Issuu on Google+


Questions

Salmonella

Ebola

What is it?

Is a genus of rod-shaped, Gramnegative, non-spore-forming, predominantly motile enterobacteria.

Is a virus that causes extremely severe disease in humans and in nonhuman primates in the form of viral hemorrhagic fever.

How can it be transferred?

Salmonella infections are zoonotic and can be transferred between humans and nonhuman animals. Many infections are due to ingestion of contaminated food.

The spread of Ebola occurs through direct contact with an infected person or his or her body fluids (such as blood or secretions).

When and where was The genus Salmonella was named after Daniel Elmer Salmon, an discovered? American veterinary pathologist. While Theobald Smith was the actual discoverer of the type bacterium in 1885. The genus Salmonella was finally formally adopted in 1900 by J. Lignières for the many species of Salmonella, after Smith's first type-strain Salmonella cholerae. An estimated 142,000 Americans Death by‌ are infected each year with Salmonella enteritidis from chicken eggs, and about 30 die. The shell of the egg may be contaminated with Salmonella by feces or environment, or its interior (yolk) may be contaminated by penetration of the bacteria through the porous shell or from a hen whose infected ovaries contaminate the egg during egg formation.

It first emerged in 1976 in outbreaks of Ebola hemorrhagic fever in Zaire and Sudan. The strain of Ebola that broke out in Zaire has one of the highest case fatality rates of any human pathogenic virus, roughly 90%.

Begins with an influenza-like stage characterized by general malaise, fever with chills, arthralgia and myalgia, and chest pain. Nausea is accompanied by abdominal pain, anorexia, diarrhea, and vomiting. Respiratory tract involvement is characterized by pharyngitis with sore throat, cough, dyspnea, and hiccups. The central nervous system is affected as judged by the development of severe headaches, agitation, confusion, fatigue, depression, seizures, and sometimes coma.


Articles

Salmonella

Ebola

1째 Article

Nestle USA issued a voluntary recall of its Nesquik chocolate powder after being tipped off by an ingredient supplier of possible salmonella contamination. http://articles.latimes.com/keyword/salmonella

An outbreak of the killer Ebola disease in Gabon could spread to neighbouring countries, health chiefs have warned. http://articles.cnn.com/keyword/ebola

2째 Article

A federal grand jury, investigating one of the largest food-related recalls ever, indicted four executives at the now-defunct Peanut Corp. of America, accusing them of knowing that their products were tainted with salmonella bacteria, covering up the evidence and selling the food anyway. http://articles.latimes.com/keyword/salmonella

The Ebola virus has killed 10 people in the Democratic Republic of Congo, the World Health Organization said Tuesday. As of Monday, WHO said, the deaths are among 13 probable and two confirmed Ebola cases reported in Orientale province in eastern Congo. http://articles.cnn.com/keyword/ebola

3째 Article

When you go to a restaurant you have the reasonable expectation that your food will be properly prepared. So imagine one patron's surprise when he was recently served a raw chicken sandwich at a KFC in Ontario, Canada http://www.naturalnews.com/037367_KFC_chi cken_sandwich_raw.html

Terrified patients fled from a hospital in western Uganda as soon as news broke that a mysterious illness that killed at least 14 people in the region was Ebola, one of the world's most virulent diseases. http://www.guardian.co.uk/world/2012/jul/29/ ebola-uganda-outbreak-patients-flee

Conclusion We have to be careful in our hygiene and also in what we eat. We live in an environment where bacteria is present and we have to adapt to them, by making care of our body and protect it from illness that can low down our defenses in our immune system. If we care about us and we have present that at any time we can catch an infection we can prevent all the mentioned things that can disturb us or make us feel uncomfortable. So take care of your body.


Salmonella Articles

1째 FEATURED ARTICLES BUSINESS

Nestle recalls Nesquik chocolate powder over salmonella concerns November 9, 2012 | By Tiffany Hsu Nestle USA issued a voluntary recall of its Nesquik chocolate powder after being tipped off by an ingredient supplier of possible salmonella contamination. The Glendale-based company said it was calling back canisters of the product, which is mixed with milk to create a sweet drink, that were made in October and sold nationwide. Consumers should look for containers bearing an expiration date of October 2014. Nestle USA decided to recall the powder after supplier Omya Inc. issued its own recall of calcium carbonate, a Nesquik ingredient, amid concerns that salmonella was present in some batches.

2째ARTICLES BY DATE BUSINESS

Former peanut company execs indicted in 2009 recall February 21, 2013 | By Tiffany Hsu, Los Angeles Times A federal grand jury, investigating one of the largest food-related recalls ever, indicted four executives at the now-defunct Peanut Corp. of America, accusing them of knowing that their products were tainted with salmonella bacteria, covering up the evidence and selling the food anyway. The 76-count criminal indictment, disclosed Thursday, accused the four of engaging "in multiple schemes to defraud the company's customers. " Named as defendants were the former president, Stewart Parnell; his brother Michael, a food broker representing the company; Samuel Lightsey, operations manager at the company's Blakely, Ga., plant; and Mary Wilkerson, the plant's quality-assurance manager.

3째 Salmonella for lunch: KFC serves man a raw chicken sandwich According to reports, a photo of the offending sandwich was subsequently posted on the social news site Reddit; it shows what appears to a bite taken out of a piece of partially cooked - but mostly raw chicken. Gross, for sure, but dangerous as well.The user went on to say that his buddy was distracted by a conversation he was having with his brother and as such did not notice the chicken fare was severely undercooked until he began to take another bite. Workers admitted serving the chicken, even though the smell made one of them nearly vomit.


Ebola Articles

1° Featured Articles WORLD WHO fears Ebola spread December 15, 2001 An outbreak of the killer Ebola disease in Gabon could spread to neighbouring countries, health chiefs have warned. The World Health Organisation, which has sent a team of experts to the remote north-western Mekambo district, said two of the 11 suspected Ebola deaths have been confirmed. They said at least one woman infected with the deadly disease had crossed the border with the Congo Republic. Ebola causes up to 90 percent of its victims to bleed to death in a matter of days and has no known cure or vaccine.

2°Articles By Date AFRICA Ebola outbreak kills 10 in Congo By Joe Sterling, CNN | August 21, 2012 The Ebola virus has killed 10 people in the Democratic Republic of Congo, the World Health Organization said Tuesday. As of Monday, WHO said, the deaths are among 13 probable and two confirmed Ebola cases reported in Orientale province in eastern Congo. The Congolese Ministry of Health has set up a task force to deal with the outbreak and is working with WHO, UNICEF, Doctors Without Borders and the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Twelve cases and eight deaths occurred in the area of Isiro, a town in Congo's north, WHO said.

3° Uganda Ebola outbreak: patients flee hospital amid contagion fears Ebola outbreak in Uganda claims at least 14 lives as health officials battle to stem spread of deadly virus  

Clar Ni Chonghaile in Nairobi The Guardian, Sunday 29 July 2012 14.28 BST

Terrified patients fled from a hospital in western Uganda as soon as news broke that a mysterious illness that killed at least 14 people in the region was Ebola, one of the world's most virulent diseases. Ignatius Besisira, an MP for Buyaga East County in the Kibaale district, said people had at first believed the unexplained deaths were related to witchcraft. "Immediately, when there was confirmation that it was Ebola … patients ran out of Kagadi hospital (where some of the victims had died)," he told the Guardian. "Even the medical officers are very, very frightened," he said.


Government officials and a World Health Organization representative confirmed the Ebola outbreak at a news conference in Kampala on Saturday. "Laboratory investigations done at the Uganda Virus Research Institute ... have confirmed that the strange disease reported in Kibaale is indeed Ebola hemorrhagic fever," they said in a joint statement. Health officials said at least 20 people had been infected and of those 14 had died. There is no treatment or vaccine against Ebola, which is transmitted by close personal contact and, depending on the strain, can kill up to 90% of those who contract the virus. It has a devastating history in Uganda, where in 2000, at least 425 people were infected, of whom more than half died. Ebola was previously reported in the country in May last year, when it killed a 12-year-old girl. During an outbreak in 2007, which claimed at least 37 lives, President Yoweri Museveni advised people not to shake hands and public gatherings were also discouraged. One of those who succumbed to the outbreak in Kibaale was a clinical officer, Besisira said. The other fatalities came from a single household in Nyamarunda sub-district, he added. Joaquim Saweka, WHO's representative in Uganda, said the suspected infections emerged in the region in early July but the confirmation came only on Friday. The Ugandan government said a national emergency taskforce had been set up and urged the population to remain calm. The government, WHO and the US Centers for Disease Control have sent experts to Kibaale to tackle the outbreak. Besisira said officials in Kibaale had released radio broadcasts outlining precautionary measures on Saturday. "We have assured (the people) that we have a very strong team ‌ who are making sure the disease is controlled ‌ I am very confident we can contain it," he added. Besisira had not heard of people moving out of the region, but the Daily Nation newspaper in neighboring Kenya said on Sunday that people were leaving the area around Kagadi town, where the disease first appeared. "We have to move to safer places because we can easily get infected by this disease here," the paper quoted a resident, Omuhereza Kugonza, as saying. The WHO describes Ebola as "a viral hemorrhagic fever and one of the most virulent diseases known to humankind". It says the disease was identified in 1976 in a western equatorial province of Sudan and a nearby region of Zaire (now Democratic Republic of the Congo). It takes its name from a river in the DRC. Kibaale is near Uganda's border with the DRC. Ebola is transmitted by direct contact with the body fluids and tissues of infected persons. It can also be transmitted by handling sick or dead infected wild animals, such as chimpanzees, gorillas, monkeys, forest antelope and fruit bats. Symptoms include sudden fever, intense weakness, muscle pain, headache and sore throat, followed by vomiting, diarrhea, rashes, impaired kidney and liver function and bleeding.


Salmonella & Ebola