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ICT in Initial and In-Service Teacher Training Eduardo Coba Arango IFIIE


Contents 1. 2.

3.

4.

Objectives of Education: Competences and ICT Training in Education. Teacher Training in the European Union: Initial Training, Training in ICT and Inservice Training. Initial Training in Spain: Bachelor in Primary Education and Master in Secondary Education. In-service Training in Spain: Competence Framework, Actions of the Ministry.


1. Objectives of Education

1.1. Competence Training


Common objectives in the EU In December 2006, the European Parliament and the Council passed the Recommendation on Key Competences for Lifelong Learning. These competences are a reference tool targeting education and training policies in Member States, which must endeavour to make initial education and training provide the youth with the means to develop the competences required to be prepared for adult life and for complementary learning.


Key Competences  1.

Competence in linguistic communication.  2. Mathematical competence.  3. Knowledge and interaction with the physical world.  4. Information processing and digital competence.  5. Social and civic competence.  6. Cultural and artistic competence.  7. Learning to learn.  8. Initiative and entrepreneurship.


Objectives of Education in Spain One of the principles inspiring the 2006 Spanish Act on Education (LOE) is the commitment posed by the EU in two directions: on the one hand, to establish common objectives of education, which should prepare pupils to live in the society of knowledge, science and technology, continuously evolving and having a profound impact on social development; on the other hand, to achieve a more competitive and dynamic knowledge-based economy.


Objectives of Education in Spain The inclusion of key competences in the curriculum involves changes in planning, in methodology, in assessment, in materials and organisation... But schools’ activity ultimately falls on teachers. Therefore, the success or failure of any reform will, to a large extent, depend on teachers. This requires Authorities to commit to a teacher training linked to the teaching practice, and based on the principle that the society as a whole is responsible for pupils’ school success.


1. Objectives of Education

1.2. ICT in Education


ICT in Education Results of the Study “Las TICs en la Educación (2006)” (‘ICT in Education’), as regards the teachers survey. 209 primary education schools. 407 secondary education schools. 4,066 teachers. 20,085 pupils.  Ministry of Education and Ministry of Industry, Tourism and Trade. Avanza Plan. http://www.oei.es/tic/TICCD.pdf


ICT in Education 94% of teachers report that they have access to computers at school.  91% report having a computer at home.  20% of teachers state that they use the Internet to work in groups with pupils or to download didactic software between once a week and once a month. 


ICT in Education However, 82% state that they never or almost never use the computer to make presentations or simulations in the classroom. 71% say they have never used the computer to support a classroom explanation. ď‚— 54% feel capable to use ICT in the classroom, but 72% say that lack of time for preparation is the reason for not using ICT. ď‚—


ICT in Education Primary education: teachers use SW with curricular contents, as well as educational websites. The average is 12 pupils per computer.  Lower Secondary Education: computers are used more often, but the use of didactic materials is lower. The average is 6 pupils per computer.  Post-compulsory education: computers are used more often, especially in practical subjects. Note: 98.7% of pupils have used a computer. 


ICT in Education 61% declare having received training in ICT, 50% of them the previous year.  58% define themselves as users, and only 15% as experts.  El 89% declare having received training in ICT as inservice training, 28 % during initial training (57% of teachers under 30).  76% received training promoted by the Administration, and 89% of courses required attendance. 65% state having acquired training autodidactly. 


ICT in Education The main types of training were office automation (81%) and telematics (72%). Didactic training was received in 57% of courses, and only 20% declare having plenty of technical or didactic confidence. 84% say they need more didactic training; 68%, more telematics training, and 56% more training on office automation. ď‚— 76% of teachers have an interest in ICT and 84% consider ICT to have a great educational potential. ď‚—


ICT in Education There are differences on the grounds of sex: while 51% of men declare using the computer every day, only 35% of women do. ď‚— There is no difference regarding the training received, but there are some differences regarding technical aspects, such as operating systems or maintenance, where men have more training. ď‚— Although the level most commonly reached by both sexes is user level, there are more men in the expert level and more women in the lowest level. ď‚—


2. Teacher training in the European Union Eurydice: Key Data on Education in Europe, 2009 Key Data on Information and Communication Technology in Schools in Europe, 2004 Eurydice’s Question/Answer Forum: 2010 update


2. Teacher Training in the European Union 2.1. Initial Teacher Training in the EU


Common elements ď‚—

Most prospective teachers receive their initial training in a higher education institution.

ď‚—

Such training usually has a general component (regarding specific subjects that teachers are going to teach) and a professional component (devoted to the acquisition of the necessary pedagogical competences and to teaching practices in schools).


Different elements ď‚—

ď‚—

Concurrent model, when both components are acquired at the same time. This model is more usual in pre-primary and primary teacher training. Consecutive model, when the knowledge corresponding to the general component (subjects to be taught in the future) is acquired first, and the professional component training is subsequently acquired (usually as post-graduate studies). This is the usual model for upper secondary education, while a mixed model is more usual for compulsory secondary education.


Models Pre-primary and primary (ISCED 0 and 1) Concurrent model Consecutive model


Models Lower secondary education (ISCED 2) Concurrent model Consecutive model


Models Upper secondary education (ISCED 3) Concurrent model Consecutive model


Evolution and weight Between 2005 and 2009, an evolution towards consecutive models may be noted. The weight of the professional component is greater in pre-primary and primary education than in secondary or higher education. For instance, the professional component in upper secondary education (Bachillerato) is more than 50% of the total duration of training, and in non-university higher education the percentage is usually above 30%.


2. Teacher Training in the European Union 2.2. ICT in Initial Teacher Training in the EU


Categories Main categories regarding the presence of ICT in initial teacher training: “Compulsory component”: ICT is a compulsory subject in the syllabus for prospective primary and secondary education teachers, or they form part of the minimum qualification standards required at the end of initial training. “Core curriculum option”: refers to one of a range of subjects offered by institutions of teacher education, from which trainees have to select a limited number in order to cover part of their compulsory minimum curriculum. The term also implies that all institutions are obliged to include ICT in this range of subjects. “Institutional autonomy”, which means that these institutions are free to decide whether education offered in ICT is compulsory or otherwise.


Models Integration of ICT in Initial Teacher Training (except for teachers specialised in ICT). Primary education (ISCED 1). School year 2009/2010

Explanatory Note: In Austria, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, United Kingdom (Scotland), and United Kingdom (England, Wales and Northern Ireland), the information corresponds to school year 2009/10. In the other countries, the data correspond to school year 2002/03.


Models Integration of ICT in Initial Teacher Training (except for teachers specialised in ICT). Secondary Education (ISCED 2 and 3). School year 2009/2010

Explanatory Note: In Austria, Finland, Germany, Hungary, Italy, Poland, Portugal, Sweden, United Kingdom (Scotland), and United Kingdom (England, Wales and Northern Ireland), the information corresponds to school year 2009/10. In the other countries, the data correspond to school year 2002/03.


Current Tendency 

 

In 2010, in most of the analysed countries, the ICT are a “compulsory component” in the core syllabus for Initial Teacher Training, that is, it is either a compulsory subject or part of the minimum qualification standards required at the end of initial training. In 2002/03, only in some countries schools had full freedom to design and structure their syllabuses (“schools autonomy” category). In 2010 the number of European countries which give schools full freedom to decide about including the ICT is even lower than in 2002/03. Conclusion: the tendency in Europe is to include the ICT as a compulsory component or option in the syllabus, thus only a minority of countries leave it to the autonomy of the schools.


2. Teacher Training in the European Union 2.3. In-service training in EU


In-service Training In-service training Professional duty

Optional, but necessary for promotion

Optional


Council of the European Union 06112009

The Teacher Training programs, which are essential factors both for preparing teachers and school heads to assume their responsibilities, and for guaranteeing their continuing professional development, must be of great quality, adapted to the needs which could arise, and they must be based on a well-balanced combination of solid academic research and broad practical experience. It is necessary that initial teacher education, the support to start their careers, and continuing professional education, are dealt with as a coherent whole.


3. Initial Teacher Training in Spain


3 . Initial Teacher Training in Spain 3. 1. New order for university education


General Principles Up to now, the principles that regulated the degrees consisted of just a set of subjects, descriptors, credits and knowledge areas linked to a specific degree. With the LOU reform: • The degrees catalogue disappears and it is replaced by a new procedure to include degrees in the Registry of Universities, Institutions and Degrees. • A syllabus must be understood as an agreement between Society and University. Society’s trust must be materialized in the quality of the syllabus. • The criteria to register and assess a degree are in keeping with the Criteria and Guidelines for the Guarantee of Quality in the European Higher Education Area.


General Principles Principles to design new degrees: • Adaptation of teaching, learning and assessment methods to competences acquisition (*) by students • To facilitate student mobility • Autonomy in post-university learning. (*)COMPETENCES: Combination of knowledge, skills, attitudes and values which enable graduates to successfuly resolve problems in an academic, professional and social context.


Guidelines Guidelines to elaborate a degree proposal. Elements to be included: 1. Description of the degree 2. Justification 3. Objectives 4. Students admission 5. Study Plan 6. Academic staff 7. Material resources and services 8. Planned results 9. Quality Assurance System 10. Implementation schedule


Quality Assurance DESIGN VERIFICATION

development

ACCREDITATION

Design autonomy + Studies assessment and accreditation makes it possible to: a. Supervise its implementation or to verify that the project submitted is carried out correctly. b. Inform society (students) about quality The expost accreditation will be based on the verification of the fulfilment of the project submitted by the University.


3. Initial Teacher Training in Spain 3. 2. BA in teaching primary education and MA in teaching secondary education


Verification Requirements 

Pre-Primary Education Teacher ◦ ORDEN ECI/3854/2007, de 27 de diciembre,

Primary Education Teacher ◦ ORDEN ECI/3857/2007, de 27 de diciembre,

Teacher of Compulsory Secondary Education and Bachillerato, Vocational Training and Languages Education ◦ ORDEN ECI/3858/2007, de 27 de diciembre,


Verification Requirements Pre-Primary Education teacher (ORDEN ECI/3854/2007, de 27 de diciembre)

Section 3. Objectives.–Competences that students must acquire (12): 7. To know the educational implications of Information

and Communication Technologies and, particularly, of television in early childhood. ….To tackle field analysis through observation methodology using information technologies, data and audiovisual material…


Verification Requirements Primary Education Teacher (ORDEN ECI/3857/2007, de 27 de diciembre)

Section 3. Objectives.–Competences that students must acquire (12): 11. To know and apply in the classrooms the Information and communication technologies. To distinguish the audiovisual information which helps teaching, civic education and cultural richness.


Verification Requirements Teacher of Compulsory Secondary Education, Bachillerato, Vocational Training and Language Education (ORDEN ECI/3858/2007, de 27 de diciembre)

Section 3. Objectives.–Competences that students must acquire (11): 3. To search, achieve, process and communicate information (oral, printed, audiovisual, digital or multimedia), transform it into knowledge and apply it in education and learning processes in the subjects of the corresponding specialization.


4. In-service Training in Spain


Spanish Model LOE: “The education Administrations will plan the activities for teacher training, guarantee a diverse and free offer for these activities and establish the appropriate measures to enhance teachers participating in them�.

La formaciĂłn permanente del profesorado


Institutions Involved State Administration  Autonomous Communities Administrations  Education Employers and Unions  Teachers associations, professional schools and other non-profit institutions. 

La formación permanente del profesorado


Autonomous Communities Administration The Autonomous Communities (CCAA) have full competences for teacher training.  The schools for teachers depend directly upon the CCAA  They design autonomous training plans  The Schools for Teachers develop their Implementation Plans following the guidelines established by the CCAA 

La formación permanente del profesorado


Ministry of Education The Ministry of Education fosters coordinated actions by means of the Sectorial Conference of Education  It is a coordinating body for the Education Policy at State level.  The Ministry develops its own Training Plan addressed to all teachers in the State. 

La formación permanente del profesorado


Training Lines • To improve school success. • Basic competences. Scientist and didactic updating. • Attention to diversity and inclusion. • Vocational training. • Coexistence and citizenship. • Didactic Application of ICT in the class. • Management and organization of schools. • Linguistic training.

La formación permanente del profesorado


Ministry of Education: IFIIE and ITE • IFIIE: The development and diffusion of curriculum materials and other documents of support for teachers, the design of training models for teaching staff as well as designing and developing specific programs, in collaboration with the Autonomous Communities, leading to teaching staff’s scientist and didactic updating. • ITE: The gathering and diffusion of digital and audiovisual materials for all knowledge areas, so that Information and Communication Technologies become ordinary working tools in the class for teachers at all education stages. Both Institutes train about 75.000 teachers/year.

La formación permanente del profesorado


Thank you very much www.educacion.es

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ICT in Initial and In-Service Teacher Training Eduardo Coba Arango IFIIE 3. Initial Training in Spain: Bachelor in Primary Education and Mas...

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