nerve is damaged—is the secondleading cause of blindness in the world. The only primary form of treatment is to reduce pressure in the patient’s eye, but as many as one-third of the glaucoma patients have no elevated eye pressure. Guidoboni’s and Harris’s research is aimed at improving the prediction and diagnosis of glaucoma as well as furthering the treatment of the disease. Mathematical models use mathematical language to describe the behavior of a system. Through simulations, a mathematical model can help doctors determine the cause and effect of reduced blood flow, cell death, and ocular pressure and how those risk factors interact in the presence of glaucoma. “This is a unique, fresh approach to research and treatment,” Harris says. “We’re talking about the ability to identify tailormade treatments for individual patients.” Harris and Guidoboni (standing)

Guidoboni has expertise in applied mathematics. She also has a background in engineering, which she says adds to

Using mathematics to model solutions for eye disease has enormous potential in the field of ocular research, according to Harris. “The scientific community has been accepting of this new method, and they are embracing it,” he says. Guidoboni’s and Harris’s project received its initial funding from a 2011 IU Collaborative Research Grant. The IUCRG program is sponsored by the Office of the Vice President for Research. The researchers are co-organizing an international workshop to be held in 2013. The workshop will focus on building a new scientific paradigm for studying eye disease worldwide.

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A ‘natural history’ of cavities Andrea Ferreira Zandona, a researcher at the Indiana University School of Dentistry, recently completed what is believed to be the first extended examination since 1966 of the natural history of dental caries, the dental term for tooth decay. In the case of teeth, “natural history” means that Zandona and colleagues tracked teeth for years, studying which sites on teeth were likely to become cavities if no preventive action was taken. The four-year, $3.4 million study was funded by the National Institutes of Health. Zandona is director of the Graduate Preventive Dentistry Program, director of the Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry’s Early Caries Detection and Management Program, and associate professor in the Department of Preventive and Community Dentistry in the IU School of Dentistry. She is the lead author of The Natural History of Dental Caries Lesions: A 4-year Observational Study, published in the Journal of Dental Research. In the study, the researchers evaluated cavities using a standardized visually based tool called the International Caries Detection and Assessment System, which requires no special equipment. IU researchers developed the ICDAS with a small group of international scientists. Examiners used the ICDAS to give caries lesions a score, ranging from 1 to 6. Caries lesions are an early sign that a cavity might develop. According to Zandona, a lot is known about caries, but little is known about the process that leads to cavities. Zandona

“We were trying to see if we can identify when lesions reach the point that they will become cavities,” Zandona says. “Are there signs on teeth that signal when it is progressing towards cavitation? When we see a 1, does it become a 2 and progress to higher scores? What happens when we see a 2? If dentists knew that, they could target prevention at those lesions.” Because some caries lesions become cavities and some don’t, identification of at-risk sites is one of the biggest challenges faced by dentists, according to

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the researchers. To date, the practice has been to wait and watch lesions until they reach the point where the dentists believe a filling is required. After analyzing data collected in the study, the researchers concluded that ICDAS can offer strong predictions—the higher the ICDAS score, the greater the probability the lesion will develop into a cavity. “We don’t want dentists to wait for a lesion to become a cavity,” Zandona says. “In reality, if a dentist sees a lesion that is active and has an ICDAS score higher than 1, chances are it will become a cavity. The dentist should do something preventively before having to place a filling. Dentists can have more certainty about what path to take because of what we learned.”


Developing an antidote to suicide When IU School of Medicine researcher Michael Kubek received a recent $3 million grant from the U.S. Army, it was a culmination of three decades of research. Kubek, associate professor of anatomy, cell biology, and neurobiology, helped discover thyrotropin-releasing hormone, or TRH, a neurochemical that can have potent antidepressant and antisuicidal effects. But efforts to use those well-known benefits have been stymied by the compound’s difficulty in crossing the “blood-brain barrier” that the body erects to protect the brain, making TRH pills or injections of little use. After reading about Kubek’s TRH research, a retired military physician and former director of public health for the Navy contacted Kubek looking for new treatment approaches for traumatic brain injury, post-traumatic stress disorder, and suicide. Suicides among active-duty members of the American military have been rising over the past decade, reaching a level of nearly one every day in 2012, and an even higher level among veterans. Kubek and his colleagues, including Kurve Technology in Seattle, developed an innovative approach to delivering the TRH—via a mist that would come into direct contact with olfactory neurons normally involved with the sense of smell, in the upper reaches of the nose. The TRH molecules are carried in biodegradable nanoparticles dispensed by a misting machine about the size of a pack of cards. The intent would be to have soldiers diagnosed with depression or another disorder raising the risk of suicide carry the device and administer the drug at the onset of suicidal thoughts.

[invention] The three-year grant to Kubek is an Applied Research and Advanced Technology Development Award, part of the Department of Defense’s Defense Medical Research and Development Program, funded by the Congressionally Directed Medical Research Programs. The announcement of the Army grant brought a flurry of publicity and media interviews for Kubek, along with substantive progress in developing the TRH device and the nanoparticles in preparation for planned clinical trials. Development of the nanoparticles has been undertaken by Abraham J. Domb, professor of pharmacology at Hebrew University in Jerusalem. Initial batches of both blank and TRH-loaded nanoparticles have been delivered to Kubek for testing and evaluation. In Seattle, meanwhile, Kurve Technology has been developing a smaller, more portable atomizer that will be used in clinical trials, which will be directed by IU psychiatry professors Alan Breier and Andrew Goddard through the Clinical Research Center of the Indiana Clinical and Translational Sciences Institute.

Kubek

Kubek, associate professor of anatomy, cell biology, and neurobiology, helped discover thyrotropin-releasing hormone, or TRH, a neurochemical that can have potent antidepressant and antisuicidal effects. 33


Honoring poetry from Indiana and beyond No more corn—that’s the name that Indiana State Poet Laureate Karen Kovacik gave to her blog about poets and poetry from the state of Indiana. “What I object to is … the idea of Hoosier poets as corny provincials, trapped in the 19th century and banished from a wider literary world,” says Kovacik, who is also professor of English in the School of Liberal Arts at Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis. Selected as poet laureate by the Indiana Arts Commission, Kovacik is filling her blog with posts about Hoosier poets, born in the state or migrated from elsewhere. “As a native Hoosier, I bristle at the notion, fostered by some, that our state is an uncultured backwater,” she says. “So many fine poets and writers live here, and I want everyone to know that.”

Kovacik

Kovacik also attends poetry events in high schools and communities across the state and organizes events such as the Borderlands Project, which brings together Indiana writers and writers from bordering states for readings on themes of immigration, migration, borders, and home.

At IUPUI, Kovacik is director of the creative writing program and adjunct professor of women’s studies. She also chairs the council overseeing the IUPUI Arts and Humanities Institute. Her poem “Invisible Movements” is featured in the “Moving Forward” public art project, a series of eco-friendly bus shelters that showcase original poetry along the Indianapolis Cultural Trail. Kovacik is the author of four books of poetry. She has received a National Endowment for the Arts Literature Translation Fellowship to support her work on the writing of Polish poet Agnieszka Kuciak. Her translation of Kuciak’s Distant Lands: An Anthology of Poets Who Don’t Exist was recently published. Another recent project, funded in part by IU’s New Frontiers grant program, is Calling Out to Yeti: An Anthology of Polish Women Poets, scheduled for publication in 2014. Why Polish poetry? Kovacik notes that despite the international recognition of Polish poets such as Czeslaw Milosz, the Englishspeaking world remains largely unaware of the contributions of Poland’s women poets. Kovacik, who is doing the majority of translations for the forthcoming anthology, says the collection “promises to transform how the Anglophone world sees Polish poetry.”

“What I object to is … the idea of Hoosier poets as corny provincials, trapped in the 19th century and banished from a wider literary world. So many fine poets and writers live here, and I want everyone to know that.” 34


Hearing it new for half a century André Watts, professor of piano and the Jack I. and Dora B. Hamlin Endowed Chair in Music at the Indiana University Jacobs School of Music, was one of seven recipients of a 2011 National Medal of Arts, the highest award given to artists and art patrons by the U.S. government. President Obama awarded the medal during a ceremony in early 2012. The White House praised Watts’s “superb technique and passionate intensity,” saying those hallmarks of his career make him a “perennial favorite with the most celebrated orchestras and conductors around the world.” Watts, who joined the Jacobs School faculty in 2004, entered the music scene in 1963 at the age of 16 when Leonard Bernstein chose him to make his debut with the New York Philharmonic in a Young People’s Concert. Two weeks later, Bernstein asked him to substitute at the last minute for an ailing Glenn Gould to perform music by Franz Liszt with the Philharmonic, thus launching Watts’s career in storybook fashion. In an interview with ArtWorks, the official blog of the National Endowment for the Arts, shortly after being awarded the National Medal of Arts, Watts recalled the day he got the call to stand in for Gould: ���In January of ’63, I was in Philadelphia at music school on a Tuesday morning, and [managing director] Carlos

Moseley called. And he said, ‘Master Bernstein and I were wondering if you’d like to come down and play the Liszt Concerto with us.’ And I said, ‘Well, I’ll ask my mother; I’ll ask her if she’ll let me go.’ So I went. I’ve always had great luck in the big, important things in life. Small stuff goes wrong, but in big things, I’ve been very fortunate.” Today, the renowned pianist continues to give numerous recitals and performances, while making regular visits to major summer music festivals, including Ravinia, Tanglewood, Saratoga, the Mann Music Center, Mostly Mozart, and the Hollywood Bowl. Reflecting in the ArtWorks interview on how he has sustained a career of nearly half a century, Watts said, “You have to get up every morning and genuflect and be grateful if it’s your nature to be able to see it new all the time. I mean, it is a gift that’s been bestowed on you. If it just comes to you, that’s a blessing, and that’s not really to your credit. Once you recognize it, then you have to try to use it, take advantage of it, and work on it, and you just have to hear it new all the time. You really have to just re-hear all the time.”

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Research Highlights Defining the field of spatial humanities “Spatial humanities” may sound like science fiction, but to David Bodenhamer, the topic is quite grounded, literally. Bodenhamer, executive director of The Polis Center, part of the School of Liberal Arts at Indiana University–Purdue University Indianapolis, is an expert in the application of GIS (Geographic Information Systems) technology to research in the humanities. A New York Times article on spatial humanities, which notes Bodenhamer’s contributions, defines the new field as giving historians and others tools to examine information related to physical locations, making it “possible to recreate a vanished landscape.” Bodenhamer is also a co-director of the Virtual Center for Spatial Humanities, a collaboration of The Polis Center, Florida State University, and West Virginia University. With funding from the National Endowment for the Humanities, the center has created the Digital Atlas of American Religion, an enhanced data visualization and mapping tool based on a GIS site developed by The Polis Center. Bodenhamer has additional funding from the NEH’s Digital Humanities division to lead an institute and other activities aimed at helping humanities scholars harness the potential of geospatial technologies in their work.

Lugar Center leads in developing clean-coal technologies With more than three dozen research members, the Richard G. Lugar Center for Renewable Energy supports and promotes the work of faculty and students throughout the IUPUI campus and beyond in the fields of renewable energy, efficiency, and sustainability. IUPUI and the Lugar Center are among nine universities sharing in $2.7 million DOE funding for research projects that will support the continuing development of clean-coal technologies. Jing Zhang, also a research member of the Lugar Center at IUPUI and an assistant professor of mechanical engineering in the School of Engineering and Technology, is

36

overseeing research to produce novel oxide-based coatings with improved high-temperature corrosion resistance. Such coatings are crucial to improving the performance of turbines in advanced coal-fired power plants. The novel coating materials can tolerate the harsh operating temperatures in power generation equipment and may enable operation at conditions that would improve generation efficiency, conserve fuel, and reduce carbon pollution.

IU contributes to the Higgs boson discovery The 2012 announcement that scientists observed the elusive Higgs boson particle spelled success for Indiana University researchers who worked as part of the extensive scientific collaboration operated at CERN, the European Organization for Nuclear Research. IU’s participation included leadership by physicists who designed and built a key component of the detector mechanism for the ATLAS experiment, a large detector that is used by the Large Hadron Collider, the world’s largest and most powerful particle accelerator. Researchers and staff from the Department of Physics in the IU Bloomington College of Arts and Sciences, led by professor emeritus Harold Ogren, were responsible for the design and construction of a critical part of the ATLAS experiment’s equipment, called the Barrel Transition Radiation Tracker. Key members of the IU ATLAS group include Harold Evans, Sabine Lammers, Ogren and Rick Van Kooten.


Toradze Studio premieres ‘Russian Accents’ series Acclaimed pianist and Martin Endowed Professor of music in the Ernestine M. Raclin School of the Arts at IU South Bend, Alexander Toradze leads the unusual Toradze Piano Studio, a international touring ensemble of several generations of pianists who are students and associates of Toradze. Recently, with support of funding from the National Endowment for the Arts, Toradze and his studio were featured in the classical music radio series “Russian Accents: Rachmaninoff, Stravinsky and the Piano.” Toradze, known for his expertise in the Russian keyboard repertoire, has been described as playing “as a man possessed, as if umbilically attached to the instrument.” The radio series, hosted by actor and classical music enthusiast Alec Baldwin, featured live performances by Toradze and senior members of the studio as well as historic recordings of music from the two master Russian composers. Toradze helped co-produce the eight-hour series, which premiered nationwide on WFMT Chicago, one of the top classical music stations in the United States.

Informatics team studies IT as social, cultural phenomena A research group at Indiana University Bloomington’s School of Informatics and Computing has received more than $1.85 million to create the Intel Science and Technology Center for Social Computing. Associate Professor Jeffrey Bardzell, Assistant Professor Shaowen Bardzell, and Professor Erik A. Stolterman are collaborating with fellow researchers from a wide array of disciplines on an exploration of information technology and digital media as social and cultural phenomena. The new social computing center, which completes Intel’s five-year, $100 million ISTC program, is organized around five themes: the materiality of information; algorithmic living; information ecosystems; subjectivities of information; and creativity and collectivity. “The five research themes were developed with the view that social and technical phenomena are deeply linked,” Shaowen Bardzell says. “These themes embrace the complex relationships between technological development and adoption, on the one

hand, and large-scale sociocultural phenomena on the other.” The three IU professors are specialists in the field of human-computer interaction design, an area of research that examines the design, development, and implementation of humanly usable and socially acceptable interactive devices, applications, services, and systems.

Predicting osteoporosis risk IU School of Medicine researchers were members of an international team of scientists whose work revealed variants in 56 regions of the genome that influence bone density, including 14 associated with an increase in the risk of bone fracture. The study, reported in the journal Nature Genetics, could lead to genetic tests to predict osteoporosis risk, enabling early preventive measures, as well as provide molecular targets for therapies meant to influence bone mineral density, according to Michael J. Econs, the Glenn W. Irwin Jr. Professor of endocrinology and metabolism and director of the Division of Endocrinology and Metabolism. Econs and his IU colleagues contributed data from 1,500 patients to the research consortium.

Writing the history of moderation In a 2012 column, New York Times writer David Brooks reflected on “What Moderation Means.” Noting widespread ignorance about “what it means to be moderate,” Brooks praised A Virtue for Courageous Minds by Aurelian Craiutu as a good source of history on the topic. Craiutu is professor in the College of Arts and Sciences’ Department of Political Science at IU Bloomington. His book, subtitled Moderation in French Political Thought, 1748–1830, argues that moderation is a difficult and necessary virtue for the functioning of democracy. He observes moderation has “many faces,” both an individual characteristic, related to reason, tolerance and tempered judgment, and a constitutional vision that eschews rigid ideology and embraces complexity and compromise. “My ideal of a moderate politician is the captain who trims the sails to keep the ship of the state on an even keel,” says Craiutu.

37


Taking steps toward prevention of diabetes

IU scientists play key roles in NASA Mars mission

One of the difficulties of diabetes is that by the time symptoms appear and are diagnosed, damage has been done and prevention is no longer an option. In research published in the journal Diabetes, Raghu Mirmira, Eli Lilly and Co. Professor of pediatric diabetes in the IU School of Medicine, and colleagues reported they had been able to identify problems in insulin-producing cells prior to the onset of symptoms, using a mouse model of the disease. According to Mirmira, they found clear signs of cellular stress including the release of a precursor to insulin called proinsulin.

When NASA’s Mars rover Curiosity touched down on the surface of the red planet, it culminated the work of many scientists, including IU Bloomington geologists David Bish and Juergen Schieber. Bish is the Haydn Murray Chair of applied clay mineralogy, and Schieber is professor of geological science, both in the College of Arts and Sciences. The IU geologists are part of teams that developed two of the eight scientific instruments that NASA selected for the Mars mission. Bish is co-investigator for CheMin, short for Chemistry and Mineralogy. CheMin is a miniaturized X-ray diffraction instrument used to identify minerals present in Mars rocks and soil. Schieber, an expert in sedimentary geology, is analyzing images from the Mars Hand Lens Imager, a focusable color camera on the turret at the end of Curiosity’s robotic arm. “This is truly an exciting time for planetary science and particularly for me as a mineralogist,” Bish says. “It’s been an extraordinary experience to participate in the development of CheMin and the first X-ray diffraction analysis of soil on the surface of another planet.”

IU leading study of wind-energy resources IU Bloomington professors Rebecca J. Barthelmie and Sara C. Pryor, along with colleagues from six institutions and companies in the United States and Europe, have been awarded $700,000 by the U.S. Department of Energy to study offshore wind resources using remote sensing, satellite measurements, and meteorological towers. The overall goal of the DOE program is to speed technical innovations, lower costs, and shorten the timeline for deploying offshore wind-energy systems. Barthelmie is leading a consortium to measure offshore wind and turbulence at Lake Erie. A professor in the College of Arts and Sciences’ Department of Geological Sciences, Barthelmie is also a co-principal investigator on a grant led by the National Renewable Energy Laboratory to develop simulation platforms for offshore wind climates. Pryor is Provost’s Professor of geological sciences and associate vice provost for faculty affairs at IU Bloomington. She’s also a coordinating lead author for the third National Climate Assessment, released in draft form by the U.S. Global Change Research Program.

38

Courtesy NASA/JPL-Caltech/Malin Space Science Systems

Research Highlights


Boosting rechargeable batteries’ energy, life, range The U.S. Department of Energy’s Office of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energy’s Vehicle Technologies Program, through the Argonne National Laboratory, recently awarded researchers at the Purdue School of Engineering and Technology at IUPUI a grant to conduct a rechargeable lithium metal battery study that could lead to revolutionary changes in the battery and electric vehicle industries. The research program is led by Jian Xie, a fuel-cell expert who is assistant professor in the Department of Mechanical Engineering and a research member of the Richard G. Lugar Center for Renewable Energy at IUPUI. Xie and his team are developing new materials that allow lithium metal to be recharged without shorting caused by dendrite formation—a crucial breakthrough needed to advance this technology.

IUPUI’s RESPECT Center improves end-of-life care As co-director of IUPUI’s Research in Palliative and End-of-Life Communication and Training (RESPECT) Center, Susan Hickman might be called an expert in the science of compassion, that is, in research conducted to enhance the quality of end-of-life care. Among Hickman’s primary research projects is the POLST (Physician Orders for Life-Sustaining Treatment) program, designed to improve communication between patients and physicians by providing a record of the kinds and levels of treatment a patient prefers in end-of-life care. The POLST program documents these preferences in the form of written actionable medical orders that travel with patients across care settings. In a study evaluating the use of POLST in 90 nursing facilities, Hickman and her co-authors wrote, “Achieving a match between patient goals and treatments has been described as the ‘gold standard’ for palliative care, and the data from this study suggests POLST succeeds in ensuring patient preferences match the treatments provided 94% of the time.” Hickman is particularly interested in the impact of family members on the quality of decision making about patient care, especially when it comes time to transition from curative to comfort care. Hickman recently received a grant from the Walther Cancer Foundation to study such decision making among older adults with incurable cancer and their family members. In earlier research on lung cancer survivors and their family members, Hickman and colleagues noted variability in how family members

and survivor’s perceive the same symptoms, suggesting that interventions to increase communication and support for survivors and their family members would better prepare lung cancer families to make decisions together.

Modeling how humans search for memories Quick, name all the animals that you can think of—you’ve got three minutes. Dog, cat, rabbit, hamster, goldfish… If you falter after naming a group of common domestic pets, you may have exploited a specific memory patch and need to forage elsewhere for new words. That’s the basic finding behind research by Thomas Hills, a former research scientist at IU Bloomington now at the University of Warwick, along with Michael N. Jones, assistant professor of psychological and brain sciences, and Peter Todd, professor of cognitive science, both in the College of Arts and Sciences at IU Bloomington. Just as animals forage for food—birds flying among berry bushes or bees flitting between flowers—people forage for memories, say the researchers in their study published in Psychological Review. Once an animal has exploited the resources of a particular bush or tree or flower, it will move on to search for other patches. We do the same thing when we’re searching for memories. Asked to name animals, for instance, we first focus on specific clusters of information such as domestic pet types. But when we run out of pet animal names, we move on to a new patch, say, zoo animals or sea creatures. Our memory searches, the co-authors write, involve “a dynamic process of mediating between local exploitation and global exploration of clusters of information in much the same way that animals forage among patches of food in their environment.”

39


Awards and expenditures

Technology Commercialization

Awards by Direct Source 4

5

6

FY 2008-12

FY 2012 7

3

2 1

$265,074,988

1.

Federal, 50%

2.

Foundations, 15%

$78,662,589

3.

Nonprofit, 12%

$61,541,022

4.

Commercial/For profit, 11%

$59,296,418

5.

Higher Education, 6%

$29,591,614

6.

State of Indiana, 6%

$34,615,949

7.

Other governmental, 1%

Invention disclosures received Licenses executed Patent applications filed

$4,358,467

TOTAL

$533,141,047

Patents issued Royalties, fees, milestones in millions of dollars

FY08

FY09

FY10

FY11

FY12

144

131

154

175

202

35

34

27

39

38

170

210

244

302

331

16

8

15

28

26

$4.9

$5.9

$14.1

$11.1

$7.1

To find out more, visit: iurtc.iu.edu

Research Expenditures Department of Health and Human Services* and National Science Foundation

2008 2009

40

$27 $24

2010

$29

2011

$29

2012

$28

National Science Foundation

$172

$145

Department of Health and Human Services

$177

$153 $167

$196 $206

$177 $163

$191

Total *The Department of Health and Human Services comprises 11 operating divisions, including the National Institutes of Health. The NIH is made up of 27 institutes and centers, each with a specific research agenda. Over the past five years, NIH funding made up 92% of all DHHS funding to Indiana University.


$298

$511

$213

$509

$277

$475

$255

$264

$466

$202

Federal

$193

$244

$437

$220

FY 2008-12

$231

Research Expenditures

7

Research Expenditures by Source FY 2012

1.

Federal, 41.7%

$213,264,146

2.

University Internal*, 38.6%

$197,665,806

3.

Foundations, 5.6%

$28,592,239

4.

Commercial, 4.8%

$24,611,030

5.

Higher Education, 4.4%

$22,521,769

6.

Nonprofit, 3.9%

$19,839,083

7.

State of Indiana, <1%

8.

Other governmental, <1% TOTAL

$4,185,183 $927,113 $511,606,369

3

4

5

6

â&#x20AC;˘â&#x20AC;˘ 8

1

2*

* University Internal consists of direct costs on internally funded accounts as well as calculated indirect costs. It also includes cost share and unrecovered indirect costs on sponsored projects.

Research Expenditures by Federal Agency

2012

2010

2009

2008

Total

2011

Non-federal

FY 2012

Research Expenditures by Unit* FY 2012

$268,000,663

7.

Informatics

$9,538,082

Arts & Sciences

$94,085,453

8.

Liberal Arts

$9,205,922

3.

VP Research

$25,020,954

9.

Business

$8,286,541

4.

VP IT

$13,816,779

10.

5.

Science

$11,464,218

Public & Environmental Affairs

$7,584,843

6.

Education

$10,854,081

1.

Medicine

2.

* Includes University Internal funding. University Internal consists of direct costs on internally funded accounts as well as calculated indirect costs. It also includes cost share and unrecovered indirect costs on sponsored projects.

1.

U.S. Department of Health and Human Services

2.

National Science Foundation

$28,110,357

3.

U.S. Department of Defense

$9,640,194

4.

U.S. Department of Energy

$5,258,691

5.

NASA

$1,510,855

6.

U.S. Department of Education

$1,229,485

7.

Environmental Protection Agency

$1,037,059

8.

U.S. Department of Veterans Affairs

$895,931

9.

U.S. Department of Commerce/NIST

$842,821

10.

All other federal agencies TOTAL

$163,112,556

$1,626,197 $213,264,146

41


Editors Lauren Bryant and Eric Schoch Designer Jeff Green, IU Communications Writers Lauren Bryant, Eric Schoch, Jeremy Shere Photography IU Archives, IU Communications, IU East Office of Communications and Marketing, IU Kokomo, IU School of Medicine, IU Office of Visual Media, IUPUI Donald Tavel Arts Technology Research Center, IUPUI School of Science Communications, Steve J. Sherman Copyright Š 2013 The Trustees of Indiana University

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2012 Annual Report