Page 1

N°7 / 10 ₏ / DEC. 2002

Social aspects : Wood fired heating in social housing

Wood in developing countries

Fill up your tank with wood!



The Firewood Paradox n our "modern" civil and industrial society, firewood in log form is to the wood field what it is also to the energy market: the poor relation par excellence. Nevertheless, it is the most consumed renewable fuel on the planet, for firewood as logs is a simple, easily available fuel and thus it is a fuel for all. Besides, like all the biomass fuels, it is renewable and, if the forest resources are reasonably managed, it is inexhaustible! So, as the Vice-president of ITEBE, and an active member of this field for 25 years, I am pleased to be publishing this log wood edition of WOOD ENERGY revue.


Even though quantitatively the realities of log fuel are glorious (about 3 billion m3 or steres, or 200 kg per person, are consumed every year on the planet), we must not forget the difficulties of this poorly recognised profession, and all the energy that must be spent to make a living by this occupation. Our society does indeed often tend to underestimate the direct producers of the wealth it consumes and, as it happens for wood logs, the modest world of the forest. I could open the discussion by evoking the progress in mechanisation, the increased productivity, and all the perspectives of improvement of the conditions of production and consumption of logs but I will rather ask you to read this issue. I will finish by reaffirming that the use of firewood as logs is an indisputable practical and economic reality on our planet, that this use will remain for a very long time one of the only means of access to energy for a great many individuals, and that it represents for all of us who are preserved from uncertainty the possibility of a choice of life-style, respect for the environment and for natural resources, and finally an irreplaceable magic: so many good reasons to become interested in this question today, so enjoy your reading!

Wood-Energy Revue of the European Institute for Wood Energy (Association of professionals) Support the wood-energy sector by affiliating to ITEBE and receive this publication, among the offered services. Editor : ITEBE Tel : + 33 3 84 47 81 00 Fax : + 33 3 84 47 81 19 Email : Web : 28, boulevard Gambetta, BP 149 39004 Lons Le Saunier Cedex – France Publishing director : Jean François Bontoux Editorial director : Frédéric Douard Deputy Editor : Julie Brassoud Authors in this issue : Dan Asplund, Christophe Barel, Jean Louis Bonnet, Stéphane Bourcier, Julie Brassoud, Réal Carbonneau, André Corthay, Serge Despeyroux, Frédéric Douard, Dominique Gibault, Marie-Maud Gérard, Christophe Grulois, Kalle Kärhä, Leopold Lasselberger, Jan Lindstedt, Didier Marchal, Samuel Neuville, Sarah Paquet, Josef Plank, Jean-Christophe Pouët, Jim Richardson, Mia Savolainen, Yves Schenkel, Christian Schröter, Michaël Temmerman, Jean-Maurice Tremblay, Régis Vankerkove. Translation : Jyväskylä Science Park, J. Brassoud, A. Giffard. Layout compositor : Printed on 100 % recycled paper in 6 000 issues (2 000 in English) by Imp. Bernard Mourier, Lons-le-Saunier (Jura-France) ISSN 1561-0802. Material may be reproduced free of charge with mention of the source.

Dominique Gibault, Vice-president of the ITEBE

Number 7 / English version (The revue is also issued in French and in German) Registration of copyright : December 2002 Subs. : Europe 30 €-Others 40 € / 4 issues

ITEBE is the wood energy department of the TTSD Unesco Chair : Technology transfer for a sustainable development.

While every attempt is made to ensure the accuracy of the information contained in this revue, neither the publisher nor the authors accept any liability for errors or omissions. Opinions expressed are not necessarily those of ITEBE.

N°7 / DECEMBER 2002




Normalisation 28 Type test of wood burners in Austria

Periodicals, documents, internet



ERBE, Équipe Régionale Biomasse Énergie CANBIO, The new Canadian Bioenergy Association

STRATEGIES Social policy 30 Quercy Énergies : Let’s Manage Energy to Fight against Social Exclusion QUERCY ÉNERGIES







The firewood sector is getting organised. What are the tools to professionalise firewood production? 8 Official Channels for Selling Firewood? 12 Mechanisation of Harvesting and Production of Firewood

16 The Superpilke machine efficiently processes firewood for heating 18 Laupheim : Industrial Production of Firewood 22 Towards better quality firewood 24 A high powered automatic Splitter-Saw 25 The Firewood Club at the Service of the Professionals 26 A Brand for Firewood in France

A revue published by :

Developing countries 32 An Overview of Wood-Energy in Developing Countries In partnership with :

FUELS Ethanol 36 Fill up your tank with wood!

COGENERATION Markets 40 Establishing Forest Biomass-based Cogeneration in Quebec RESSOURCES NATURELLES DU QUÉBEC

P. 18 Laupheim, an example of an industrial production site for firewood.

Cover : The firewood sector is becoming more modern and structured. Better control of production requires industrialisation, with the setting up of standards and the organization of professionals. These are the aspects which are clarified in this special issue on firewood. See page 8

With the support of :



Itebe Editions Itebe membership form Previous issues, subscription Index of quoted companies EUROPEAN UNION



We have selected for you the current documents of wood-energy.



International Combustion Symposium, Kauai, USA, Sept. 9-12, 2001.

Biomass powder gasification in a Cyclone Gasifier 2001. Salman H., Pettersson E. and Kjellström B.Joint International Combustion Symposium, Sep. 2001 Kauai, Hawaii, USA.

DOCUMENTS CARMEN-Jahrbuch : "Nachwachsende Rohstoffe 2002" For its 10th anniversary, CARMEN publishes a book about biomass. From now on, CARMEN will publish a new edition every year. CARMEN, with the co-operation of the players of the field, presents you a document on the use of the biomass that treats historic, political and encouraging aspects that concern material as well as energy utilisation of biomass. Contact: C.A.R.M.E.N. E. V. Schulgasse 18 94315 Straubing – Germany Phone: +49 9421 960 300 – Fax: +49 9421 960 333

CHAUFFERIES Aide-mémoire Costic. Ed. SEDIT. 2002. Format 13,5 x 21 - 210 p Collection CLIMAPOCHE A practical guide addressed to all those who work with heating plants to diagnose, to prescribe, to renovate. The guide is cut in sections by technical posts of the heating plant, and for each post there is a reminder of the applicable regulation texts. The guide consists of two main parts. One is the survey of the equipment of heating plants. This part presents the method and describes the lists of survey which are joined in appendix, and also supplies data for the diagnosis. The other one is the statutory technical equipment of heating plants. This part revues every point of the heating plant: the premises, the feeding of fuel oil, gas, and water; the electric and hydraulic circuits, the control, the generators, the WOOD ENERGY N°7 < DECEMBER 2002 > 4

expansion, the safety, the flues, the ECS. Contact: COSTIC Domaine de Saint-Paul 78471 St-Rémy-les-Chevreuse – France Phone: +33 130 85 20 10 – Fax: +33 130 85 20 38 clients=5

Buyer’s guide to small commercial biomass combustion systems Natural Resources Canada. Her Majesty the Queen in right of Canada. 2000. 54 p. ISBN 0-662-28899-8 This publication explains the advantages of the new wood stove technology. It explains also the problems and the dangers of the traditional stoves and examines the standards and the governmental regulations on stoves. Free of charge. index_f.asp?CaId=130&PgId=730 Contact: Publications Éconergie a/s Groupe Communication Canada K1A 0S9 Ottawa (Ontario) – Canada Fax: +1 819 994 1498 – Phone: +1 800 387 2000

CD Rom : Le Chauffage domestique au bois : technologies et catalogue des appareils de chauffage au bois ”Domestic Wood heating: technologies and a catalogue of wood heating equipment” This CD-ROM, published in 500 copies, is mainly addressed for the fitters of heating systems and for the artisans to assist them in the installation of domestic wood heating in houses: - improvement of the knowledge and the selection of the equipment (database 2001) - main installation rules - calculation of the costs of wood heating Contact: Costic, 6, rue a. Lavoisier – ZI de Saint-Christophe 04000 Digne-les-Bains – France Phone: +33 492 31 19 30 – Fax: +33 492 32 45 71

A new biomass based boiler concept for small district heating networks. Lundgren J, Hermansson R, Dahl J. Joint International Combustion Symposium, Kauai, USA, Sept. 9-12, 2001.

Design of a Secondary Combustion Chamber for a Wood Log Fired Stove. Lundqvist M., Hermansson R. Joint

Guide to Residential Wood Heating.” Catalogue number Natural Resources Canada. Her Majesty the Queen in right of Canada. 1996. M92-23/1993Fev. ISBN 0-662-86835-8 This publication describes the types of wood heating systems, the appropriate placing of wood-fed equipment, safety issues, the options as regards fireplaces and their installation, choosing and buying firewood and how wood heating can reduce the annual heating costs. Free of charge. index_f.asp?CaId=103&PgId=663 Contact: Publications Éconergie a/s Groupe Communication Canada K1A 0S9 Ottawa (Ontario) – Canada Fax: +1 819 994 1498 – Phone: +1 800 387 2000

Pyrolysis and gasification of biomass and waste expert meeting 30 September1 October 2002, Strasbourg, France. PyNe, GasNet. Cplpress. Summaries of the conference texts. Katy Hall, Jim Coombs or Roger Coombs

NEWS INTERNET CPL PRESS – Liberty House, The Enterprise Centre New Greenham Park Newbury RG19 6HW – Great Britain Phone: +44 1635 817408 – Fax: +44 1635 817409

Overview of the biomass usage in the European Union during the years of 1990 to 2000 and expected development by the year 2010. Heinz KOPETZ in " Biomasa in drugi obnovljivi viri energije za slovenijo ", Ljubljana, March 31, 2002. SLOBIOM.

PERIODICALS Énergies Renouvelables : l'énergie au naturel “Renewable Energies: Natural Energy” The Swiss magazine for a durable energy future appears 6 times a year. Thanks to the collaboration with Swissolar, Energie-Bois Suisse and Suisse Eole, "SonnenEnergieSolaire" has been replaced by the "Energies renouvelables" magazine. Publisher: Société Suisse pour l’Energie Solaire SSES Belpstrasse 69, Postfach, 3000 Bern 14 – Switzerland Phone: +41 31 371 80 00 – Fax: +41 31 371 80 00 –

Contact: Jareninski dol 1 – 2221 Jarenina – Slovenia

Proceedings of the first world conference on pellets : Stockholm Sweden September 2-4 2002. Swedish Bioenergy Association. Stockholm 2002 Summaries of the conference texts. ISBN 91-631-2833-0 Contact: SVEBIO – Torsgatan 12 111 23 Stockholm – Sweden Phone: +46 8 441 70 80 – Fax: +46 8 441 70 89

AJENA Contact : Spécial Approvisionnement en bois déchiqueté ”AJENA contact: Special Supply in Wood Chips” N°53 (oct-nov-dec 2002) The news bulletin of the Association Jurassienne pour la diffusion des Energies Alternatives (Jura Association for the distribution of the Alternative Energies) is dedicated to the dossier on supply in wood chips. Contact: AJENA, 28 bv Gambetta BP 149 39004 Lons le Saunier Cedex – France Phone: +33 384 47 81 10 – Fax: +33 384 47 81 18 –

VIDEO Heizen mit holz : Erneuerbare Energie für die Zukunft. Österreichischer Biomasse-Verband. Wien. 2001. Heating with wood: Renewable Energy for the Future Your contribution to protecting the climate Contact : Österreichischer Biomasse-Verband Franz Josefs-Kai 13 – 1010 Wien – Austria

Biomass & Bioenergy, ISSN : 0961-9534 An international newspaper that publishes original research documents, revue articles and case studies on biological and chemical resources, biological processes and products of biomass. Subscription 1150 euros for the European countries. Elsevier Science – Regional Sales Office Customer Support Department – P.O. Box 211 1000 AE Amsterdam – Netherlands Phone: +31 20 485 3757 – Fax: +31 20 485 3432

V Joanneum Research is the biggest provincial research institution in Austria and it offers its services to business, industry and public administration in the field of research and development. Joanneum Research Forschungsgesellschaft mbH Institut für Energieforschung Phone: +43 316 876 1338 Fax: +43 316 876 1320

V Centre of technologies for the biomass. It is a network of information about the biomass in Denmark, formed of four technological institutes that study the subject. Their task is to promote the use of wood, straw and other biofuels for energy needs as an alternative to the traditional fuels such as coal, oil or natural gas.

V The IHB wood exchange is a virtual market where buyers and sellers meet. With its 876 small ads, the IHB is the biggest market of this kind.

V Information about bioenergies in Finland. Finbio Ry – PL 27 – 401 01 Jyväskylä – Finland

V A non-governmental, non-profit-making agency dedicated to the use of wood as fuel for domestic heating.

V The purpose of BIZ is to give information about the use of biomass as renewable energy. BIZ aims to facilitate the transfer of information between the producers and the users of biomass based energy to increase the use of energy biomass in Germany. Biomass Information - Centre (BIZ) Institute of Energy Economics and the Use of Energy (IER) University of Stuttgart Hessbrühlstraße 49a – 70565 Stuttgart – Germany Phone: +49 711 78139 08 – Fax: +49 711 78061 77

V is a site that gives concise information about all the aspects of energy use.



ERBE, Équipe Régionale Biomasse Énergie D . M a r c h a l , C . G r u l o i s , R . Va n ke r k o v e - E R B E

Within the framework of European and regional objectives regarding renewable energy and energy independence, ERBE has become a privileged partner in terms of energy utilisation of biomass. SOME HISTORY…


ERBE, Equipe Régionale Biomasse Energie, was created in April 1995, for a period of three years, under the PERU (Programmation Energétique Régionale et Urbaine) program. The objective of the European Commission (DGXVII – Directorate of Energy) was, in the context of this program, to start the creation of regional and

At present, the activities of ERBE divide up as follows: - activities within the framework of European projects (for example Altener or Interreg); - programmes within the framework of regional projects (Plan BoisEnergie and Développement Rural, financed by the Ministry of the Walloon Region); - carrying out of technical-economic feasibility studies in the fields of wood-energy and biomethanisation; - communication (organising study days, spreading information, writing articles, participating in fairs,). Among the most significant actions of ERBE, one can mention: - a first inventory of the resources of biomass, both the available and the potential, in the Walloon Region (September 1995). This report was much appreciated because it was the first estimate of the biomass potential in the Walloon Region. This inventory is being used, notably with investigations in new areas; - carrying out of thematic studies on the biomass-energy (energy utilisation of household waste, investment grants,);

local energy agencies, by supporting their actions over three years. ERBE also benefited for its creation from the support of the Ministry of the Walloon Region (Direction Générale de l’Agriculture and Direction Générale des Technologies, de la Recherche et de l’Energie) and of the Belbiom (Belgian Biomass Association). After this period of three years, and in view of the actions and programmes conducted by the ERBE since its creation, it seemed necessary that the ERBE pursues its mission in the Walloon Region: ERBE became an autonomous agency that has the legal form of a non-profit organisation. To put it in a succinct way, its objective is the utilisation of biomass (notably through energy production) in order to contribute to a better environment and to local and regional socio-economic development.


- between 1995 and 2001, 67 feasibility studies were carried out, of which almost 40% resulted in a concrete project. Besides, ERBE is the Belgian co-ordinator of the Solid Biofuels network wi thi n the fr a m e work of the EUBIONET (European Bioenergy Networks) project. ERBE also works in close co-operation with the Département Génie Rural of the Centre de Recherches agronomiques de Gembloux (Belgium), more particularly with the Section Utilisation Energétique et Industrielle de la Biomasse. The latter studies notably the possibilities of using biomass as a renewable source of energy and industrial materials. 5

CONTACT: ERBE – Equipe Régionale Biomasse Energie 146, Chaussée de Namur 5030 Gembloux Belgium Phone: +32 81 62 71 43 Fax: +32 81 61 58 47

Biomethanisation is one of the possibilities studied by ERBE for utilising damp biomass.


Estimating correctly the resource constitutes one of the priorities of ERBE.




The new Canadian Bioenergy Association


Jim Richardson, J. Richardson Consulting

ioenergy is any form of energy derived from woody plant material (or biomass). Fully renewable and sustainable when properly managed, bioenergy can be produced from forest harvesting residues, forest industry mill residues, agricultural residues, urban and industrial woody wastes, or dedicated energy crops. Bioenergy can take the form of heat - for domestic, institutional, industrial or community use - electricity, or liquid fuels.


Biomass energy is Canada’s second largest source of clean, renewable energy after hydro electricity. This country is rich in biomass resources. Bioenergy has the potential to make a major contribution to Canada’s future sustainable energy supply in combination with other forms of renewable energy. Canbio aims to help realise that potential by creating a common, national voice for bioenergy in Canada, providing information and coordinating promotional efforts. The mission of Canbio is to promote industry and public support for increasing awareness, development and use of renewable, sustainable and environmentally-responsible biomass energy. The objectives of the association are: w to promote increased use of bioenergy, w to exchange information, w to identify barriers and opportunities, w to raise awareness and educate the public, w to promote the Canadian bioenergy industry, w to identify and prioritize research and development needs, w to develop and promote technical standards and best practices for the

industry, w to foster networks within the industry, w and to liaise with other Canadian renewable energy associations, as well as international wood energy associations. The association will engage in a v a r iet y o f p r a cti ca l a cti vi ti e s, including producing an industry directory for the bioenergy industry in Canada, and organizing technical meetings, workshops and trade shows. Canbio will work to develop technical standards for the industry. Communication – internally within the industry, and externally with government, other organizations and the general public – will be key to the succes s o f t h e a s s oci a ti on . It wi ll endeavour to provide representation for the bioenergy industry in Canada. Canbio was formed in Winnipeg, Manitoba in February of 2002 by a group of like-minded individuals from many parts of Canada, and representing a wide range of interests including assessment and production of the biomass resource, biomass technology development and marketing, bioenergy users and environmental issues. Federal incorporation and the preparation of a business plan are immediate short-term goals. The association hopes to attract companies and organizations involved in the collection, production and/or processing of biomass for energy, manufacturers of bioenergy equipment, and bioenergy end-users. Its members will also include independent consultants and professionals in the bioenergy sector, as well as organizations and individuals interested in promoting renewable energy use. 5


FOR FURTHER INFORMATION, PLEASE CONTACT: Bruce McCallum, Interim Chair CANBIO R.R.4, Hunter River Prince Edward Island C0A 1N0 Canada

Jim Richardson is a member of the Interim Board of Directors of CANBIO. This Canadian-manufactured outdoor furnace is just one of the many products and services offered by the members of the Canadian Biomass Energy Association CANBIO.


CANBIO is a new Canadian, industry-driven, non-profit organization of individuals, businesses and non-governmental organizations interested in the development, promotion and use of bioenergy.




ood was the first source of energy used for heating. It has been superseded since 1850 by coal and by petroleum during the twentieth century. The markets of the products that rival wood are well known because taxes and specific safety measures apply to these fuels, whereas the production and selling channels of firewood are neither well known nor identified. Taking, sustainable development and the environment into account the state, regional organizations, the na ti ona l a nd loca l authorities encourage promoting the use of wood in log form.



Log firewood is the wood-energy fuel requiring the least transformation. Today more and more firewood quality standards exist, and with industrial production, they permit a better control of the market. In this special issue, we will clarify these seldom discussed aspects of the firewood sector.

Logs can be sold in bags in supermarkets (here in the United States).




Wood is owned by both public and private forest owners. The first phase is the harvesting of the wood, which is done according to three methods: - control or exploitation at the ownerâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s risk. The owner entrusts the harvesting works to forest work companies. - selling the standing wood to forest entrepreneurs who take the liability of the harvesting entrusted to forest work companies.


Official Channels for Selling Firewood? Stéphane Bourcier – Forêt Bois Développement

We are going to propose some official distribution channels for firewood from the forest through energy production. In spite of the fact that the majority of this resource passes through unofficial channels, there should also be official selling channels in order to professionalise the activities related to the firewood sector.

The wood is then stacked at the roadside at the disposal of the users. The firewood is generally sorted and sold to producers of firewood who can be: - the owners themselves who use it for their own account or who sell it to end-users. - forest entrepreneurs who process the logs into firewood of 20 cm, 30 cm, 50 cm and 1 m. - firewood professionals who produce firewood for end-users. So, the firewood distribution channel is made up of three links: - the forest owner, - the entrepreneur, - the processor. In some cases, these links can overlap each other.

THREE PRODUCT TYPES The wood is presented for sale in three forms to the end-user: - in bags or net-bags of 40 or 80 litres. - in stacks of 1m3, the traditional form for significant volumes. - in bags of fire starters, dry, small wood; an ideal product to light a fire. According to need, the end-user chooses to buy wood in net-bags or stacks: - in net-bags for enjoyment or occasional use.

- in stacks if the wood is used as the main source of energy.

- specialised shops Numerous chains of specialised shops are developing at present, also shops specialising in wood. The concept of these shops brings together fuel supply, inserts, fire-

Packing logs in palletised bundles.

USERS AND SELLERS OF FIREWOOD Firewood is a product that can be sold in: - hypermarkets These chains distribute first and foremost products related to daily life: food, household needs, and the garden. Fire wood is not a priority product for these needs, in particular for discount chains. Large shops have a filling station and, in some cases, a service station for vehicles. The only available place to sell fire wood is the filling station of hypermarkets, preferably in net-bags. Main concerns are the logistics and the price.


- selling the standing wood to forest cooperatives which take the liability of the harvesting entrusted to forest work companies. This option is reserved for private forest owners because the forest cooperatives are channels for the harvesting and marketing of the wood for which they contract.


- DIY centres These shops specialize in do-it-yourself goods. Charcoal is naturally a part of the selection because it is an after-sales service of barbecues. Wood is not systematically presented and the managers of these shops generally do not wish to stock wood in their selection. Wood is a heavy material and has a low added value. In DIY centres, firewood is sold in net-bags. Main concerns are the logistics and the price. - service stations Service stations are multi-energy centres, the main energy source being the fuel. Nevertheless, wood, coal and gas are products frequently sold in service stations. Wood is sold essentially in net-bags. Main concerns are the logistics and the availability. WOOD ENERGY N°7 < DECEMBER 2002 > 9


THE FIREWOOD MARKET The official firewood market is situated in three zones: 1. cities and suburbs of big cities The characteristic of this market is a population that uses the wood as the main or secondar y heating method and that looks for reliable wood suppliers. 2. the Atlantic coast 3. the Mediterranean market The markets 2 and 3 are characterized by an important demand but low local availability caused by limited forest resources. A demand superior to the supply is the characteristic of this market. Numerous occasional suppliers offer wood and disturb the market and the companies active in this market.

Consumers are becoming more demanding and want dry wood that has the dimensions they need.

REVITALISING THE FIREWOOD MARKET Consumers look for constant-quality fuels and reliable suppliers. They need points of reference to navigate among the numerous suppliers, knowing that the majority of the volume of firewood passes through the unofficial market. To revitalise this market and to make it more transparent, it is necessary to take the actions summarised in table n°1. These actions are based on three objectives: - strengthening companies that produce good-quality firewood - informing the consumer about the companies competent in firewood production - increasing the market share of firewood These propositions were propose by ADEME during the carrying out of a study on the commercial channels for firewood. 5


Selling in hypermarkets does not really offer good value to the firewood producers for their work. Competent professionals have difficulties in becoming established in this market and consumers have difficul-

ties tracking down suppliers who produce good-quality wood.


places and accessories. These shops are an answer to the needs of the local people in the cities and suburbs that are looking at the same time for stoves and for fuel. Indeed, it is very difficult to find one’s way among the numerous firewood suppliers.

Kindling wood, dry and small, is ideal for lighting a fire.




When packed in net-bags, firewood serves for enjoyment or for occasional use.

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CONTACT: Stéphane Bourcier Cabinet Forêt Bois Développement +33 680 02 14 76

Firewood on a pallet. Table 1: Propositions for the development of the official market for firewood.



N°1: Selling in Hypermarkets N°2: Selling to the Professionals

Increasing the selling price to the consumers Increasing the supply and making it reliable

N°3: Selling in Specialised Shops N°4: Mediterranean Market

Increasing the number of shops Increasing the sales volume Establishing a list of competent professionals

N°5: Selling by Internet

Establishing a list of competent professionals

LEVERS Familiarity with the market Information to the buyers Familiarity with this market Getting the producers and the users in touch with each other Establishing a list at the national level Establishing a list of traders on the basis of a quality charter Establishing a list of professionals who produce good-quality wood Promoting an Internet site where firewood is sold



Mechanisation of Harvesting and Production of Firewood Christophe Barel – ADEME Angers

The CTBA and the IDF have studied various scenarios of harvesting and processing of firewood to estimate production costs per cubic metre or “stere”. The summary of the results of this study ordered by ADEME is now available.


MEANS FOR PROFESSIONALISING THE MARKET Preserving, or even developing the use of wood logs as fuel requires that the following three points be satisfied: - Efficient heating equipment available on the market; - A fuel with well-known and guaranteed quantity and performance; - A competitive price compared with other sources of energy. To achieve these three conditions, Figure 1: Summary of the Various Scenarios (Ademe - CTBA)

Sc n°1 Sc n°1 bis Sc n°2

Harvesting man.


Sc n°4


Sc n°6

Wood in 2 to 4 m length or more



Agricultural Forwarder tractor

transport processing Semi-trailer






























Sc n°7

Traditionally, firewood is harvested in the forest by means of a chain saw, in logs of one metre in length; this allows limiting the necessary investments to the strict minimum because the pieces of wood can be manipulated by hand. The experience acquired in the timber industry sector shows that increases in productivity come mainly from two sources: the mechanisation of timber harvesting and the transfer of work stages from the forest to fixed installations.

skidding mecan.

X Wood in 1m length

Sc n°3 Sc n°5


The use of firewood processors on site enables the processing of full lengths.


The use of a banding frame makes handling easier for loading and transport.

ADEME has set up the Flamme Verte quality charter (see Wood Energy 5), which displays the most powerful heating equipment, and the "NF firewood" certification (see page 26) that guarantees the characteristics of the fuel. ADEME also asked the CTBA and the IDF to estimate if it was worthwhile mechanising the production of firewood.



1. Mechanisation of Timber Harvesting • The easiest stage to mechanise is the skidding stage. The skidding of logs of one metre in length is not a very productive operation because these elements are difficult to manipulate with the grabs of tractors or lorries. This is why the loading is mostly done manually; the working conditions are hard and the costs are high. Productivity can be improved by two different means. The first consists in making bundles of 0,5 to 1 m 3 or “stere” by means of stacking frames. The second consists in harvesting the wood in length of two metres or more. In both cases, the handling times are greatly reduced by using a grab. • A second stage of the mechanisation of timber harvesting consists in

abandoning the chain saw in favour of mechanised harvest equipment (harvester). 2. Transfer of Work stages from the Forest to Fixed Installations. This concerns all the phases of manual logging in forests that can be transferred to fixed installations on a site. The combination of these two principles allows identifying the following scenarios. • Scenarios that Preser ve Harvesting of Logs of 1 m in Length - Scenarios 1 and 1b: traditional methods, n°1 corresponds to har-


50 45

labour functioning amortization

40 35 30 25 20 15


10 5

sc n

sc n° 7


°5 sc n

sc n


°3 sc n

°2 sc n

sc n

sc n

Figure 2: Cost of the Various Harvesting Scenarios

This study shows that it is indispensable to increase productivity during the harvesting and the processing of firewood. Abandoning harvesting logs of one metre in length for the benefit of the logs 2-4 m or more in

capacity of the company. Using a harvesting machine can also contribute towards improvement. Mechanisation will however raise two questions: What to do with the


• Scenarios that Give up the Harvesting of Logs of 1 m in Length Considering the weight of the pieces of wood, these scenarios imply mechanised processing on a site. - Scenario 4: trees are harvested with a chain saw, in logs of two to four metres in length; they are skidded with a tractor and timber trailer equipped with a grab crane; logs are processed on a mechanised specialised site. This way, the productivity of skidding, transport and processing is improved. - Scenario 5: harvesting of the trees with a harvesting machine. All the work stages are mechanised. - Scenario 6: stems are harvested long; they are skidded by means of a tractor with a lifting grab; processing takes place on a mechanised site. - Scenario 7: trees are harvested with a harvester. All the work stages are mechanised.

°1 bis

0 °1

vesting poles from coppice wood or small logs and n°1b to making firewood from tree crowns. - Scenario 2: putting logs of 1 m in length into "bundles", which allows improving the efficiency of skidding and transport. Decreasing the cost does not require a high investment. The weight of logs allows manual stacking. On the other hand, putting logs in “bundles” is tiring and requires a lot of time. - Scenario 3: traditional timber harvesting (logs of one metre in length) and processing on a mechanised site.

cost per stere m3 (€/stere)


The use of hydraulic multi-splitters avoids extra handling.

Evaluation of the various stages of production and processing makes possible an estimation of the cost of the various harvesting scenarios. Figure 2 shows that using a frame for making bundles of firewood allows about a 10% decrease in the harvesting costs. The additional investment is small. Harvesting in long pieces and processing on site reduces these production costs by another 25%, but the level of investment is high. The use of harvesting machines (feller/logging machine), where it is possible, contributes to reducing the harvesting costs. Not only is the level of investment high but also volumes become significant, therefore the conditions for introduction of such machines into the market must first be studied closely.

length seems the easiest means for success. The improvement in productivity results from the use of a frame or a mechanised processing installation, a choice will depend on the financing

broadleaf tree crowns that cannot be harvested easily with existing machines? How to avoid the wood delivered to the end user being too wet? The drying of wood before cutting it into sections and splitting

Figure 3: Synthesis of the Results. (Ademe - CTBA)

Production cost

Energy consumption

Harvesting pieces of 1 m in length and using a stacking frame Harvesting longer pieces and processing on a mechanised site

37 €/st

37 kWh/st

28 €/st

54 kWh/st

Timber harvesting with a harvester

21 €/st

60 kWh/st

ATTENTION: These costs include neither the purchase price of the wood, nor the price of the delivery to the end user, nor the infrastructure and prospecting expenses.



The following table shows the detailed calculation of the firewood production costs, with the comparison of different machines manufactured by Pezzolato, and for different annual production cases in steres.

is practically non-existent. Besides, the implementation of mechanised methods will require important investments on behalf of the producers of firewood and it will be advisable to study its profitability for each case separately.

To help the producers who might be interested, a computer program working in Excel, "Eval coût.xls", is a v a i l a b l e o n t h e We b s i t e o f Ademe. 5 < bois-energie/docs/evalco.xls>

COST OF THE EXPLOITATION OF THE FIREWOOD MACH Leasing coefficient over 5 years: 1,932; 290 Eur/month for 100 000 to finance A

Hourly cost = 18922 Eur for 1645 hours/year or: 11,50 E


C D E F G H I Purchasing Leasing repayment Lump sum cost case 1 Estimate Standard Cos N° of case Annual of the cost over 5 years sharpening TLC/TLA maintenance on TLC/TLA and Type of production equipment Machine in steres (Estimate) Per year Per stere Per year Per stere Per year Per stere Pe Case n°1, below traditional 'circular saw/splitter' (+ tractor). We have taken into account as expenses the legal allowance for woodm 1974 10 512 Eur 2 437 Eur 1,23 Eur 3 168,94 Eur 1,61 ¢Eur These boxes do not concern Case n°1 2 000 16 639 Eur 3 858 Eur 1,93 Eur 180,21 Eur 9,01 ¢Eur 225 Eur 11,3 ¢Eur 6 Case n°2 3 000 16 639 Eur 3 858 Eur 1,29 Eur 270,31 Eur 9,01 ¢Eur 300 Eur 10,1 ¢Eur 1 0 TLC 750 4 000 20 273 Eur 4 700 Eur 1,17 Eur 360,41 Eur 9,01 ¢Eur 375 Eur 9,5 ¢Eur 1 4 3 000 37 543 Eur 8 704 Eur 2,90 Eur 270,31 Eur 9,01 ¢Eur 285 Eur 9,5 ¢Eur 1 6 Case n°3 4 000 51 059 Eur 11 837 Eur 2,96 Eur 360,41 Eur 9,01 ¢Eur 375 Eur 9,5 ¢Eur 2 TLC 800 6 000 55 564 Eur 12 882 Eur 2,15 Eur 510,59 Eur 8,56 ¢Eur 526 Eur 8,7 ¢Eur 2 4 TLC 900 8 800 60 069 Eur 13 926 Eur 1,58 Eur 690,79 Eur 7,81 ¢Eur 676 Eur 7,7 ¢Eur 2 7 TLC 1000 10 000 67 578 Eur 15 667 Eur 1,57 Eur 780,90 Eur 7,81 ¢Eur 751 Eur 7,5 ¢Eur 3 0 12 000 99 114 Eur 22 979 Eur 1,91 Eur 916,05 Eur 7,66 ¢Eur 901 Eur 7,5 ¢Eur 3 3 Case n°4 15 000 100 616 Eur 23 327 Eur 1,56 Eur 1 156,33 Eur 7,66 ¢Eur 1 126 Eur 7,5 ¢Eur 3 8 TLA 1000 18 000 105 121 Eur 24 371 Eur 1,35 Eur 1 396,61 Eur 7,81 ¢Eur 1 352 Eur 7,5 ¢Eur 4 2 TLA 1200 19 740 108 124 Eur 25 068 Eur 1,27 Eur 1 531,76 Eur 7,81 ¢Eur 1 502 Eur 7,7 ¢Eur 4 6 TLA 1400 26 400 195 225 Eur 45 261 Eur 1,71 Eur 1 847,12 Eur 7,06 ¢Eur 1 952 Eur 7,4 ¢Eur 5 4




case n°1:Circular saw+Splitter+Secondhand Tractor case n°2: TLC 750 with (or without) mechanis. case n°3: TLC 1000 with mechanis. case n°4: TLA mechanised at 100%

Base: one person compensated at 1,61 Eur per stere for his expenses Base: one person using the machine + one helper, or 2 persons: wood Base: two persons that work together - Example 6000 steres cut / sp Base: two persons that work together - Example 19740 steres cut / s

Base of production withheld on 1 year = intake of undressed wood on the ground (cases 1 and 2 for 2 and 3000 steres/year) or on mechanise Purchase value that served in reaching the result box "R" Example: case n°1 = Circular saw + 1 Splitter + 1 secondhand tractor … = 10 51 LEASING UNIMAT / CAM value at 01/11/2001 - One must allow for a back-buying value of 1% at the end of the contract: For case n°1, we mad Sharpening and possible maintenance (planishing / tightening of the blade): TLC 750 = 1 sharpening for 600 st -TLC/TLA 1000 or 1200 for 100 Estimated cost of machine maintenance (oil filter - oil - possible repair costs of breakdowns…) Estimated cost according to power / energy but after various controls on the existing installations The same calculation as above for a carbide blade that will need some tip replacements during its lifetime. The body of the blade almost nev For the TLC or TLA we count 2 persons. Of course, these models can also be used by one person alone: Coefficient = about 0,6 probable… Base 35 hours/week in a year = 1645 hours. With only 1 operator, the productivity would be around 0,6. Ex: 1 person on TLC 1000= 7,3 X 0,6 Based on an annual salary of 18 922 Eur including employee and employer contributions, including holidays, etc. Result in euros and per type of equipment exclusive of transporting wood in 2/3/4 or even 6 metres/ collection and delivery as logs. Only the

IMPORTANT! This document is the property of GF SERVICES. Any reproduction without their WRITTEN authorisation is strictly FORBI E-Mail: Site: Nota: This information does not commit GF SERVICES to anything - The inf




10 avenue Saint Mandé 75012 Paris France Phone: +33 1 40 19 49 19 Fax: +33 1 43 40 85 65


Eur (35 hours/week) J


Follow the explanations column by column in the BOTTOM OF THE TABLE L


st according to models Re-tipping of carbide d production = EDF blade

er year Per stere Per year Per stere men, 1,61 Eur per stere, at 1/09/01 the case n°1(see box G) 646 Eur 32,3 ¢Eur 99 Eur 5,0 ¢Eur 021 Eur 34,1 ¢Eur 148 Eur 5,0 ¢Eur 472 Eur 36,8 ¢Eur 197 Eur 5,0 ¢Eur 622 Eur 54,1 ¢Eur 148 Eur 5,0 ¢Eur 162 Eur 54,1 ¢Eur 197 Eur 5,0 ¢Eur 463 Eur 41,0 ¢Eur 394 Eur 6,6 ¢Eur 763 Eur 31,4 ¢Eur 591 Eur 6,8 ¢Eur 064 Eur 30,6 ¢Eur 690 Eur 6,9 ¢Eur 364 Eur 28,1 ¢Eur 827 Eur 6,9 ¢Eur 814 Eur 25,4 ¢Eur 1 034 Eur 6,9 ¢Eur 280 Eur 23,7 ¢Eur 1 241 Eur 6,9 ¢Eur 655 Eur 23,6 ¢Eur 1 773 Eur 9,0 ¢Eur 406 Eur 20,4 ¢Eur 1 877 Eur 7,1 ¢Eur






Hourly production, 2 persons

Nr working hours per year

Annual salary cost

Salary cost per stere

Harvesting cost per stere

1,2 (1pers.) 3,6 3,6 4 5,3 7 7,1 7,2 7,3 10,1 10,2 11,8 12 15 (1pers.)

1645 1111 1667 2000 1132 1143 1690 2444 2740 2376 2941 3051 3290 1760

18 922 Eur 12 781 Eur 19 171 Eur 23 005 Eur 13 022 Eur 13 146 Eur 19 441 Eur 28 117 Eur 31 514 Eur 27 333 Eur 33 831 Eur 35 093 Eur 37 844 Eur 20 245 Eur

9,59 Eur 6,39 Eur 6,39 Eur 5,75 Eur 4,34 Eur 3,29 Eur 3,24 Eur 3,20 Eur 3,15 Eur 2,28 Eur 2,26 Eur 1,95 Eur 1,92 Eur 0,77 Eur

12,43 Eur 8,48 Eur 7,83 Eur 7,07 Eur 7,39 Eur 6,39 Eur 5,54 Eur 4,92 Eur 4,86 Eur 4,34 Eur 3,95 Eur 3,45 Eur 3,35 Eur 2,63 Eur


s of using a circular saw (total allowance) d taken from a pile or by using a simple log processor lit / loaded in 1690 h (total for the 2) paid 11,5 Eur / hour (see N/O/P/Q) plit / loaded in 3290 h (total for the 2) paid 11,5 Eur /hour (see N/O/P/Q)

d lines 2 Eur - It's not expensive! de the same calculations - 100 000 Frs = 1920 Frs of monthly rent. 00 st. - For case n°1: Legal allowance for the use of circular saw granted to woodmen.

ver wears out so the tips can be replaced many times. = 4,38 st./h: you would have to pay 2283 hours… cost of production figures here.

DDEN. GF SERVICES - 352 Rue Victor HUGO - 42120 COMMELLE VERNAY - Phone: 04-77-67-18-70 Fax: 04-77-67-29-94 formation is given as an indication and can change as the equipment prices and maintenance costs vary.



The Superpilke The productivity of the 'Superpilke 2000' firewood processor was studied during TTS Institute research. In this firewood processing machine the wood is cross-cut using a spiral or guillotine blade, and log splitting is carried out by a wedge.


The length of Superpilke machine conveyor is 3.0 m.

he automatically fed 'Superpilke 2000' machine proved to be an efficient machine for processing wood for heating. In manufacturing firewood logs from spruce and hardwood, productivity was nearly 8 m3/working hour when the average diameter of the wood fed in was 10 cm.


According to MTT Agrifood Research Finland statistics, there were 2 400 cross-cutting and splitting devices sold in Finland during 2001. These are machines that both cross-cut and split the firewood log. Out of the cross-cutting and splitting machines sold, approximately 700 were firewood shearing machines. In firewood shearing machines the wood is crosscut using a spiral or guillotine blade, and log splitting is carried out by a w e d g e. T h e firew o o d s h ea r in g machines can cross-cut and split stems up to a maximum of 20-22 cm in diameter. Firewood made by firewood shearing machines does not meet the requirements for selling as quality class 1 (see article page 22)


firewood because the cross-cut surface is not even and straight. Instead, firewood made by firewood shearing machines is suitable as wood for domestic heating.

THE MACHINES ARE STUDIED IN THE NEW TTS INSTITUTE PROJECT A research project 'The Control and Development of the Firewood Log P rod u cti on P roce ss' ha s be e n launched at the TTS Institute and is included in the TEKES technology program on Wood Energy. The subproject "The Productivity, Costs and Development Targets of New Firewood Processing Devices" researches the productivity, quality and costs of new firewood processing machines that are suitable for professional and private use. The work safety and ergonomics of firewood processing machines will also be analysed. Furthermore, suggestions will be made to the device manufacturers on the development of firewood processors. The research work on the firewood machines were carried out in AprilMay 2002 at Vihti and Ylistaro, Finland. Two hydraulic splitters and eight cross-cutting and splitting devices were researched, of which seven were saw equipped firewood processing machines and one was a shearing firewood machine. The latter was Agromaster Ltd's 'Super-

pilke 2000' firewood processor. This article presents the productivity of the 'Superpilke' machine.

THE 'SUPERPILKE' UNDER RESEARCH The automatically fed 'Superpilke 2000' i s a fi re wood p rocessin g machine which has been on the market for five years. The end of the wood to be processed is set on the feed rollers of the machine, after which the machine then cross-cuts, splits and transports the firewood logs

Superpilke machine cross-cuts, splits and transports automatically firewood logs into a trailer.


Kalle K채rh채, Aki Jouhiaho, TTS Finlande



machine efficiently processes firewood for heating


When the testers fed thicker wood (over 15 cm diameter) into the machine, the wood did not stay between the feed rollers very easily and the testers had to press the wood several times on to the feed rollers. Feeding problems did not occur with wood below 15 cm in diameter. The 'Superpilke' is suitably efficient as a processing machine for 'heating

The productivity per working hour of the machine in processing spruce and hardwood is shown in the graphic. The productivity was nearly 8 m 3 per effective hour when the diameter was 10 cm measured at the middle of the tree. The productivity of the machine rises as the diameter of the wood fed in grows. When the diam20

Productivity, m3 / hour


The tester is lifting wood on to the feed rollers of the 'Superpilke 2000' firewood processor that was researched at Vihti, Finland.

16 14 12 10 8 ARTO MUTIKAINEN

6 4 2

into a t rai l e r f o r e x a m p le. T h e machine can cut 20 cm diameter wood into maximum 60 cm lengths. The purchase price of the machine is 5 382 Euros (inc. 22 % VAT). During the 'Superpilke' research, nearly 30 m3 of wood was processed in total. Some 16 m3 was processed from spruce poles and pulpwood over a year old. The average diameter of the wood was 10 cm, the length 270 cm and the average volume was 18 dm3. In addition, 4,8 m3 of freshly de-limbed spruce and hardwood poles and pulpwood was processed. In this raw material sample the average diameter of the wood was 9 cm measured at the middle of the

Diameter, cm 0 2



et er o f t h e w o od i s 15 cm , the working hour productivity is almost 11 m 3 /h. The largest stems that were fed in to the machine during the research were a diameter of 20 and 21 cm. However, these became jammed in the machine. The thickest successfully processed wood had a diameter of 18 cm.







Effective hourly productivity as a function of the fed wood diameter in the manufacturing of chopped spruce and hardwood to 45 cm lengths.

wood' on farms and also as a machine for common use. However, the machine cannot manufacture quality cla ss 1 fi re wood for sa le ( se e page 22). 5

In processing spruce wood the hourly productivity was 6,9 m3/h, and for p ro ces s in g b irc h pole s i t wa s 6,4 m3/h. An hourly productivity of only 4,1 m3/h was achieved for pro-

Spruce sawmill off-cuts were also processed in the research.

tree, the length was 280 cm and the average volume 20 dm 3. The main wood species was spruce. In addition, 3,6 m3 of spruce sawmill off-cuts were processed. The spruce had been sawn two months prior to research. The firewood logs were cross-cut to lengths of 45 cm. The study also included 2,3 m3 of f re s h b i rc h p o l e s t h a t w e re processed into 33 cm lengths. The a v e r a g e d i a m e t e r o f t h e b i rc h poles was 11 cm, the length 300 cm and the average volume was 29 dm 3. There were two 40 years old lumberjacks operating as testers in the research.

cessing the spruce sawmill off-cuts. The number of waste splinters in w o o d cut t in g w a s re d u ce d to 0,1 m3/working hour when chopping p o les a n d p ulpwood , a nd to 0,2 m3/effective hour when chopping sawmill off-cuts.


With this machine, the productivity can reach 11 m3/h.

The machine only handled wood for 38 % of the effective time when processing spruce and hardwood. The machine ran empty for the majority of the effective time because the testers could not feed the wood as fast as it worked, even though the testers carried out their work speedily a n d t h e d is t a nce be twe e n the machine and stacks was only 1-2 m.



Laupheim Industrial Production of Firewood


Marie-Maud Gérard, ITEBE


A platform of production exclusively dedicated to firewood. The Laupheim site is an example of the modernization of the field: six days maximum are enough to obtain dry logs, ready for use.

Photo 1: The logs of beech from 4 to 6 m are brought at the site of production on a timber lorry.

ituated in Laupheim, a Bavarian town not far from Ulm, the company WHG Waldplege & Holzernte G m b H , crea t ed in 1 9 9 2 b y Mr. Lochbühler, worked at first in harvesting with their felling machine. A part of the activity was subcontracted to other forest entrepreneurs. In 1998, the company chose to diversify its activities and began producing firewood industrially by purchasing a processing line for wood logs. Today, the company concentrates more especially on the production of firewood, and the whole harvesting part is at present subcontracted.


created by this drying method represented a tying up of capital and storage space at the production plant level. To reduce stocks and to sell the firewood production faster, the company

equipped itself with a wood drier in 2000. The plant, planned from the beginning for firewood production, was spacious enough to include a boiler room as well as a dr ying storage. The site is conceived so that elements can be moved in case of m od i fi ca ti on or a d dition of a machine. The offices and the maintenance premises, for example, are made of mobile containers. At the moment, the company WHG produces annually 6000 to 7000 m3 of dry wood logs sold loose.

Photo 2: The logs are forwarded on a deck towards the splitter saw.

The production site of firewood, at a premises outside of Laupheim, is equipped with an automatic Kretzer production line of the Herkules 2 type. At first, in the early days of the installation, the logs produced were stored for one or two years before being sold to private persons. The large stock




in partnership with


ORGANIZATION AND INFORMATION Professionnal fair Demonstrations & conferences


Via Marosticana 36050 BOLZANO VICENTINO (VI) Tel. +39 0444 351634 Fax. +39 0444 351563 email :

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13-16 March 2003

The wood energy

event in central Italy


In Europe, about thirty « Herkules 2 » machines have been sold.

them into 2, 4, 6 or 8 fire-logs according to the diameter of the log. Only that part of the production line that includes the Kretzer machine is under cover. The fire logs are conveyed on an outlet belt, and then poured in a heap at the end of the line. The output of the installation of the WHG company is from 5 to 8 m3 / hour, obtained for firelogs of 25 cm or 33 cm in length.


Photo 3: A chain saw derived from the felling heads technique takes care of the cutting.

THE PRODUCTION LINE equipped with a raised cabin so that the operator can work with a good general view. The logs, brought by the deck and the conveyor belt to the level of the splitter saw, are automatically cut up with a chain saw in pieces of 25 or 33 centimetres, then split at the level of a horizontal splitter that can divide

Figure 1 is a schematic representation of the log production line of the company WHG. The logs of between 4 and 6 metres, essentially of beech, are brought by a timber lorry to the production site, parallel to the deck and are taken by a hoist, an excavator Fuchs 723

The wet split wood is taken by a Volvo L40B loader equipped with a mechanical shovel and transferred in metal bins of 5 m 3 volume that are then stored in the dryer. A wood boiler room, equipped with a 350 kW Tiba Müller boiler, feeds with hot air of between 80 and 90°C - the drying storage which contains 22 baskets or 110 m 3 of loose wood logs. The wood used as a fuel consists of sawdust salvaged during the production of logs but also of wood chips. The hot air blown in the dryer circu-

From tree logs to dry logs: a whole chain of transformations of the wood.


6 2


3 14




7 11 8 10





Photo 4: The dryer is fed with hot air by a wood chip boiler.


lates between the logs through the ventilated boxes and when it becomes saturated, it is extracted from the building through ventilators. The wood loses about 20% of its volume during the drying period that lasts from 5 to 6 days, depending on the period of the year. The drying of firewood requires 15 m3 of sawdust and wood chips for one drying period in summer and 30 m3 in winter. Once the wood is dry, the crates are taken by a loader inside the drying storage and they are emptied directly in the lorry used for transport. The finished product - dry firewood is directly sold to private persons and delivered, loose, at their request. When the demand for wood logs is not important enough to sell the whole production at once, the wood is transported by lorry to a storage in the Laupheim town centre, to be delivered to customers later.

FOR MORE INFORMATION: Mr. Lochbühler WHG Waldpflege und Holzernte Gmbh

At present, two employees work on the site and take care of the production and the delivery of the firewood to private persons. A secretary who works part-time for the company WHG is in charge of receiving orders made by the customers and for passing them on to the production plant. The sales of firewood are subjected to a 7% VAT rate in Bavaria; the dried wood is sold at 52 to 54 euros (incl. taxes) per m3 (loose). The parallel market also rivals sales through the official channels but the good quality of the wood sold by the WHG company in particular has been acknowledged of the official network. 5

t Technical parameters of the Kretzer splitter saw Machine on a fixed station controlled automatically (manual mode is possible) Cutting: Chainsaw that derives from the felling heads technique (very fast cutting and lower cost of maintenance) with hydraulic motor. Suction of sawdust at the level of the cutting and the evacuation of waste and wood splinters Capacity of the splitter: 30 tons Maximum diameter of the logs: 55 cm Optimal length of the logs: 4 to 6 m Output: up to 11 m3 loose depending on the diameter of the entering wood and the length of the logs Optional: inlet deck for the poles and outlet belt for logs… Approx. price: 100,000 euros without options


1 Log storage yard. 2 Conveyor belt for logs. 3 Combined saw – splitter with an inlet belt for logs. 4 Conveyor belt for logs. 5 Reception of logs in the end of production line. 6 Storage container for maintenance tools. 7 Feeding silo. 8 Boiler room. 9 Hot-air piping. 10 Dryer. 11 Container offices. 12 Metal bin. 13 Stocking of wood chips for the boiler room. 14 Excavator.

Kl-Gf-Stauffenberg-Str 1 88471 Laupheim – Germany Phone: +49 7392 9724 31 Fax: +49 7392 9724 99

Photo 5: The dry logs are transported directly to the customer on a lorry.



Towards better firewood


Kalle Kärhä, TTS Institute Finland

In Finland, consumers make more and more demands of the fuel they buy, which steers firewood merchants to produce firewood of a high quality. n Finland, small-scale properties farms, detached houses, holiday apartments/houses and other small properties - used 6.1 million m3 of firewood during heating the season


2000/2001, of which the majority was firewood logs. Single family houses purchased 1.2 million m3 of firewood during the heating season 2000/2001.

The product as a sales article has to have quality criteria by which properties the quality of the product is assessed, and also by which the target level for each quality property is set. In 1997, a proposal was compiled by the TTS Institute for the quality classification of firewood logs (Pirinen 1997). Using this as a basis, the Finnish Bioenergy Association published their own quality classification (The quality guide for firewood logs 1998). The two quality classifications are almost the same as to content.



Quality characteristics Chopped firewood First class Wood species* Birch no other wood species

Quality class Second class

Third class


no softwood

upper limit ≤ 5 % for other hardwood upper limit ≤ 5 % for softwood


no limit for hardwood

no limits for hardwood

no limits for hardwood


33 or 50 cm +/-2 cm (25 cm +/-1 cm**) 4-10 cm not more than 20 % even and plain

33 or 50 cm +/-4 cm (25 cm +/- 3 cm**) 4-12 cm not more than 25 % uneven ends allowed

33 or 50 cm +/-6 cm (25 cm +/-4cm**) 4-15 cm Max 30% uneven ends allowed

not more than 15 %

not more than 25 %

no foreign substances single spots allowed small colour defects allowed only hard decay allowed, upper limit ≤ 5 vol %

no foreign substances small occurences allowed small colour defects allowed decay allowed, upper limit ≤ 5 vol % of hard decay and ≤ 1 vol % of soft decay

Thickness, cut Moisture content Cut surface

Proportion of incompletely not more than 5 % chopped debarked wood Cleanliness no foreign substances Mould not allowed Color no colour defects allowed Rot / Decay not allowed

* does not concern mixed chopped firewood


upper limit ≤ 10 % for other hardwood upper limit ≤ 10 % for softwood

** for chopped firewood 25 cm in length

Firewood logs have been divided into three quality classes (Table 1). The following characteristics affect the quality class of a firewood sample: species mix, length, thickness, moisture content, cross-cut surface, cleanliness, colour, rot/decay and mould occurrence. If the firewood sample does not meet the limits of the quality class, it drops to the lower class. The first class quality of firewood logs is really good (Figure 1). The biggest share of firewood in the market is second class firewood. For example, firewood produced by a firewood processor with guillotine cut is second class firewood even though all the other quality properties would classify it as first class firewood. The functionality and usability of the quality classification proposals have not been tested in practice. However, the quality classifications have not been forgotten, for they are being implemented and used actively in Finland particularly in the professional firewood trade. The price of high quality first class firewood is high: the difference between first and second quality class firewood is easily several tens of percent. However, the production costs of first and second class firewood are almost the

Figure 1. First class quality firewood logs in frame one, second class firewood in frame two, and third class quality firewood in frame three.



Figure 3. Artificial drying and proper storage can ensure the quality of firewood.

same, so the sales margin is better for first class firewood. In addition, consumers demand better firewood quality than before. These factors steer firewood merchants to produce good quality first class firewood. On the other hand, the requirements set for first quality class firewood are not unreasonable. Future studies will look at the means by which firewood producers can ensure their products are high quality, and how nowadays Finnish firewood producers are aiming to produce good quality first class firewood.

RAW MATERIAL AND FIREWOOD PROCESSING Producing high quality firewood starts from the careful selection and grading of the raw material. It goes without saying that first class firewood cannot be manufactured from wood which for example has rot. Bent, crooked and branchy trees also cause problems in the manufacturing process - cross-cut logs only partially split.

cross-cut the wood either with a circula r o r ch a in sa w ( Fi g u re 2) . According to the TTS Institute study, firewood merchants manufacture firewood mainly with firewood sawing machines. Approximately, only onetenth of firewood merchants manufacture firewood for sale with firewood shearing machines. When manufacturing firewood with modern machines, the length of the firewood log can be easily controlled with the help of a length limiter. For their part, hydraulic cylinder and counter blade splitting ensure the successful wood splitting of the firewood.

DRYING AND STORING The biggest problems in producing good quality firewood in Finland are mainly the moisture content, mould

and outward appearance problems. Natural drying has been the traditional method for drying firewood. Its disadvantage in commercial firewood production is the slow rotation of stocks which leads to large capital costs. In addition, problems are caused by the variation of firewood quality such as uneven drying, mould, outward appearance problems and also inflexible production for changes in demand. The application of artificial cold air drying and proper storage can ensure the quality of firewood, speed up stock rotation and reduce storage space requirements (Figure 3). The use of cold air drying increases especially in professional firewood production (annual production over 100 m 3 of firewood). The possibility to use additional heat or thermal drying brings flexibility for production and enables all year round firewood production according to demand. In summary, by grading raw material, using firewood sawing machines, artificial drying and proper storage, good quality first class firewood logs can be produced and therefore meet consumers' expectations. 5

CONTACT : Kalle K채rh채, Project Manager TTS Institute P.O.Box 28 00211 Helsinki Finland

Figure 2. First class firewood logs can be manufactured only by firewood sawing machines.

Quality also has to be kept in mind during the manufacturing of firewood. First class firewood can be manufactured only by firewood sawing machines i.e. machines which


The purity of species in the raw material sample is also connected to grading: for example it is prohibited to have grey alder or spruce poles amongst birch poles. Therefore producing quality firewood starts from grading the raw material. The more straight and free of knots the raw material is, the better firewood it is possible to manufacture.



A high powered automatic Marie-Maud Gerard – ITEBE


Modernising the production of firewood continues with, notably, more and more important offers of new equipments: Pezzolato has launched a new, completely automatic splitter-saw, or firewood processor, that is adapted to high rates of production.


n ew a ut o m a t ic firew o o d processor has arrived to widen the range of the market for firewood production devices. Indeed, Pezzolato has developed a completely automatic machine with computerised control, and a new prototype has been used for demonstrat i o ns s in ce la s t yea r. A s eco n d


machine has been running for a few months in Northern Italy. In addition to its own wide experience, this Italian company has benefited from the experience of a company building sawmills, Biogioanni, that it bought in 2001 in order to continue innovation in the field of high powered machinery. PEZZOLATO – GF SERVICES

The splitter-saw is equipped with two splitting matrices to authorise a high rate of production.

The splitter-saw is equipped with a circular saw 1,400mm in diameter with variable drive that can cut wood up to 52 cm in diameter. To ensure a high rate of production of the splitter that matches the production of the saw, - logs are produced every 6 seconds - two splitters are installed in parallel right after the saw. The cut logs are alternately steered towards the one or the other to maintain the rate. Finally, to avoid losses and to use the raw material optimally, the machine optimises the cutting lengths according to the tolerance defined by the operator, and also the split by centring the splitting matrix. Management of production is made easier by a machine that gives high volume and short production time. In these conditions of production, the logistics of supply upstream, and the packaging unit downstream must be extremely well organised to use optimally the capacity of the splittersaw. 5

CONTACT: Pezzolato Via Provinciale 4 12030 Envie – Italy Phone: +39 0175 27 80 77 Fax: +39 0175 27 84 21






The Firewood Club


at the Service of the Professionals The ITEBE firewood club helps to structure and modernise the firewood field by bringing together the professionals of the sector around one table to work and resolve their common problems together.

Logwood is the wood fuel most used essentially in private homes. The long term traditional image of logwood is now in full evolution as this part of the market tries to become more and more modern. The modernization of the sector started at the level of heating appliances: more modern stove design, studies to find the essential energy performance for improvement of the efficency of the domestic devices – also at the boiler level as well as for stoves and inserts. The professionals of the field also make efforts to accelerate the modernization of the production of firewood: pu rc h as e o f a u t o m a t ic machines such as saw/splitter combinations, rethinking of the sale methods and the packaging of logs, implementation of the "NF firewood" brand (see article on this subject).

firewood is to encourage exchanges between the various professionals of the field, to spell out their positions, to capitalize on their know-how, and to develop best practices of the profession. This work is undertaken by the professionals with the aim of promoting a quality fuel and quality heaters.

In order to encourage and support the efforts of the professionals, ITEBE created the Firewood Club in October 2001 with the cooperation of ADEME and within the framework of the wood-energy resource centre. It is a working group that gathers professionals of the whole field (from fuel producers to heater manufacturers). The role of this working group on

- Financing: The various modes of financing suitable for a seasonal activity such as selling firewood are under consideration, in order to help the professionals to finance drying for instance by assuring the stocking of firewood.

Firewood production gets modernized.

To support sales in the firewood sector and not to let them decline, the profession has to mobilize to become better known and acknowledged by private individuals.


- Marketing, communication: The purpose is to develop a modern image for firewood and to inform the users about the fuel supply possibilities and the various heating methods available on the market. This committee is also a means to establish links between the firewood producers and the manufacturers and the distributors of heaters.




Within the Firewood Club, committees have been formed to answer to the needs expressed by the professionals: - Process: The role of this committee is to think about and to work on new production techniques or logistics and new packaging methods so that the professionals are more competitive in the energy market and answer better to the requirements of the current distribution networks.

- Heaters: This committee is more particularly interested in heaters and notably in the development and the implementation of a quality charter for firewood boilers. The Firewood Club, as the other clubs of ITEBE, is open to all the professionals members of ITEBE. 5

FOR MORE INFORMATION, CONTACT Marie-Maud Gérard at ITEBE, the organizer of the Firewood Club.



A Brand for Firewood in France Jean-Louis Bonnet, CTBA

Created with the support of ADEME, the “NF Firewood” brand gathers manufacturers who are keen to develop the market towards more transparency. The objective is to have several certified manufacturers in every region to make sure that the end users receive a supply that allows them to profit fully from the heaters they have at their disposal. This brand must also be one of the first stages in the structuring of the profession.


heaters, leading the users to turn towards other sources of energy. In order to reverse this tendency, at the request of ADEME, the CTBA has gathered a group of producers and distributors to implement a technical benchmark. The group noticed very quickly that the actual implementation required the intervention of a “third party”, whose mission would be to verify that the benchmark was applied properly. “NF Firewood” was created. NF Firewood is not a standard but a high-quality brand, which uses a series of French or European standards to qualify the product without ambiguity. This brand comprises the definition of the various procedures of quality assurance that must be applied to guarantee the specified performances. The rules also define the role of the certifying organisation. NF Firewood aims to identify the properties of the fuel and to inform the consumer about them. So there is no obligation as to means of production. Every producer can choose freely their equipment and their internal organisation.


On the front, the informative label specifies the certified properties: Species, humidity, quantity.

Quantity The quantity is indicated in steres, the stere being the tight stacked volume that the wood would occupy if it were in the form of stacked, one-meterlong elements. Naturally, this definition does not prevent delivering other lengths or in bulk, but the rules specify how the quantity must be estimated in these conditions. lthough firewood is one of the oldest fuels, there was no precise technical specification for it. Estimating the delivered quantities is still the cause of many disagreements between sellers and buyers. The intended use, in particular the



requirements as to moisture content, are generally not defined and the quantity of energy really available is never specified. The absence of transparency in the market-place promotes the supply of products that are unsuitable for

Humidity The following definition was chosen: humidity is the proportion of the mass of water in the total mass of the product. The wood professionals generally use another definition (mass of

THEME FIREWOOD water divided by the oven dried mass of the wood). The rules specify how to convert between the two definitions an d h o w t o me a s u re t h is humidity. The brand allows three classes of humidity. The producer must specify this class at the moment of the delivery. The storage conditions (duration and place) must be written on an informative label in order to obtain an optimal use of the fuel. Tree species Species are classified in three big groups according to their density and their inclination to provoke sparking during combustion. For fireplaces with an open fire, only the use of category 1 is recommended. The informative label, handed to the client at every delivery, allows the client to benefit from the written commitment of the manufacturer on the performances of the product. Besides, this information undergoes two checks by the CTBA. On the back of this label, the customer will find information about the way the volume is calculated, the stocking condit i o n s an d t h e qu a n t it y o f obtainable energy.

STRUCTURING OF THE MARKET The structuring of the firewood market is an urgent necessity for its preservation. Wilfried Desgeorges, chairman of the committee of the NF Firewood brand, reminded us of that when the brand was launched. This technical benchmark must be the starting point of self examination that leads the profession to structure itself and to specify precise rules of behaviour in order to benefit from a code in the Nomen-

clature des Activités Françaises (the French classification of occupations). 5

FOR FURTHER INFORMATION: Jean Louis Bonnet +33 140 19 48 70

On the back: information on how to estimate certain characteristics and storage advice.

THE FUNCTIONING OF THE “NF FIREWOOD” NF Firewood is a high-quality brand of AFNOR. The CTBA is appointed to make sure it works. The companies that wish to benefit from the right of use of the brand have to make their request to the CTBA. Their admission is put forward to a committee that consists of one third producers, one third users, and one third independent and competent persons. The opinion of the committee is formulated after an audit made by an inspector of the brand. This audit aims to verify that the means of the company allow guaranteeing the certified characteristics. Once the company is certified, it is the object of several annual controls. T he e xe c u t i v e c o mm it t ee a ls o analyses the evolution of the consumer demand in order to develop the rules so that they better satisfy consumers. An Internet site “NF Firewood” is being created. It will allow the general public to obtain a list of the certified companies and information about the fuel, as well as instructions of use. Some information is already available on the sites of the CTBA and the ADEME.



Type test of wood burners in Austria L e o p o l d L a s s e l b e r g e r, B LT




In the Federal Institution of Agricultural Engineering (Bundesanstalt für Landtechnik or BLT) in Wieselburg, a state accredited testing facility, type tests are carried out on boilers for biomass fuels and the test reports are published. Bout 40 small burners will be checked annually, and during recent years more than 80% of them have been judged positively. hen BLT began more than 20 years ago with to test biomass burners, appropriate test methods had first to be worked out. Until now a comparison of the test results of separate European test institutes was very difficult even for experts because of missing uniform standards and laws. With the issue of the European standard EN 303-5 " Boilers for solid fuels " (“Heizkessel für feste Brennstoffe”), which was produced under Austrian administration, a standardised test and judgement of the biomass burners is possible in Europe. For bringing small burners to market the measurement of emissions



and efficiencies have to be considered in Austria correspondingly of the agreements in accordance with the art. 15 a B-VG "Protection measures concerning small burners " (”Schutzmassnahmen betreffend Kleinfeuerungen") and "Saving of energy " ("Einsparung von Energie"). The Federal Institution of agricultural engineering, Wieselburg BLT was awarded the accrediting authority for "Testing of burners for biogenic fuels " (”Prüfung von Feuerungen für biogene Brennstoffe“). Periodic examinations have confirmed that this testing facility corresponds with the demands ÖVE/ÖNORM EN ISO/IEC 17025.

Proofs for observance of the emission limit values and the efficiencies is to be undertaken at the nominal heat output and minimum heat output. With manually fed burners the minimum output is 50%, with automatically fed burners 30% of the rated output. If with manually fed small burners the proof can not be produced with the minimum output the installation of a corresponding buffer tank is to be prescribed on the identification plate as well as in the technical documentation. With log wood boilers the measurement applies with nominal output for more than two consumption periods following on each other. The reduced heat output is the least output of the heat output range given by the manu fa ctu re r a nd i s ju dged over a burning period. The measurement period is more than six hours to meet the required value with automatically charged burners and applies in all capacity ranges. The measurements are carried out taking into account the manufacturer's information with the fuels beech or spruce (air-dry, cut and split), briquettes from natural wood or natural bark and / or chips (beech and / or spruce air-dry or oven -dry) correspondingly to valid standards. The attested measurements refer to reproducible attempts with an optimised setting. The setting takes place in the preliminary test on the basis of the recommendation of the manufacturer. Besides, the aim is to reach an as low as possible concentration of carbon monoxide at an as high as possible concentration of carbon dioxide.

MEASUREMENT TECHNIQUE OF BLT WIESELBURG By the type test of boilers there are determined the heat output, the boiler efficiency, the fuel consumption/burning time, the waste gas


TEST RESULTS Accurate measurements and modern measurement technique give to the manufacturer, as well as to the operator, a view of combustion technology. The test of burners and the issue of the test reports stimulate competition among the manufacturers and contribute to the improve100 95

from 70% to 90% and more. Also the quality of manufacture as well as the ease of operation were generally improved. So, for example, the burning-time lies between four and eight hours with manually charged log wood boilers in the range of the nominal heat output.

output. By the use of very homogeneous fuel, pellet burners show another improvement of the combustion and can be offered also relatively cheaply thanks to the simpler construction.

MANUALLY CHARGED BOILERS It is particularly noteworthy that a generally improved partial load behaviour of the log wood burners has developed recently. The required limit values can be kept in the prescribed operation also with partial output (with piece wood boilers according to the manufacturer ’s instructions).



composition, the waste gas temperature, the conveyor pressure and the emission response. In autumn, 1997 the newly established test benches with a max. performance capacity of 300 kW on two separate measuring places were put into operation. The capacity range was calculated for the measuring place by 0 -100 kW and for the measuring place II of 50 - 300 kW. The measuring instruments and the measuring procedures correspond to the requirements of EN 303-5 and EN 304.

3-Reduction of wood combustion CO emission.

AUTOMATICALLY CHARGED BURNERS By adapting the energy supplied with

Efficiency (%)

90 85 80 75 70 65 60

45 40



55 50

SUMMARY The type tests in biomass burners have been carried out at the Federal Institution of Agricultural Engineering since 1979. Now the standardised international test methods allow a comparison of test results. The publication of the results led to the stimulation of the market and to a general improvement of combustion quality. Wood can be reliably burned in modern burners, either manually or automatically charged, with high efficiencies and the lowest emissions. Moreover, the new fuel "wood pellets" makes possible the use of cheaper burners. 5

1980 1982 1984 1986 1988 1990 1992 1994 1996 1998 2000 2-Progression of the wwod combustion efficiency rate.

ment of burner technology. Since the middle of the 80s a clear improvement of combustion quality was achieved by the development, firstly of Austrian products. So the issues could be reduced by organically bound carbon and Carbon monoxide with manually charged burners (log wood boilers) as well as

t h e fu el a cco rd i ng to the he a t required, the partial output behaviour can be generally improved with automatically charged burners. A corresponding control with additional sensors (like among other things O2probe) regulates the fuel and air supply and optimises the combustion

CONTACT : Dipl.-HLFL-Ing. Leopold Lasselsberger Bundesanstalt für Landtechnik (BLT) 3250 Wieselburg – Austria

Testing workshop.

The efficiency has increased on average from 70 to 90% since ten years and even more today. with it. With wood chip burning, the required limit values can be kept, with the help of these measures, even with ≤ 30% of the nominal heat


with automatically charged burners (woodchips and pellet burners) on 1/10 to 1/100. During the last ten years, the efficiency rose on average



Quercy Energies Let’s Manage Energy to Fight against Social Exclusion Serge Despeyroux France, Great-Brit., Sweden

Quercy Energies, a local energy agency (SAVE), is a non-profit-making organisation. Its task is, on the one hand, to apply the European, national, regional and departmental energy policies in the region of Lot, and on the other hand, to introduce local energy policies (region, regional natural reserve, country). It acts within the framework of target contracts defined with different financial partners. THE MAIN TASKS OF THE AGENCY

Serge Despeyroux, Vice President of the General Council of Lot, President of Quercy Energies.

The objective of Quercy Energies is the promotion of the rational use of e n e rg y a n d ren ew a b le en erg y resources (wood-energy, thermal solar energy) in the domains of housing, industry, service and agriculture. To attain this objective, Quercy Energies organises programmes of information and sensitisation to the Rational Use of Energy (URE) and to the Renewable Energy Sources (SER), and programmes of

a d vi ce i n e ne rg y m a na g e m e nt (notably for social welfare flats), and it provides energy pre-diagnoses, prefeasibility studies for the SER, supporting projects for the implementation of equipment using SER, the technical follow-up of "renewable energy" installations. Quercy Energies acts in a wide partnership (participants of housing, soci a l poli ti cs, e ne rg y, A g e nce Régionale Pour l’Environnement, Consular Chambers, professionals of the forest/wood field, inter-municipal structures, other associations from

the South of France and the Pyrenees that work on renewable energies).

ENERGY POLICY AT THE SERVICE OF SOCIAL POLICY We a ll know tha t our modern economies generate imbalances in the distribution of wealth. Under the threat of social movements or humanitarian catastrophes, society must seek the necessary compensation for alleviation and propose the tools that are indispensable to the reduction of the different phenomena of social exclusion. In this framework, the DirectorateGeneral V of the European Commission (Social Affairs, Employment and Industrial Relations) has supported Quercy Energies as the leader for the implementation of a program, the objective of which is to define and to test means by which the energy policy can also be at the service of social policy. This program called "Promotion of social rehabilitation policies for persons in a situation of social exclu-


The Nuzéjouls heating plant is fed with wood coming from rubbish dumps.



Actions for sensitisation to energy management in the housing of the most socially deprived were aimed at three targets: - social bodies: meetings were organised to raise awareness among social worke rs o f t h e h o u s i n g en erg y problem and to supply them with tools to detect sources of waste: insulation, heating, behaviour. - the administrators of public, private or social flats: meetings took place in the five territories of the program to encourage them to take into account the energy cost of the flat from the moment of its conception. An energy audit of the flats was also proposed.

- the families themselves, directly or through social bodies; families were encouraged to undertake small insulation repairs and more generally, to adopt energy management behaviour.

WOOD-ENERGY, A WEAPON IN THE FIGHT AGAINST ENERGY POVERTY Energy management is one of the preventive tools in the fight against unpaid energy bills. Quercy Energies, with its partners and since its creation has promoted actions the advantages of which justifies their expansion.

tion of sanitary risks related to their "energy poverty": better ventilation results in less humidity and thus in less respiratory disease. This operation, organised every year with the General Council, the ADIL and Quercy Energies, permits fighting in an efficient way against social exclusion by introducing individual wood heating. 2. The wood heating networks, another factor in the fight against energy poverty T he L ot d e pa r tm e nt i s fi r m ly anchored in the politics of developing wood heating networks. While it favours local development and creates employment, wood-energy achieves also a reduction in the energy expenses of the consumers including the social flats among others. This is how the municipality of Nuzéjouls created very recently a heating network: their dual energy heating plant (500 kW from wood) supply seven Palulos flats (social housing rehabilitated with State fi na nce d loa ns) , 15 HLM fla ts (housing with moderate rent), and 34 private flats for 0.023 euros (exclusive of tax) per kWh and a supply agreement the rate of which varies

1. Le Fond Social Départemental d’aide à la Maîtrise de l’Energie Created in 1994, Le Fond Social Départemental d’aide à la Maîtrise de l’Energie (FSDAME) aims to improve the energy performances of flats occupied by people in a precarious situation and to provide the families with advice so that they manage their energy consumption. The social participants, mainly the Home Economics Advisers, detect flats and families that are in a situation of "energy poverty" (badly insulated flat, unsuitable heating method, difficulty in affording the energy bills…). Then, a technical examination is organised with Quercy Energ ies a n d ren o v a ti on wor ks a re planned and calculated by local companies. A jurist of the ADIL then makes a financing plan (ANAH aid, social loans…) that the committee of the FSDAME completes with up to 1.500 euros on average for the project thanks to the financial contributions of the General Council and the DDASS. The average price for the renovation per flat amounted to around 2 700 euros in 2001 for the fifteen families who benefited from them. The main renovation works concern the reinforcement of the insulation level (for 33% of the families), and the installation of a wood stove, insert or cooking stove (for 75%). This way, the savings amount to 3 100 euros a year per flat, in other words 31 000 euros for ten years of operation.


Introducing wood stoves and reinforcing the insulation causes a direct profit, as much to the families concerned as to the funds assigned to the unpaid bills for the families with difficulties. Besides, there is a diminu-

Quercy Energies 70, rue Clémenceau 46000 Cahors France Phone: +33 565 35 81 26 Fax: +33 565 35 07 06

Supporting the families in difficulties by helping them for example to install a wood insert allows fighting against social exclusion.


sion by energy management in the home " (Promotion de politiques d’aide à l’insertion de personne en situation d’exclusion par la maîtrise de l’énergie dans le logement) aimed: - on the one hand, to expand the role of energy policy beyond the aspects related to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, to security of supply, to the independence of the countries of the European Union, and to favour the developing countries, - on the other hand, to fight against social exclusion by taking into account this often forgotten factor, which however has consequences on the health of people and on their capacity to find work, by providing them with decent housing, a major factor in social integration. The program is conducted by Quercy Energies in close partnership with the General Council of Lot and the A3E in France, Marches Energy Agency, Environ and Newark & Sherwood Energy in the United Kingdom, and the Regional Energy Agency of Västernorrland in Sweden. The program took place from the 1st April 2000 to the 30th Mars 2001. A study was led in 200 socially excluded families. The sample consists of 50 families from Lot, 50 families from Ariège (France) and 100 in Newark and Sher wood (United Kingdom). The study allowed: - to identify better the energy factors in social exclusion, - to develop a typology of energy problems, - to collect comparative data on the socio-energetic systems of the five territories (Lot, Ariège, Shropshire county, district of Newark and Sherwood, Västernorrland). Some of the families studied were steered towards renovation assistance mechanisms.

from 185 to 305 euros according to the connected power. Other networks are being studied: notably in Cazals (200 kW from wood, six HLM bungalows connected), and in Sousceyrac (about 1 M W, fou r Pa lu los fla ts connected)… 5



An Overview of Wood-Energy in

Developing Countries Y v e s S c h e n ke l , M i c h a ë l Te m m e r m a n , C R A

Wood is the main source of energy in the majority of developing countries. Which solutions can we consider to decrease the pressure of woodenergy on the degradation of the environment in these countries? THE SITUATION OF WOOD-ENERGY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES In developing or industrialising countries, biomass, and particularly wood, remains the main source of energy. Even though at the world level biomass represents only about 10% of energy consumption, behind petroleum (> 40 %), coal (> 25 %) and gas (> 15 %), it constitutes over 40%

bouring countries that have similar geographic and economic characteristics. These differences are due to the difficulty in obtaining reliable statistics on the non-commercial fuels, or fuels outside the recorded distribution networks, in particular in developing countries. It is necessary also to note that SubSaharan Africa, except for South Africa, accounts for over 90% of the continent’s final consumption of bioenergy. This situation will not


Photo 1: Unused sawdust, in Ivory Coast.

for satisfying the energy demand of developing countries (Benabdallah et al., 1994). In Africa, biomass contributes over 60% of energy demand, but the situation varies a lot between countries (table 1). Figure 1 illustrates the very big disparities of the figures between neigh-


evolve in the near future, despite the programs of substitution of domestic fuels (kerosine, butane gas, LPG) developed in certain urban zones. But wood-energy plays a very big part in the satisfaction of energy needs also in other regions of the world (figure 2).

BIO FUELS AND CONVERSION TECHNIQUES Among biofuels, firewood and the product of its carbonisation, charcoal, come essentially (for over 80%) from forests and other natural plant formations (savannah, bush, mangrove,). A small part (10%) is produced on plantations (Eucalyptus, Acacia). The rest consists of agricultural waste – rice and millet straws, cotton and sorghum stalks, cow dung – and agro-industrial waste – coffee waste, rice husks, The firewood used for domestic cooking or by rural industries (brickworks, bakeries, drying or smoking fish,) is deadwood wherever it is still available. Elsewhere, they use green wood taken from natural plant formations. However, little information is available on how firewood is collected and supplied (Amous et al., 1999). Firewood is used mainly in rural zones, essentially for domestic consumption. The conversion of firewood into heat is still done to a great extent in clay or stone furnaces, the energy efficiency of which is disastrous. Barnard (in “Wood fuel in Developing Countries” in 1987) quotes the figures of energy consumption from 90 to 180 GJ/year for a family of 6 persons in a developing country, while the consumption of a European family is about 80 GJ/year, including the heating of the house and electric devices. Considerable efforts have been made by international agencies to promote the use of improved furnaces that have a clearly better energy efficiency. These efforts have given rather disappointing results, m a i nly d u e to the cost of the improved furnaces, but they continue nevertheless. However, today we witness important changes in energy consumption habits. Social and economic changes connected to the urbanisation of populations have led to a transition from firewood towards charcoal. In the future, this tendency will probably strengthen. Charcoal supply in

STRATEGIES DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Table 1. Africa: share of biomass in the satisfaction of energy needs. (Source: European Commission, 2002)

Total biomass in the final Share of biomass in energy demand the final energy (Mtep) demand (%) 3,1 234,2 12,0 237,3

big cities generally goes through an organised marketing network. For example, in Senegal, authorised organisations are granted forest land to manufacture charcoal. Every year, a region is chosen by the “Eaux et Forêts” (Waters and Forests) and the local foresters indicate the charcoal manufacturers the areas that can be used for carbonisation purposes. The cutting and the carbonisation are carried out by jobbers (Sourghas). Then the charcoal is forwarded to big cities in lorries. At the entrance to every city, the lorries must cross a checkpoint before delivering their load to a trader of charcoal (Coxeur). The charcoal is then forwarded to wholesalers, then to retailers (Eaux et Forêts Dakar, personal communication). Pressure on ecosystems should thus increase. In fact, the conversion of

Biomass 23 381 291 317

5 73 19 63

wood into charcoal, in developing countries, is characterised by a mass efficiency varying from 10 to 25%. In

Conventional fuel 405 139 1 203 187

other words, from 4 to 10 kg of ovendry wood is needed to make 1 kg of charcoal. One must add to it the com-

As an example, figure 1 gives the situation of bioenergy in some countries in West Africa.

Photo 2: Manufacturing of charcoal in Ivory Coast.


North Africa Sub-Saharan Africa Incl. South Africa Africa (total)

Energy consumption per person (kg fuel oil equivalent)

Firewood rate in the final energy requirement (%)

Number of boiler rooms 90 80

Figure 1. Africa: the share of firewood in the energy consumption of four African countries (in%). (source: ENDA/IEPE, 1995)

70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Benin

Ivory Coast


Togo WOOD ENERGY N°7 < DECEMBER 2002 > 33

STRATEGIES DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Bioenergy rate in the total energy Figure 2. Asia: the share of bioenergy in the total energy consumption (in%). (source: European Commission, 2002)

requirement (%)

Number of boiler rooms 90 80 70 60 50 40 30 20 10 0 Bangladesh



Photo 4: Furnace used for cooking with charcoal.


bustion efficiency of the charcoal furnace, which is superior to that of wood furnaces but still relatively low, in practice from about 30 to 40%. Consequently, the total actual combustion efficiency is very low: a lot of wood is needed to obtain a small amount of heat. One can thus realise the particularly negative impact of these energy systems on the wood resources in the developing countries. One possibility for decreasing the pre s s ure o n t h e n a t u r a l w o o d resources could be to utilise agricultural residues, generally not much used: rice and millet straws, sorghum and cotton stalks, etc. Notably, putting them in briquettes would allow transforming them into an efficient biofuel, transportable at a low cost


Photo 5: Support used for cooking with firewood.





for long distances, thanks to its high energy density. Regrettably, few projects of this type have been successful, mainly because of the costs of collecting the agricultural residues and of investment in the necessary equipment. Furthermore, the acceptability of briquettes by the users is often difficult because of their particular physical properties (low flammability, varying cohesion,) and


Sri Lanka


THE FUTURE OF WOODENERGY IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Biomass, and especially wood, will remain for many years to come the main source of energy in developing countries. Furthermore, it contributes to the reduction of greenhouse gas emissions. In theory, the potential of stocking and especially substituting

In developing countries, biomass satisfies 40% of the energy needs. because their selling price is too close to that of charcoal. In the sector of food and wood industries, the combustion techniques used are often old (dating from the 50’s or 60’s) and not very efficient. One comes across old boilers with a flat and fixed grate, loaded manually. The air regulation is also manual. The conversion into energy of wood or agro-industrial residues is not efficient, neither on the energy level nor on the environmental level. The energy installations only satisfy the needs of the factory to which they are linked, while the biomass resources available on an industrial site are often more than sufficient and suggest establishing a small rural electric network around that site.

for fossi l fu e ls i s considerable (Riedacker, 1997). But the challenge is to succeed in creating a coherent and durable management of the biomass resource. It is necessary to convert wood and biofuels into energy in a more effective way, whether it is in the rural industry or in the domestic sector. For the latter, improving and generalising domestic, industrial or cooking furnaces, is a first indispensable stage. In the industrial sector, adopting efficient but simple techniques of combustion and gasification must lead to a more reasoned and environmental friendly use of the biomass. Further, these techniques allow decentralised production of electricity, an essential energy vehicle for the develop-

ment of rural zones. This requires launching actions concerning: - the sustainable management of natural plant formations, - the distribution of efficient energy conversion technologies, - the training of engineers and project developers, - suitable financing structures (for example micro-lending). Too often in developing countries, the real needs are not known or they are misunderstood. This initiative must respect the principle of connection between the needs of the users and the supply of technologies and services. The handing over of technologies must happen jointly with the handing over of the know-how necessary to their establishment, to their adaptation to the local socio-economic context and to their maintenance and service. That is the condition necessary to ensure a durable management of the biomass resources for satisfying the energy needs of the populations of the developing countries with due regard for the constraints imposed by the problem of climatic change. 5



Photo 3: Unused residues in a woodcutting and peeling company in Ivory Coast.

CONTACT: Yves Schenkel Michaël Temmerman CRA – Département Génie rural 146, Chaussée de Namur 5030 Gembloux

Belgium Phone: +32 81 627 140 Fax: +32 81 615 847 or Lamine Badji – ITEBE

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Book space on the wood energy portal To figure on the Internet, ITEBE is proposing privileged spaces on the wood energy portal (access from ; ; ; Several thousands of users, professionals and large public have already visited our pages since their creation in May 2002.

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know the conditions and benefit from the best prices, contact us by email : or by phone : François BORNSCHEIN +33 3 84 47 81 00



Fill up your tank A new pilot plant producing ethanol from wood will open in 2003 to verify and optimise the process and technology. With a bioenergy combined installation, ethanol for cars together with electricity and heat could be provided in an integrated system.


n Sweden, as in many other countries Ethanol is the most widespread renewable alternative to gasoline and diesel. Sweden has more than 400 busses running on neat ethanol, about 4000 Ford FFV running on e85* and about 600 000 cars running on e5*. The development of ethanol production from cellulose raw material has been going on for 15 to 20 years in the universities. We are now


* See insert page 38.

300.000 dry tons 1400 GWh

taking the next step in the development to build a pilot plant for verifying and optimising the process and technology.

BIOENERGY COMBINES Regional energy companies are the most committed stakeholders in ethanol development in Sweden at the moment. They have a vision to give energy support to the inhabi-

Hemi cel l ul o se to s u ga r D e w a t e r i ng

Figure 1: The energy efficiency of the process is close to 75%: inputs of 1650 GWh (=1400+250), outputs of 1195 GWh (=350+585+260) with recovery of energy as electricity, heat and ethanol.

tants in all fields, electricity, district heating, and fuel for transport. This could be described in figure 1 representing a mediumsized municipality in Sweden with a bou t 60 000 i nha bitan ts. The byproducts from the ethanol production are directly used to produce electricity and district-heat or district-cooling. In this case most of the energy demand in the municipality for transport, electricity and heating of buildings and small and medium sized enterprises is supported from the refinery. The total energy efficiency in the bio-energy combined cycle is about 75%. This is almost t h e s a m e a s a n o i l re f i n e r y, i n which about 85% of the energy input can be used as products. Another way to show the improvement is to say that you need to consume only one unit of fossil fuel to

C e l l ul o use t o suga r

De wa t e ring in pre s

Ra w mater al

Carbon Dioxide D i st i l l a t i o n

(Source BioAlcohol Fuel Foundation Sweden)

Fe r m e nt a t i o n

Wa st e wa



with wood! Jan Lindstedt, Etek Etanolteknik

obtain 15 units of renewable energy to use as ethanol, electricity or district heating. This is the upgrading of fossil fuels with renewables.

PILOT PLANT To d e v e l o p t h e t e c h n o l o g y f o r ethanol production from wood residues, some regional companies, five years ago, formed a new company Etek Etanolteknik AB (Ethanol Te c h n o l o g y L t d ) . E t e k w i l l b e responsible for the construction and later on the operation of the pilot plant, located in the Northern part of Sweden, close to an existing sulphite pulp ethanol plant. The pilot plant will have a capacity in feedstock input of about 2 tons/day of dry matter and will mainly produce process knowledge and experience. The plant is basically designed for development of

the two step continuously diluted acid hydrolysis process of softwood residues with a third step for enzymatic hydrolysis. The plant is planned to be in operation by the end of 2003. To verify the process and technology and to get more accurate design data for future production plants we propose to operate and evaluate the pilot plant for about two years before a decision on a production plant is taken.

PRODUCTION PLANT Mo s t o f t h e lig ni n i n the wood remains as a solid product after the process. The lignin is used as a fuel in the bio energy combined plant, sold as additive for wood based biofuel pellets or as a biofuel for special purposes. The lignin fuel can be very suitable for gas turbines and as an incineration additive, because it

P r od u cti on of p el l ets


has low alkali content and high e n e rg y v a l u e , 6 , 2 M W h / o d t (odt=own dry tons). In the future it may also be a raw material for “green chemicals”. Etek made a study of a production plant in combination with an existing combined heat, power and wood biofuel pellets plant in the North of Sweden. The production of ethanol was set at 75 million litres a year. The investment costs for the production plant were calculated to about 120 million Euros. Feasibility studies with energy and material integration based on hydrolysis of wood residues, show that the price of the ethanol is estimated to be between 0.36-0.45 Euros / litre. The investment cost in the pilot plant is about 16 million Euros and the annual running cost about 1 – 2 million Euros depending on the

Additional fuel : 50.000 dry tons 250 GWh

ssf i lter

260 GWh household electric 53.000 households (5.000 kWh/house)



H e a t a nd po w e r st a t i o n


62.500 m 3 350 GWh ethanol For about 80.000 cars (5 l/100 km, 18 kWh/100 km)

District Heating Biogas

585 GWh for about 40.000 normal houses (15.000 kWh /house)

at e r tr ea t m e n t




About Ethanol

rce ek : Et

Ethanol is a liquid fuel. The low-level blend in gasoline (e5 to e10: from 5 to 10% ethanol) can be used in any gasoline vehicle. e85 (85% ethanol - 15% gasoline), with high octane, can be used also in light-duty vehicles thanks to a special equipment. It is stored, transferred and dispensed like gasoline. e85 requires precautions at sites to avoid water contamination. Only very limited selection of e85 vehicles is offered by original equipment manufacturers (OEMs). The e85 vehicles have performance matching gasoline. Moreover, range of e85 vehicles matches gasoline vehicles with larger fuel tank.

Chip 1 BAR


A ci d

1 0 -1 2 BAR

A ci d

2 0 BAR



2 0 -2 5 BAR

From an environmental point of view, the greenhouse gas emissions from the use of ethanol from biomass can be lower; future wood-based ethanol will have much lower greenhouse gas emissions. On the other hand ozone production from e10-fuelled vehicles is equal to gasoline. When using e10 or e85, carbon monoxide emissions are lower than gasoline. Air toxicity level of the production of e85 is similar to gasoline although components differ.

extent of the research program. The pilot plant will be open for cooperation with partners all over Europe and maybe other countries.

Steam Steam

to dewatering

Schematic process design of two step counter current reactor.

to fermentation

Sugar solution

Different feed stocks like softwood, hardwood and annual crops like straw and reed canary grass can be tested in the pilot plant. 5

2 step countercurrent reactor

FOR MORE INFORMATION: Jan Lindstedt Etek Etanolteknik AB +46 660 751 93


Schematic plan of the pilot plant.



EUROPEAN TECHNICAL INSTITUTE FOR WOOD ENERGY BP 149, 28 boulevard Gambetta - F-39004 Lons-le-Saunier Cedex - Ph. : +33 (0) 384 47 81 07 - Fax : +33 (0) 384 47 81 19 Email : - Web :


Establishing Forest Biomass-based Cogeneration in Quebec R ĂŠ a l C a r b o n n e a u a n d J e a n - M a u r i c e Tr e m b l a y, e n g i n e e r s , Quebec Ministry of Natural Resources

Despite the strong position of hydroelectricity, forest biomass-based co-generation, the resources for which are very important in Quebec, has managed to find its place. Beyond its merits in environmental and economic terms, it has been able to benefit from the opportunities in the energy market to integrate for the long term.

THE ENERGY CONTEXT Quebec brings together several conditions that favour the development of cogeneration from forest biomass. On the one hand, forest resource is plentiful here. Harvesting wood for the production of timber as well as papermaking pulp makes considerable quantities of wood residue avail-








able. On the other hand, there are numerous pulp and paper factories in Quebec, which are very important energy users themselves; as a consequence, they represent a natural market for cogeneration. That is why


COGENERATION MARKETS the energy policy of the government of Quebec recognises the economic and environmental merits of cogeneration that uses forest biomass.

subsidy is granted to the developers and the operators of forest biomassbased cogeneration plants.

Besides, Quebec is particularly rich in hydropower resources. 97 % of Quebec’s electricity comes from them, for a cost that is among the lowest in the world. Furthermore, the big size of the territory can bring about expenses for the transport of forest residues, and these expenses affect negatively the profitability of the cogeneration plants, which suffer from the direct competition of the hydroelectricity. Indeed, contrary to the situation currently in Europe and previously in the United States, cogeneration, even when its source is bark th at c o me g e n er a lly fro m sawmills that are usually confronted with the obligation to bury them, is

AN OPPORTUNITY FOR WOOD-ENERGY In spite of the immense competition that hydroelectricity represents in Quebec, power plants fed with forest biomass have, all the same, undergone important development. Indeed, a lot of power plants of this type have emerged in Quebec during

The price paid by Hydro-Québec for the electricity acquired under the terms of its program of purchase of private production of 1991 is around

In Quebec, wood cogeneration is developing fast. the last ten years and they together produce 243 MW, which is less than 1 % of all the electricity produced in Quebec (see the map "Cogeneration Factories and biomass based power pla nts in Quebec"). Furthermore, two other projects shou ld soon br i ng thi s total to about 300 MW. Two M a i n Reasons Ex pla i n thi s Success. In the first place, the fast construction time of the projects of forest biomass-fed power plants constitutes an important strategic tool to make up for the time lost in the starting of hydroelectric power plants or to respond to an unforeseen electricity demand. Moreover, the sawmills, faced with a new prohibition to simply burn their bark and other residues to get rid of them, as they used to do previously, and in view of the prospect of soon having to bury them in the ground as any other dry material, have preferred to let the developers of power plant projects profit from the residues.

completely governed by the laws of the market. As a consequence, HydroQuébec, the State-run company that is responsible for the electricity supply of the Quebecois markets, has no obligation to buy. Furthermore, no

tion plants associated to pulp and paper factories. However, two projects in which the thermal energy was not industrially utilised were carried out in regions where it was not possible to find customers for the steam and from where it would not have been possible to export the resource because of transportation costs.

In 1991, Hydro-Québec put out a tender to fill a possible deficit between the supply and demand of electricity in the years 1995-1996. Apart from an experimental wind energy project, these needs were filled in equal parts by small hydroelectric power plants and power plants fed with forest biomass. Generally, the latter ones are cogenera-

6 Canadian cents / kWh (that is about 0,04 euro / kWh) electric and it is increased by 3 % a year. This price corresponded at the time to the cost of the electricity that Hydro-Québec would have been able to produce by starting their next mega hydroelectric project themselves. But this project could not, unlike biomass cogeneration, be completed early enough to eliminate the deficit foreseen in the years 1995-1996. Income resulting from the sale of the steam can vary considerably from one project to another but it is always significantly lower than that coming from the sale of electricity.

THE FUTURE OF BIOMASS-BASED COGENERATION Two main obstacles limit the progress of forest biomass-based cogeneration in Quebec. The first is the price that can be obtained from the electricity and steam. To follow on the program of purchase of electricity, which HydroQuébec had prepared in 1991, the price Hydro-Québec offered for the electricity generated by private producers was reduced and it has still not reached the level that was offered in 1991. The second obstacle results from the fact that the occasions to develop projects near big users of steam become more and more rare. Especially, bark, which is the cheapest residue, is now utilised through cogeneration and production of electricity (29 %) and through production of thermal energy (47 %) (see the table entitled "Bark in Quebec"). The disparity of the distribution of the remaining bark resources on the vast Quebecois territory makes them



t The profits of biomass based cogeneration Environmental gains - Elimination of the burying of bark and, consequently, of the risks of contagion of the ground water by leached pollutants, such as phenolic compounds; - Reduction of greenhouse gases; - Rehabilitation of former landfill sites by using the "old" bark as fuel; - Combustion of the secondary treatment sludge of the effluents of the pulp and paper factories; - Possibility of using the branches and tree crowns left on the felling sites; - Possibility for Quebec to increase the production of electricity considered as green energy. Economic profits - Creation of specialised jobs; - Utilisation of bark in the form of steam and electricity; - Reduction of the production costs of the pulp and paper industry (6 to 10 CAD / ton); - Capability for the companies concerned to foresee and control their costs of steam in the future ; - Capital expenses avoided through sub-contracting for the pulp and paper factories, panel factories or sawmills that would replace old boilers or would expand heating; - Elimination of the landfill costs for sawmills (30 to 50 CAD / ton), which would bring a positive impact on their profitability and their competitive capability; - Positive effect on the transport industry; - Using the ashes produced for fertilising agricultural fields. Commercial profits - Reduction of imports or purchases of petroleum; - Improvement of the international trade balance of Quebec.

itability of the cogeneration projects depends strongly on the price of the forest biomass used as fuel. That is why, at the moment, collecting branches and tree crowns left on the edges of forest roads and on felling sites appears to be the element that could most probably ensure the pursuit of the cogeneration program. Since Quebec has also entered the era of open energy markets and since it is more and more mindful of private initiatives, it is now accepted that the developers of projects of forest biomass-based cogeneration will find a market to sell electricity for a competitive price. The success of the cogeneration field faced with the overwhelming competition of hydroelectricity reveals its strength and allows envisaging its expansion. 5

CONTACT: Studies are being done to estimate the volumes of supplementary forest biomass that could be made available for e ne rg y prod u cti on . At the moment, only the needs of possible cogeneration plants are examined. The relatively low price the cogenerators obtain for the electricity and industrial steam ensures that the prof-

Quebec Ministry of Natural Resources Service aux Citoyens 5700, 4e Avenue Ouest, local B-302 Charlesbourg G1H 6R1 Canada Tel.: +1 418 627 8600


Cogeneration factory Boralex Dolbeau inc., Dolbeau, Quebec. Electric power 28 MW, fed with forest biomass: 254 000 dry tons.

available only to the supply of some additional cogeneration plants, which, by the way, are already at the project stage. Besides, the availability o f b a r k is a t p res en t d is r u p t ed because of a dispute over coniferous timber between Canada and the US, which has resulted in the temporary closing of some Quebecois sawmills.


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WOOD-FUEL NOW ! The cassette : 33 € (VAT incl.)


A 18 min documentary explaining what is wood fuel from log to district heating. Examples are taken from Austria, France and Switzerland. This movie is available in English, French, and German. Edition 1999, VHS Pal.


AUTOMATIC WOOD-FIRED HEATING The cassette : 33 € (VAT incl.)


In 15 min, this film informs technicians, students and wood energy promoters about automatic wood-fired heating : wood supply, boilers, district heating and finally the latest devices and technological progresses. This movie is available in English, French and German.


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“WOOD-ENERGY TRAIL” FACTSHEETS A collection of technical factsheets showing the most representative cases of wood heating systems suited to forestry regions with continental climate (France and Switzerland). Set 1 : (In French Only) 10 fact sheets on installations which differ by type of wood fuel resources, their combustion technologies, their power, their brand, or contractor. Set 2 : (Available in French S2 and in English S2b) 10 fact sheets on large district heating systems and medium size boilers for the wood industry. Set 3 : (Available in English) 10 new fact sheets expanding the experience to wood fuel production and agricultural use of wood energy. Each set of factsheets : 3 € (VAT incl.)

S1 S2 S2B S3

2002 DIRECTORY OF THE WOOD ENERGY PROFESSIONALS All contact information and description of wood energy professionals members of ITEBE. 5 € (VAT incl.)

AUTOMATIC WOOD ENERGY HEATING STANDARDS AND REGULATION IN FRANCE A useful tool for the conception of wood energy projects. The French regulation references are gathered for the first time in a single document. The booklet : 5 € (VAT incl.) in French

LE GRANULÉ DE BOIS This brochure, only available in French, was edited as an output of the European project “Recite” and presents the different reasons for choosing wood pellets for heating, pellet stoves and boilers and the pellet quality standard of the French Pellet Club. Published in 2002, in French only. This product is only sold in sets of 100 copies: 30 € (VAT incl.)

LA BÛCHE DE BOIS DENSIFIÉ This brochure was produced as an output of the European project “Recite” and presents the specifics of this compressed log fuel as well as the quality standard of the French Pellet Club. In French only. This product is only sold in sets of 100 copies: 30 € (VAT incl.) Sub-total (VAT incl.) Discount for Itebe members (-15 %)

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Choose the previous issues missing in your collection! You have missed one of our issues? You can order it by completing the form or download it on our website < >.

BE1 (Deu & Fra) The wood

BE2 (Deu & Fra) Forestry and

BE3 (Deu & Fra) Wood energy and

BE4 (Deu & Fra) The wood

energy trail – gasification – industrial cogeneration – rotative grid furnace – issue : district heating – size design of a boiler.

wood energy – methods to chip small woods for energy purposes – issue : Finland, the wood country – the cold that comes from wood energy.

district heating – wood energy from present to future – the cost of chipping small woods for energy purposes - Swiss and Austrian evaluation – improvement of boilers cost effectiveness – automatic wood heating control. (Only 50 copies left)

heating market in France – the new wood log stoves – the wood pellets market in the USA – Cofiring of biomass in power plants – importance of hydraulics in district heating. Out of print, download it from < >.

Issues 1 to 4 + HS1 : 5 € TTC Issues 5 and 6 : 7,5 € TTC quantity

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BE 1 BE 2 BE 3 BE 4 out of print

HS1 Special issue 1 (Eng & Fra) Wood gasifier just around the corner ? – Forest chips in Finland – BoisÉnergie 2000, a well timed trade-fair ! – A Finnish giant – Rankine organic cycle – District heating, an objective choice.

BE5 (Eng or Fra or Deu) Forest

BE6 (Eng or Fra or Deu) Special

wood chips : Forenergy – The development of wood pellets in Europe – Quality assurance manual for solid wood fuels in Finland – Contracting – Quality label “Flamme verte” – Certification of wood boilers – Gasification: Tervola – CHP plant: Alhomens Kraft

Theme: What to do with your wood waste? Adapted solutions for energy recovery – Torrefied wood – Wood pyrolysis oil – Wood chips production in mountainous areas – Harvesting and processing demonstration – The French Wood Energy plan – The recycling of wood ashes in forests.

HS 1 De 5 En 5 Fr 5 De 6 En 6

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INDEX A3E Pavillon n°1 Maison de la forêt 09000 Loubières France +33 561 03 09 77 +33 561 03 09 77

C.A.R.M.E.N Schulgasse 18 94315 Straubing Germany +49 9421 960 300 +49 9421 960 333

ADEME (AGENCE DE L'ENVIRONNEMENT ET DE MAÎTRISE DE L'ENERGIE) CENTRE D'ANGERS 2, Square Lafayette BP 406 49004 Angers cedex 01 France +33 241 20 41 20 +33 241 87 23 50

CABINET FORÊT BOIS DÉVELOPPEMENT le Tocanier - BP 32 01110 Hauteville-Lompnes France +33 680 02 14 76 +33 474 35 15 96 bourcier.stephane@

ADIL 64, boulevard Gambetta 46000 Cahors France +33 565 35 25 41 +33 565 35 81 24

CANBIO R.R.4, Hunter River C0A 1N0 Prince Edward Island Canada

CENTRE DE RECHERCHES AGRONOMIQUES DE AGENCE RÉGIONALE POUR GEMBLOUX (CRA) Chaussée de Namur,146 L’ENVIRONNEMENT 5030 Gembloux Maison régionale de Belgium l'environnement +32 81 627 158 14, rue de Tivoli +32 81 615 847 31068 Toulouse France CONSEIL GÉNÉRAL DU LOT +33 534 31 97 00 Hôtel du département Place +33 534 31 18 42 Chapou - BP 291 46005 Cahors France +33 565 23 14 00 AGROMASTER SARL +33 565 30 19 82 Teollisuustie 8 54710 Lemi CENTRE TECHNIQUE DU Finland BOIS ET DE +358 5 414 6501 L’AMEUBLEMENT (CTBA) +358 4 573 2615 10 avenue de Saint Mandé 75012 Paris France BELBIOM +33 140 19 48 70 c/o CRA, Section Biomasse jean-louis.bonnet@ 146, Chaussée de Namur 5030 Gembloux Belgium +32 81 61 25 01 DDASS +32 81 61 58 47 304 Rue Victor Hugo 46000 Cahors France +33 565 20 56 00 BIOALCOHOL FUEL +33 565 20 56 20 FOUNDATION (BAFF) Hörneborgsvägen 12 ENERGIE BOIS SUISSE Box 73 6, chemin de Mornex - CP 89122 Örnsköldsvik 126 Sweden 1001 Lausanne +46 660 751 93 Switzerland +46 660 549 03 +41 21 310 30 35 +41 21 310 30 38 BUNDESANSTALT FÜR LANDTECHNIK (BLT) 3250 Wieselburg Austria

ENVIRON Parkfield,Western Park LE3 6HX Leicester United Kingdom +44 1162 220 222 +44 1162 552 343

ÉQUIPE RÉGIONALE BIOMASSE ENERGIE (ERBE) 146, chaussée de Namur 5030 Gembloux Belgium +32 81 62 71 43 +32 81 61 58 47 ETEK ETANOLTEKNIK AB Hörneborgsvägen 12 Box 50 89121 Örnsköldsvik Sweden +46 660 751 93 +46 660 549 03 EUROPEAN COMMISSION (DGV - SOCIAL AFFAIRS, EMPLOYMENT AND INDUSTRIAL RELATIONS) 200, rue de la loi 1049 Bruxelles Belgium +32 22 95 98 60 +32 22 95 65 61 EUROPEAN COMMISSION (DGXVII – DIRECTORATE OF ENERGY) 200, rue de la loi 1049 Bruxelles Belgium dgs/energy_transport/ index.html FINBIO Sur Vontie, 9 - Box 27 40101 Jyväskilä Finland +358 14 44 51 112 +358 14 44 51 199 GF SERVICES Rue Victor Hugo 42120 Commelle Vernay France +33 477 67 18 70 +33 477 67 29 94 HYDRO-QUÉBEC INNOVATIONS ET PAYSAGES Z.I. 203 Route de Tigny 42190 St. Nizier sous Charlieu France +33 477 60 54 54 +33 477 60 68 46

INSTITUT POUR LE DÉVELOPPEMENT FORESTIER (IDF) 23 avenue Bosquet 75007 Paris France +33 140 62 22 80 +33 145 55 98 54 ITEBE 28, boulevard Gambetta 39000 Lons le Saunier France +33 384 47 81 00 +33 384 47 81 19 JYVÄSKYLÄ SCIENCE PARK Box 27 40101 Jyväskilä Finland +358 14 4451 142 +358 14 44 51 199 KRETZER Tannenweg 7 88436 Eberhardzell Germany +49 7355 9 31 90 +49 7355 76 07 LANDESKAMMER FÜR LAND-UND FORSTWIRTSCHAFT STEIERMARK Hamerlinggasse 3 8011 Graz Austria +43 31 68 0500 +43 31 68 0501 241 MARCHES ENERGY AGENCY The Shirehall Abbey Foregate Shropshire SY2 6ND Shrewsbury United Kingdom +44 1743 252 573 +44 1743 252 572 MINISTRY OF THE WALLOON REGION 1, place de la Wallonie 5100 Jambes Belgium +32 81 33 31 60 +32 81 33 31 66

MINISTRY OF NATURAL RESOURCES OF QUEBEC, DIRECTION DU DÉVELOPPEMENT DE L'INDUSTRIE DES PRODUITS FORESTIERS 880,chemin Sainte-Foy G1S 4X4 Québec Canada +1 418 627 8644 +1 418 643 9534 jean-maurice.tremblay@ MINISTRY OF NATURAL RESOURCES OF QUEBEC, DIRECTION DU DÉVELOPPEMENT ÉLECTRIQUE 5700, 4e Avenue Ouest G1H 6R1 Charlesbourg Canada +1 418 627 6386 +1 418 646 1878 real.carbonneau@ MTT AGRIFOOD RESEARCH FINLAND 31600 Jokioinen Finland yleng.htm

RESSOURCES NATURELLES CANADA, SERVICE AUX CITOYENS 5700, 4e Avenue Ouest, local B-302 G1H 6R1 Charlesbourg Canada +1 418 627 8600 service.citoyens@ TEKES P.O.Box 69 00101 Helsinki Finland +358 105 2151 +358 9 694 9196 TTS INSTITUTE P.O.Box 28 00211 Helsinki Finland WHG WALDPLEGE & HOLZERNTE GMBH Kl-Gf-Stauffenberg-Str 1 88471 Laupheim Germany +49 7392 9724 31 +49 7392 9724 99

NEWARK & SHERWOOD ENERGY Kelham Hall Newark, NG 23 5 QX Nottinghamshire United Kingdom PEZZOLATO Via Provinciale 4 12030 Envie Italy +39 0175 27 80 77 +39 0175 27 84 21 QUERCY ENERGIES 70, rue Clémenceau 46000 Cahors France +33 565 35 81 26 +33 565 35 07 06 quercy.energies@ REGIONAL ENERGY AGENCY OF VÄSTERNORRLAND Energihuset Nipan 88152 Solletea Sweden +46 620 682 766 +46 620 682 771 anergikontoret@solleftea


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I n our "modern" civil and industrial society, firewood in log form is to the wood Editor : ITEBE Tel : + 33 3 84 47 81 00 Fax : + 33 3 84 4...