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ICT, Education Reform, and Economic and Social Development Dr. Robert Kozma | March 2010 | Madrid Spain

KEYNOTE


The Rhetoric for ICT in Education Many countries are using an economic development rationale to justify the planned use of ICT in schools:

U.S. draft National Educational Technology Plan acknowledges that “Education is the key to America’s economic growth and prosperity and our ability to compete in the global economy”

Singapore’s second ICT master plan was launched to help students prepare for a “more competitive future” and a “new, innovation-driven economic era”

ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Jordan’s ICT-based reform effort was to make the education sector “responsive to employment market demands in key industries and develop critical ‘Knowledge Economy skills’ at all levels of the education system”

Rwanda’s ICT in Education Strategic Plan envisions that all Rwandans will “reach their individual potential to become well-rounded critically thinking citizens of an innovative , knowledge-based economy.”

DR. ROBERT KOZMA


Policy Issues for ICT in Education • Type of hardware • Ratio of students per computer • Placement of computers in schools • Network access and configuration • Digital content • Integration into teaching • Training & tech support

ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

DR. ROBERT KOZMA


Broader Economic and Social Context for Educational ICT • Why should educators be concerned with economic development? • What trends in business and society that are contributing to development? • What are the implications of these trends for education reform? • How can ICT contribute to education reform and economic and social development? • What implications does this have for practical ICT policies and programs?

ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

DR. ROBERT KOZMA


Why is Economic Growth Important? • Growth is not a goal in itself. • Growth generates resources that can be used to achieve important social priorities. • Growth has pulled millions of people out of crushing poverty. • Growth can contribute to education improvement. • Contributes, in turn, to further growth. ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

DR. ROBERT KOZMA


Away from a Manufacturing Economy • Mass production • Standardized products • Manual labor or rote cognitive tasks • Hierarchical command and control • Highly integrated organizations

ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

DR. ROBERT KOZMA


Toward an Information Economy • Services are the largest sector of 25 largest economies • Information products and services shows the most growth • Innovation and new knowledge are a major engine of economic growth ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

DR. ROBERT KOZMA


Toward a Knowledge Society • High level of education. • High penetration of ICT in the home. • Large majorities of people use the internet for email. • Large majorities use it as a primary information source • Large percentages of young people use it to connect with groups, create and share digital materials. ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

DR. ROBERT KOZMA


Transformation Organizational Structures • Organizational flattening • Decentralized decision making • Disaggregation • Out sourcing/off shoring • Cross-organizational collaboration

ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

DR. ROBERT KOZMA


Transformation of Business Practices • Self-managed teams • Regular employee meetings • Flexible work arrangements • Use of computers in front-line positions

ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

DR. ROBERT KOZMA


Transformations Enabled by ICT • To connect distributed teams of employees • To coordinate with partners and suppliers • To collect and share information • To provide products and services to customers

ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

DR. ROBERT KOZMA


Creative Destruction • Less demand for manual skills and routine cognitive tasks • More demand for problemsolving, communications skills and team skills. • ICT substitutes for low-skilled workers, supplements highskilled workers

ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

DR. ROBERT KOZMA


But Schools Remain Unchanged • Schools structured around closed classes and physical spaces • Curriculum tied to disciplines • Teacher lectures • Students study independently • Standardized exams that test for recall and application of simple procedures • Technology used as a supplement ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

DR. ROBERT KOZMA


Education Reform What kinds of changes must take place in the education system to support an information economy and knowledge society? Not just ICT - • Policy • Teaching and Learning • Curriculum and Assessment • Social Structure ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

DR. ROBERT KOZMA


Knowledge Ladder • Conceptual framework for policy planning • Holistic: – All components – Aligned changes

• Developmental and progressive: – Addresses a range of current conditions. – Advances build on current resources and experiences

• Connected to economic and social development.

ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

DR. ROBERT KOZMA


Knowledge Ladder Basic Education

Knowledge Acquisition

Knowledge Deepening

Knowledge Creation

Each model has different implications for: • Policy Goals • Teaching and Learning • Curriculum and Assessment • Social Structure • ICT Use ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

DR. ROBERT KOZMA


Knowledge Ladder: Policy Goals Basic Education

Knowledge Acquisition

Knowledge Deepening

Knowledge Creation

Increase workforce participation

Prepare students manufacturing workforce

Prepare students for highly productive workforce

Prepare students for knowledgedriven economy

Increase primary attendance

Increase secondary completion

Graduates who can add value to the economy & society

Graduates who are creativie, innovative, lifelong learners

ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

DR. ROBERT KOZMA


Knowledge Ladder: Teaching and Learning Basic Education

Knowledge Acquisition

Knowledge Deepening

Knowledge Creation

Teachers with at minimum skills & subject knowledge

Teacher content knowledge & direct instruction

Content & pedagogical expertise

Teachers as model learners

Collaborative teams work on complex real world projects

Communities of learners who build on each other’s knowledge

Large studentteacher ratios, lecture

Students doing individual seat work

ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

DR. ROBERT KOZMA


Knowledge Ladder: Curriculum and Assessment Basic Education

Knowledge Acquisition

Knowledge Deepening

Knowledge Creation

Focus is on basic literacy and numeracy

Focus on facts, simple principles, and computer applications applied to standard procedures

Focus on deep understanding of key concepts and their application to solve real world problems

Focus on innovativeness and the creation of knowledge products

Assessed by standardized tests

Assessed by standardized tests

Assessed by complex, real world tasks

Assessed by a community of users

ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

DR. ROBERT KOZMA


Knowledge Ladder: Social Structure Basic Education

Knowledge Acquisition

Knowledge Deepening

Knowledge Creation

Hierarchical structure

Hierarchical structure and accountability

Collaborative teaching and learning

Anytime, anywhere, life-long learning

Little teacher or student autonomy

Breaking disciplinary and physical boundaries

Self-sustaining, cross-age, cross-sector knowledge communities

Standardized delivery

ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

DR. ROBERT KOZMA


Knowledge Ladder: ICT Use Basic Education

ICT for information delivery: radio, TV Little computing; little networking, potential for teacher training.

Knowledge Acquisition

Knowledge Deepening

Drill and practice, tutorial software to support test performance

Simulations, multimedia to support understanding &the application of knowledge to solve problems

Computers in labs; networks for management

Computers in classrooms; networks for collaboration

ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

Knowledge Creation

Social environments, Wikis, and knowledgebuilding tools Computers & digital devices everywhere; networks for community DR. ROBERT KOZMA


Educational Transformation What kind of change needs to take place in education? Holistic Change

What role can ICT play? A Lever for Change

ICT alone will not work ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

DR. ROBERT KOZMA


ICT in Support of Education Reform • • • •

Have a vision Choose a model Create a master plan Build alignment

• • • •

Look for levers Design programs Provide resources Team with partners

– Between policies and programs – Within agencies – Across agencies

ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

DR. ROBERT KOZMA


ICT in Support of Education Reform Then you can make decisions about: • Type of hardware • Ratio of students per computer • Placement of computers in schools • Network access and configuration • Digital content • Integration into teaching • Training & tech support ICT, EDUCATION REFORM, AND ECONOMIC DEVELOPMENT

DR. ROBERT KOZMA


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