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Le energie rinnovabili Normative e aspetti tecnici

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Renewable energy sources


Regulatory Aspects


The frame: Directive 2009/28/EC

With this directive, the Community legislation intended to regulate the promotion of energy from renewable sources defining instruments, mechanisms, incentives and the institutional, financial and legal framework, necessary to achieve the objectives for 2020 concerning the overall share of energy from renewable sources in energy consumption and the share of energy from renewable sources in transport.


The frame: Directive 2009/28/EC

Reduction of at least 20% GHG emissions by 2020

Renewable energy should represent 20% of total energy consumption by 2020

Increasing of energy efficiency, with the objective to save 20% of the EU energy consumption by 2020


The framework: National Action Plan

With the National Action Plan, which was adopted in June 2010, the Italian Legislator has specified the goal of the climate energy package "20-20-20" assigned to Italy on renewable energy, equal to 17% of the overall energy consumption in 2020, in three main areas: heat, transport and electricity


The framework: art. 23 of Legislative Decree 28/2011

Finally the decree, transposing Directive 2009/28, redefines the general framework of the support schemes applied to the energy produced from renewable sources and energy efficiency


The framework: art. 23 of Legislative Decree 28/2011

The purpose is to: lrearrange and increase the existing incentive systems lpromote the production of energy from renewable sources and energy efficiency


The framework: art. 24 of Legislative Decree 28/2011

Through the definition of standards and tools that promote: • the effectiveness, efficiency, simplification and stability of incentive systems • harmonization of different instruments with similar objectives • Consumer burden reduction


The framework: incentives to 31.01.2013 INCENTIVI

FER (fonte elettrica rinnovabile)

Fotovoltaico

Conto Energia

Certificati Verdi

Tariffa Omnicomprensiva

CIP6 (Comitato Interministeriale Prezzi per fonti rinnovabili e "assimilate")

6.516,29

Eolico

(â‚Ź Mln)

%

6.516,29

62,7%

1.034,20

9,9%

943,60

9,1%

1.025,60

2,70

Idroelettrico

752,20

191,40

Biogas

111,40

751,10

14,50

877,00

8,4%

Biomasse

270,90

49,40

201,70

522,00

5,0%

Bioliquidi

334,30

53,00

387,30

3,7%

Geotermico

120,50

120,50

1,2%

Totale costo annuo (â‚Ź Mln)

6.516,29

2.614,90

1.047,60

5,90

Totale costo annuo

222,10

10.400,89


Ministerial Decree July 5, 2012: Quinto Conto Energia


Ministerial Decree July 5, 2012: Quinto Conto Energia

Beneficiaries

individuals legal persons public Joint owners of real estate or buildings


Ministerial Decree July 5, 2012: Quinto Conto Energia

It increases the production of electricity from photovoltaic sources achieving an approximate cost of 6 billion Euros a year. It no longer applies, within thirty calendar days from the date of attainment of a cumulative approximate cost of 6.7 billion Euros a year.


Ministerial Decree July 5, 2012: Quinto Conto Energia

It is a mechanism that rewards those who create the plant thanks to incentives that remain fixed for twenty years. Incentives are determined on the basis of the annual indicative cost of incentives by period and by type of plant.


Ministerial Decree July 5, 2012: Quinto Conto Energia Feed-in tariffs Primo semestre di applicazione

Intervallo di potenza

Impianti sugli edifici

Altri impianti fotovoltaici

Secondo semestre di applicazione

Impianti sugli edifici

Altri impianti fotovoltaici

Tariffa Tariffa Tariffa Tariffa Tariffa Tariffa Tariffa Tariffa omnicomp. autocons. omnicomp. autocons. omnicomp. autocons. omnicomp. autocons. kWp

€/kWh

€/kWh

€/kWh

€/kWh

€/kWh

€/kWh

€/kWh

€/kWh

1≤P≤3

0,208

0,126

0,201

0,119

0,182

0,100

0,176

0,094

3 < P ≤ 20

0,196

0,114

0,189

0,107

0,171

0,089

0,165

0,083

20 < P ≤ 200

0,175

0,093

0,168

0,086

0,157

0,075

0,151

0,069

200 < P ≤ 1.000

0,142

0,060

0,135

0,053

0,130

0,048

0,124

0,042

1.000 < P ≤ 5.000

0,126

0,044

0,120

0,038

0,118

0,036

0,113

0,031

P > 5.000

0,119

0,037

0,113

0,031

0,112

0,030

0,106

0,024


Ministerial Decree July 5, 2012: Quinto Conto Energia Feed-in tariffs for solar energy systems with innovative features Primo semestre di applicazione

Secondo semestre di applicazione

Intervallo di potenza Tariffa omnicomp.

Tariffa autocons.

Tariffa omnicomp.

Tariffa autocons.

kWp

€/kWh

€/kWh

€/kWh

€/kWh

1 < P ≤ 20

0,288

0,186

0,242

0,160

20 < P ≤ 200

0,276

0,174

0,231

0,149

P > 200

0,255

0,153

0,217

0,135


Ministerial Decree July 6, 2012: other renewable sources


Ministerial Decree July 6, 2012: other renewable sources


Ministerial Decree July 6, 2012: other renewable sources

Recipients

lphysical persons llegal persons lpublic lJoint owners of property or buildings


Ministerial Decree July 6, 2012: other renewable sources • Wind power (off-shore/on shore) • Hydraulic (water flowing / a basin • or tank) • oceanic • geothermal • Landfill Gas • Residual gas from purification processes • sustainable bioliquids •

Biogas (products of biological origin, waste for which the biodegradable fraction is determined flat rate; waste that does not originate from separate collection systems)

Biomass (products of biological origin, waste for which the biodegradable fraction is determined flat rate; waste not from recycling)


Ministerial Decree July 6, 2012: other renewable sources

It encourages the production of electric energy from system using renewable energy sources other than solar photovoltaic,

new - fully rebuilt - reactivated - enhanced - redone

with a power exceeding 1 kW operating from 01.01.2013 up to a cumulative annual approximate cost of 5.8 billion euro


Ministerial Decree July 6, 2012: other renewable sources Tipologia fonte rinnovabile

Eolica On-shore

Eolica Off-shore

Idraulica ad acqua fluente

Idraulica a bacino o a serbatoio Oceanica (comprese maree e moto ondoso) Geotermica

Gas di discarica

Gas residuati dai processi di depurazione

Potenza (kW)

Vita utile impianto (anni)

Tariffa incentivante (€/Kw)

1<P≤20 20<P≤200 200<P≤1000 1000<P≤5000 P<5000 1<P≤5000 P>5000 1<P≤20 20<P≤500 500<P≤1000 1000<P≤10000 P>10000 1<P≤1000 P>1000 1<P≤5000 P>5000 1<P≤1000 1000<P≤20000 P>20000 1<P≤1000 1000<P≤5000 P>5000 1<P≤1000 1000<P≤5000 P>5000

20 20 20 20 20 25 25 20 20 20 25 30 25 30 15 20 20 25 25 20 20 20 20 20 20

0,291 0,268 0,149 0,135 0,127 0,176 0,165 0,257 0,219 0,155 0,129 0,119 0,101 0,096 0,300 0,194 0,135 0,099 0,085 0,099 0,094 0,090 0,111 0,088 0,085


Ministerial Decree July 6, 2012: other renewable sources Tipologia fonte rinnovabile

Biogas da prodotti di origine biologica

Biogas da sottoprodotti di origine biologia e da rifiuti non provenienti da raccolta differenziata

Biogas da rifiuti per i quali la frazione biodegradabile è determinata forfettariamente

Biomasse da prodotti di orgine biologica

Biomasse da sottoprodotti di origine biologia e da rifiuti non provenienti da raccolta differenziata Biomasse da rifiuti per i quali la frazione biodegradabile è determinata forfettariamente Bioliquidi sostenibili

Potenza (kW)

Vita utile impianto (anni)

Tariffa incentivante (€/Kw)

1<P≤300 300<P≤600 600<P≤1000 1000<P≤5000 P>5000 1<P≤300 300<P≤600 600<P≤1000 1000<P≤5000 P>5000 1<P≤1000 1000<P≤5000 P>5000 1<P≤300 300<P≤600 1000<P≤5000 P>5000 1<P≤300 300<P≤600 1000<P≤5000 P>5000 1<P≤5000 P>5000 1<P≤5000 P>5000

20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20 20

0,180 0,160 0,140 0,104 0,091 0,236 0,206 0,178 0,125 0,101 0,216 0,109 0,085 0,229 0,180 0,133 0,122 0,257 0,209 0,161 0,145 0,174 0,125 0,121 0,110


Ministerial Decree December 28, 2012: Conto Energia Termico


Ministerial Decree December 28, 2012: Conto Energia Termico

â&#x20AC;˘

The Directive 2012/27/UE approved on 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency, assigns an important role to energy upgrading of public buildings and public procurement of energy efficient equipment

â&#x20AC;˘

The diagnosis and the energy certification are a important tools to ensure efficiency and financial sustainability of the interventions promoted â&#x20AC;˘

There are tax deductions for energy efficiency measures (not cumulative with incentives and of which the PA can not rely)


Ministerial Decree December 28, 2012: Conto Energia Termico Beneficiaries Public Administrations referring to all types of intervention

Private (individuals, condominiums and owners of business income or income from farming) only with reference to the interventions of small production of thermal energy from renewable sources and highefficiency systems


Ministerial Decree December 28, 2012: Conto Energia Termico Expenditure commitment in 2013

900 milioni di euro

200 milioni euro P.A.

700 milioni euro Privati


Ministerial Decree December 28, 2012: Conto Energia Termico

Small interventions incentivized by: â&#x20AC;˘ increasing of energy efficiency â&#x20AC;˘ production of thermal energy from renewable sources and high efficiency systems


Ministerial Decree December 28, 2012: White Certificates


Tax relief

Difference between deductions and allowances Deductions are subtracted from the tax base (income) used to calculate the gross tax of the subject. Allowances are, instead, subtracted from the gross tax to calculate the tax net.


European Union and energy efficiency

Directive 2012/27/UE of 25 October 2012 on energy efficiency

it maps out a complete framework to promote energy efficiency in the European Union in order to ensure the achievement of the objective on energy efficiency of 20% by 2020.

from political statements to binding targets for Member States


Some provisions of Directive Article 4: Renovations of properties Each member state should have "a long-term strategy to mobilize investments in the restructuring of the national park of residential and commercial buildings, both public and private. it is considered essential to reduce CO2 emissions of 80-95% by 2050

Article 5: Exemplary role of the government buildings 3% of the surface of the properties owned by the central government must be restructured and made energy efficient: - From 01/01/2014 buildings with a total useful floor area over 550 m² - From 01/07/2015 buildings with a total useful floor area over 250 m²

Article 8: Energy Audit and Energy Management Systems Member States should take measures to promote "the availability of high-quality energy audits, carried out by qualified and accredited experts according to criteria of qualification, monitored by independent authorities according to the national law for all end-user customers. By 5/12/2015 Large Enterprises obligation to carry out Energy Audit every 4 years or to take an Energy Management System certificate


Remarks

¢It will come, soon, the depletion of incentives ¢As long as they continue to exist, individuals and PA, with no access to other types of facilities, will be fostered ¢energy efficiency measures will be increasingly promoted and supported ¢Tax relief will be the form of support that will take the place of incentives, together with other similar initiatives as the revolving funds ¢In the course of 2013, in Italy, the Grid parity will be reached


The energy produced by the sun The photovoltaic systems


The Photovoltaics

It is a technology to produce electricity from the sun

It is the continuation of the liberalization of the energy market

It is possible now to self produce electricity in order to cover its own energy needs

It is a center of production of electricity from renewable sources

This type of investment is highly remunerated by the Italian State

It is born to pursue and achieve the objectives of the Kyoto Protocol: the Treaty obliges the industrialized countries to operate a reduction of emissions of pollutants

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The photovoltaic system â&#x20AC;˘

It is a center of electricity production from renewable sources such as the sun

â&#x20AC;˘

It uses market proven technology

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The economic benefits of photovoltaic system

A photovoltaic system is a convenient choice because:

It reduces or eliminates the costs of the bill: self energy production through a renewable and inexhaustible source such as the sun

Gain on energy produced by the plant: the Energy Bill incentives for 20 years all the energy produced by my system

You can protect your budget: the photovoltaic system guarantees a reliable supply of energy, allowing you to overcome addiction and tariff increases in the electricity market

It is possible to invest in clean energy by diversifying the investment company directing them towards an extra activity 37


The construction of the plants

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Green Economy: the “green” choice of the Company

PV is a convenient choice for the company's image because:

The market is sensitive to those who carry a "green" choice.

Photovoltaic system, renewable energy and clean energy are qualifying posts

that a Company can send to its market (image return).

Thanks to photovoltaics, the choice to respect the environment becomes a tangible action cleaning up the cement asbestos

39


Biogas

40


The biogas plant

A biogas plant has the purpose to produce methane gas through the fermentation of biomass, which is subsequently used to produce electricity and thermal energy in a cogeneration process

41


The operation process â&#x20AC;˘

It is a system that can produce a gas called precisely biogas1, composed for the majority of methane (CH4, with a concentration between 50% and 80%) and carbon dioxide (CO2, with a concentration between 30 % and 40%) through a biochemical process of anaerobic digestion (bacterial fermentation in the absence

â&#x20AC;˘

of oxygen)

The produced biogas is then used to power a CHP unit able to produce electricity and thermal energy: electrical energy is introduced into the network (or part of the selfcomsumed by the company), whereas the thermal can be used with various purposes (heating necessary to the business activities or, for example, for district heating). The size of the plants in these cases play a decisive role.

42


The operation process There are different types of "raw material" for the production of biogas: a wide range of renewable resources and organic residues from agriculture, animal husbandry and food industry. The principle of operation, in each case, remains the same

Treatable materials to produce Biogas: •

animal manure (pigs, cattle, poultry, poultry)

energy crops (maize, ryegrass, etc. ...)

crop residues (straw, beet-collar, etc ...)

agro-industry organic waste from (whey, vegetable waste, yeast, sludge and wastewater from distilleries, breweries and wineries, etc ...)

organic waste from slaughter (fat, intestinal and stomach contents, blood, sludge flotation)

sewage sludge

wet fraction municipal solid waste

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Trend in Italy 12.000 GWh 10.000 8.000 6.000 Bioenergi e

4.000

Biogas

2.000

2011

2010

2009

2008

2007

2006

2005

2004

2003

2002

2001

2000

0 anni

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The energy produced by wind Wind power plants

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The energy produced by wind •

Wind energy is a renewable energy source. It is clean and rich in resources.

The wind is always present both day and night and in different weather conditions (storms, clouds, sun).

The wind is a resource that will continue to exist over the coming years and it will always be a free resource.

The wind energy is a low-cost technology which, during production, emits a low level of CO2

46


Wind power plants A wind turbine (or wind farm) is generally composed of one or more wind turbines that convert the kinetic energy of the wind into electrical energy.

The main components of a wind turbine are:

lthe rotor (or turbine) which consists of a series of vanes, generally in glass fibers, which are keyed to a hub; lthe carrycot or gondola or generically hosting structure, which contains the transformation systems (mainly the gearbox and the electric generator) and control of the machine; lthe tower, foundations or supporting structures

Fonte: GSE_Gestore servizi energetici, www.gse.it

47


Wind power plants The wind turbines can be divided into different classes of power, with regard to some size characteristics:

lMachines of small size (1-200 kW): lMachines of medium size (200-800 kW) lLarge machines (over 1000 kW)

The small wind turbines can be used to produce electricity to individual users or groups of users, connected to the electricity grid in low voltage or even isolated from the mains. The machines of medium and large size are used primarily to achieve "Wind farms" connected to the medium or high voltage. Fonte: GSE_Gestore servizi energetici, www.gse.it

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Wind power plants

â&#x20AC;˘

There are two types of wind machines depending on the wind generator or wind turbine which used:

1. Horizontal axis wind turbines, in which the rotor is orientated (actively or passively) parallel to the direction of the wind 2. Vertical axis wind turbines are independent of the direction of the wind

â&#x20AC;˘

Wind farms are divided among:

1. Off-shore (at sea) 2. On-shore (mainland)

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Green economy law and technical aspects