Hungary utazóknak

Page 1


CasteloArt Publishing Ltd.








As the saying goes, „ a picture is worth a thousand words� and who could think of a better way to appreciate the rich and ornate thousand year history of Hungary than with such a colorful and beautiful picture book. Through foreign eyes, Hungary appears to be a mystery at first. A long, somewhat confusing history is exactly what makes Hungary a bit difficult to understand. However, a strong sense of nationality and traditional values amongst the Hungarian people is and has always been lavishly expressed in its dazzling architecture - especially that of mid 19th - early 20th century when Hungary flourished

under the Austro-Hungarian Empire. From the capital city of Budapest to the farmlands of Hortobagy, Hungary’s astounding churches and Basilicas, city halls and parks, castles and fortresses and bathhouses are all visual treasures for the history buff tourist. More than 90 pages of beautifully colored photos of all the delightful towns and cities of Hungary will not only give you the memories of an exciting trip abroad, but maybe also help give some insight as to who are and were the „Magyars�.

THE PARLIAMENT Over centuries the descendants of the conquering leader, Árpád, enacted laws without having a permanent house for the Hungarian parliament. After the 1848 revolution, the dynamically altered nation began to feel the need for the change of the situation. Thus, in 1882 a competition was announced to design a building that would house the parliament, which was won by Imre Steindl. Three years later on the 12th of October, the works began on Lipótváros’ Tömlő square.


THE PARLIAMENT This was the biggest investment of the time, and for seventeen years nearly a thousand people worked on it. Standing in the middle of the great vaulted hall, one can see the northern and the southern lounges on the right and left. The picture depicts the southern lounge, which used to belong to the Lower House. Passing through the northern lounge, opposite the chamber/hall of the House (it once was the conference room of the Lower House) in the northern annex, we reach the conference room of the Upper House. This is often used for housing international conferences.


FREEDOM BRIDGE The bridge was given to the public as a part of the Millenneum celebrations, but its original name was Franz Jozef. It was built between 1894 and 1896, and the monarch himself hammered in the last nail. During the Second World War-similar to other bridges of Budapest- it was demolished, but during the city’s rebuilding, it was the first one to be erected again. It became a national emblem, the symbol of freedom. THE CHAIN BRIDGE. In winter one used to be able to walk on the iced surface of the Danube, but during ice drifts, commuting in this way between the two banks of the river became impossible. Once, István Széchenyi was forced to wait an entire week in December of 1820 until he found one brave boatman who would take him to the other side. After this incident, he initiated the building of “the Bridge” . Building this bridge had historical significance, since it was the first permanent bridge between Pest and Buda.



BUDA CASTLE The history of Buda Castle goes back to the days of old times. The early central palace was severely damaged in the battles against the Turks, but later thanks to the initiative of Maria Theresa, it was renovated in a majestic baroque style. Unfortunately, the palace fell victim to the Second World War, and at present it does retain any parts which would reflect the luxury of the bygone days’ kings. Today, it has an important role in the country’s cultural life since its chambers are used by the Hungarian National Gallery, the National Széchenyi Library, the Ludwig Museum of Contemporary Art and the Historical Museum of Budapest.




THE FISHERMEN’S BASTION Today’s Halászbástya (the bastion of the fishermen) was built in 1902 in the place of a former fortress. It is on the castle’s wall, but contrary to its name, it never served the purpose of protection. Its seven towers represent the seven leaders of the conquering Hungarians. The lookout from these towers is a gorgeous sight.


MATTHIAS CHURCH The former Budavári Nagyboldogasszony templom (the Church of Our Lady) has always been a prominent one in the Hungarian history. It had been standing for centuries when King Mátyás (“Righteous Matthias”) built a tower on it. Weddings of this grand king and other great figures of Hungary were held in this church, and the last king to be crowned, Károly I made his oath here as well. Today, the church is a sacred place of pilgrimage but it is open to the public, and visitors should not miss the musical high masses.




THE VAJDAHUNYAD CASTLE The end of the 19th century brought a special series of events for Hungarians. The nation was celebrating the foundation of the state. The Millennium Exhibition of 1896 was part of these celebrations. The event resulted in erecting many new buildings. One of them, found in the Városliget, was this castle with its four different architectural styles designed and carried out by Ignác Alpár. These buildings all display the stylistic features of other monuments from Hungary’s past which are located elsewhere in the country. After the conclusion of the celebration, the castle was given to the Museum of Hungarian Agriculture where visitors are always welcome.


CENTRAL MARKET HALL Aiming at ceasing the noisy and dirty outdoor markets, the City Council established the Central Market Hall. The stately neo-gothic building was handed over to the traders in 1897, and almost at the same time, four other market halls were built on the Pest side.




HEROE’S SQUARE All the lamp posts are facing a peculiar monument on the Hősök tere (Heroe’s Square). It is the millennial monument which commemorates the thousandth anniversary of the original settlement of the Hungarians. The monument depicts the heroes who made Hungarian history with their deeds.


SAINT STEPHEN’S BASILICA As the church’s proud castle, this divine monument is the adornment of the Szent István tér (square). Building it was so important that even the monarch Franz Jozef came to see how the keystone would be set down. The sanctuary is a frequently visited place by believers, but it is also a popular tourist sight of Budapest. The building itself is astonishing while the view of the city seen from the cupola is simply unforgettable.




SAINT GELLÉRT HOTEL AND THERMAL BATH The Szent GellÊrt Hotel and Bath was opened in 1918. Similar to other places of the early 20th century, this one is also presented in the secession style. Besides being a well known and popular thermal hotel worldwide, it is also a gorgeous sight.


SZENTENDRE At the junction of the mountains and the plain land, on the bank of the Danube, lies the city of museums and art, the cultural paradise of tourists, Szentendre with its more than two thousand years of history. Its museums, galleries, and cozy cafes can be approached via streets of cobblestone, and through narrow alleyways. Szentendre houses the Open Air Museum of Ethnography, which presents folk architecture, and the life of Hungary’s most characteristic regions.



VISEGRÁD This picturesque town which celebrated its millennium last year was the capital of Hungary under King Charles Robert. The construction of the Upper Castle was initiated by the wife of King Béla IV, Queen Mary in the 1250’s, and later it was enlarged by King Sigismund and King Matthias.The Tower named Solomon is situated on the hillside beneath the castle. A fortified military camp once stood here, where King Solomon was held between 1081-1083 at the command of King Saint Ladislaus. Visegrád and the Upper Castle are now tourist

attractions. The town attracts thousands of tourists from in- and outside of Hungary annually because there are great opportunities for excursions, visiting historic monuments, reliving the past, and taking pleasure in the beautiful sight of the Danube Bend. Visegråd has also hosted the popular summer palace games for several decades ; a unique spectacle in the country. The games are staged in the in the dress of the times of King Matthias’. In the programme spectacular jousts are performed and the visitor can even try archery.


ESZTERGOM Grand Prince GĂŠza chose Esztergom as his kingdom in 972, making it the first capital of our country. King Saint Stephen was crowned here on 1 January 1001; he founded the archdiocese of Esztergom as the centre of the Hungarian church. The Basilica of Esztergom, the largest church in Hungary, was built on the castle hill. This masterpiece was consecrated in 1869, and for that occasion Franz Liszt composed his Esztergom Mass.


SZÉKESFEHÉRVÁR Székesfehérvár was a settlement of Chief Árpád’s tribe in the time of the Settlement of the Magyars in the Carpathian Basin. It was later the coronation, wedding and burial centre for kings for centuries. In 1222, it was the place of the announcement of the Golden Bull (Aranybulla). Numerous beautiful and interesting sights await the visitor. A stroll through the streets of the city centre are a like travel back in time, evoke atmosphere of the past.




TATA Tata was given its name nearly a thousand years ago. In the time of the Grand Prince Géza, the future ruler, Vajk used to call his monk teacher Tata. The teacher was given this land in return for proividing educational services and he later founded a Benedictine monastery here, named after him. It was always a popular place as the nearby forests were unsparing in game and the waters abound with fish. In 1397 a fortress was built on the bank of the Old Lake, which, however, never served protective purposes. It was in fact built as a hunting castle, as a place of entertainment for kings. When József Esterházy later took over the leading of the fortress, he made several changes. He had the moors drained and had mills built on the streams. Miklós Esterházy had a castle built on the bank of the lake by Jakab Fellner, near the fortress. Ferenc I emperor and king, and his wife found refuge here for several weeks fleeing from the Napoleon wars, and it was here that the ruler signed the Vienna Peace Treaty in 1809 which ended the war. Tata is rich also in natural resources. The visitor today can take pleasure not only in the extant treasures of past times, but also in the current beauty of nature.


VESZPRÉM This city with county rights, boasting a nearly thousand-year-old history, is situated on the slopes of the Bakony highlands. It is also called the city of queens due to the privilege of the VeszprÊm bishop as the only one who was entitled to crown a Hungarian queen. Today the landscape of the city, which keeps its traditions and preserves its cultural rarities, is dominated by Baroque buildings that attract tourists with their beauty.





Lake Balaton is the largest lake in Central Europe and it is often referred to as the ’Hungarian sea’. Tourists from within Hungary and abroad enjoy visiting the lake thanks to the numerous recreation activities offered, including bathing and swimming. Kayak, windsurfing, water-skiing, fishing and sailing enthusiasts also share the water. For those who are more adventurous, there is the adventure park of Lake Balaton. The towns and villages surrounding the lake also offer many interesting sights and activities for visitors. In some towns there are spa baths and thermal springs to the great pleasure of those hoping to find cure. In the hills of the northern side of the lake, in the Balaton Uplands one will find the home of renowned wine growers, who offer, famous and delicious wines. After sunset when the beaches clear, the reflection of night lights billow on the surface of the water. This is the time when restaurants, cafes, bars, and nightclubs become alive.


TIHANY Tihany is the only peninsula on Lake Balaton and it is unique in its historical and natural richness. King Andrew I (Andrรกs) in the 11th century had the burial place for his family and a monastery built here. He brought Benedictine monks into the monastery. The best-known sight and symbol of Tihany today is the abbey church, which has been standing since 1752.





Lillafüred was founded in 1892 in the valley of the Stream Szinva, which belongs to the city of Miskolc. Its pearl is the Palace Hotel on the bank of the Hámori Lake. This highland resort offers the opportunity for excursions such as cave hikes, boating on the lake where visitors can enjoy fresh trout.


KESZTHELY Keszthely is one of the most populous and frequented towns of Lake Balaton, situated in the north-western corner of the lake. It is a cultural centre rich in traditions as well as a university town. Christopher (Kristóf) Festetics set to build his pompous castle here in the mid 1700’s. Today it can be visited as a castle museum and it houses the oldest and one of the most beautiful libraries in the country.





The history of Hévíz spa and the therapeutic effects of the lake were already known to the Romans, but the earliest written reference dates from 1328. The development and revival of bathing in Hévíz is linked with the name of Count György Festetics, who purposefully built up the bathing resort. Its popularly has grown so much that today several hundred thousands of tourists visit the place every year, which provides opportunity for comfortable relaxation not only for those looking for healing, but for anyone at all. Besides the baths, visits to promenades, parks, wine bars, churches and statue parks can make a trip here more colourful.


GYŐR A significant castle had stood here by the time the settler Magyars arrived. In 1009, King Saint Stephen chose Győr as one of the ten bishoprics he founded , and one part of the quartered body of the pagan Koppány was put out here. Today it is known for its waters, museums, beautifully renovated Baroque buildings and palaces that can be accessed via the narrow surrounding streets.



PANNONHALMA Pannonhalma is situated some kilometres away from Győr, and is famous for its Benedictine Archabbey. The abbey was founded in the time of the Settlement of the Magyars in the Carpathian Basin as Grand Prince GÊza invited the first missionary monks in 996. The town can be found at the foot of the Benedictine abbey and its history goes back to the Roman times. Although the


town was destroyed by the Turks, in the 18th century people once again began to inhabit and rebuild it. Its name was changed to Pannonhalma in 1965, and in 2000 it was given town status. Besides the sight of the Archabbey, the surrounding mountains offer great opportunities for bicycle and walking tours.



FERTŐD Fertőd is situated in the vicinity of the Fertő-Hansági National Park and Lake Fertő. It came into being through the merger of the settlements Süttör and Eszterháza in 1950. The Esterházy family took possession of Süttör in 1681. The town is proud to present to visitors, the Esterházy Castle built in 1720. The castle is a hunting-seat and gained its form known today in 1766 thanks to Nikolaus (Miklós) Esterházy. His contemporaries rightfully called Nikolaus ’the Magnificent’ or pomp-loving, and this is evident through the design of this amazing Rococo palace and its surroundings. The cour d’honneur is decorated with fountains, the garden is decorated with sculptures and vases, and in its rooms golden motifs flitter everywhere. Nikolaus the Magnificent fascinated his visitors not only with his pompous castle, but also with his high-level art life. Joseph Haydn arrived at the castle to work as a music teacher and spent nearly half of his creative years here, he composed several of his works in this castle.


NAGYCENK Nagycenk is situated in the region of Fertő, some kilometres away from Sopron. Count György Széchenyi purchased the Cenk estate in the year of the Szatmári accord, which brought peace to the Hungarian nobles. A small house existed on the estate, which was enlarged. By the end of the 18th century, the castle was a multi-storey building with a balcony on the main façade. After 1820 Count István Széchenyi became the lord of the castle, and became interested in the opportunities of the future. It is because of him that the Chain Bridge (Lánchíd) on the Danube was built, the Hungarian Academy of Sciences was founded, and that numerous revolutionary innovations took place in the life of the Hungarians. From the castle a 2.6-km-long poplar avenue leads to the tomb of Béla Széchenyi and his wife, which together with the castle became part of the World Heritage in 2003.




SOPRON The written mention of this town comes from 859. Sopron was a popular residence of noble families, the memory of which is preserved in the Esterházy Palace, the Széchenyi Palace, and others as well. The town successfully resisted the Tatars, Turks, the Kuruc movements and the battles of the 1848 revolution and war of independence. Thus there are many medieval churches and houses standing in the town today. The symbol of the town is the Fire-tower (Tűztorony) built in 1676.



The history of KaposvĂĄr began in 1061 when Atha, a reeve in Somogy, founded a Benedictine monastery here. It had gone through such great development by 1749 that it became the county town, and in 1993 it was already an episcopal seat when the parish church of the Assumption was granted cathedral rank. The town is a centre of cultural programmes today and it boasts an excellent spa bath as well.



HEREND PORCELAIN Founded in 1826, the Herend Porcelain Manufactory really started to flourish under Mór Fischer in 1839. In 1842 it was awarded the Imperial royal porcelain title, then in 1843 won the gold medal in the 1843 national exhibition. At this time porcelain was called white gold, because it represented great wealth and was a privilege to own. Queen Victoria ordered a floral pattern Herend dinnerware for the 1851 world fair, and this pattern, called the “Victoria” pattern, has been well-known ever since. One recognition followed another, as a result of which Mór Fischer received a title of nobility. Currently the owners are in large part its workers, and one quarter is owned by the state. Among manufactories, it was the first to win the Hungarian Heritage title. The extensive range of the beautiful handmade products is shown by the fact that there are nearly 16,000 pieces. There is strong demand for the unique, high-end porcelain, and a testament to this is the fact that Herend Porcelain is available in 50 countries around the world.


PÉCS The city of PÊcs, at the foot of the mountain Mecsek, was founded by the Romans in the 2nd century AD. After the Settlement of the Magyars in the Carpathian Basin in 1009, King Saint Stephen chose the settlement as one of ten bishoprics he founded. In the place of today’s cathedral, there was a chapel standing in the 4th century, which was rebuilt several times, gaining its present form as a result. The 4th century building of the Early Christian Mausoleum is an unparalleled sight of the city. The Early Christian necropolis is part of the World Heritage.





rom the 18th century the city saw great development, and to acknowledge this, Queen Maria Theresa declared it a free royal town in 1780. In the 1850’s and 1860’s factories of nationwide fame were established in the city, which still

function today. Pécs with its unique past is a cultural centre today. Numerous beautiful and interesting sights await the visitor. Wonderful buildings, houses with Zsolnay-roofs and foliage ornaments, interesting museums all welcome those wishing to see this pearl with their own eyes.


MOHÁCS Mohács, situated on the Danube-bank near Pécs, was one of the independent settlements of the settler Magyars. The name of Mohács is interwoven with a sad and mournful event in Hungarian history: the Hungarians were defeated on 29 August 1526 in a battle against the Turks by the armies of Sultan Suleiman near the town, and in the battle the king was also killed. In commemoration of his death, a memorial column was erected in 1867 in the place of the battle. This battle survives in history as the ’Mohács Disaster’. Later, Germans from the Rhineland and Southern Slavs settled here. Half of


the town’s population is non-Hungarian today.



he most spectacular buildings of the town today bear the marks of Baroque style. The interesting oriental-Hungarian style Town Hall building was finished in the early 20th century. Besides the beautiful buildings, churches, and

memorials, visitors can also witness an operating water-mill.


The Busójárás (’Busó-walking’) organized every sping in the Carnival season is visited by thousands of people, and is now on the UNESCO list of Intangible Cultural Heritage.



KECSKEMÉT KecskemÊt as a town with county rights plays a significant role in the economic and cultural life of the country. Its community is characterized by strong cohesion, a base created by grape-growing. Although it has been mentioned as a town since the 14th century, the buildings determining the picture of the town today were built in the time of the millennium. The Cifrapalota (Gaud Palace), the House of Science and Technology, and the stately building of the Town Hall were built by then.


KISKŐRÖS Kiskőrös is situated on the hills emerging from an area that used to be a moorland. Due to the invasion of the Tatars in the 13th century, Kiskőrös saw its population shrink as did other similar settlements in the Great Plain. However, thanks to King Béla IV, the settlement and its surroundings were populated again through relocation of inhabitantes here after the Tatars departed . The settlement was rather short-lived as in 1529 it was destroyed again, this time by the march-through of the Turkish armies. Kiskőrös’ revival began after 1691 when Leopold I (I. Lipót) bestowed the land upon Paul (Pál) Wattay, and it later came to belong to John (János) and Stephen (István) Wattay. They decided to populate Kiskőrös again, with Slovakian serfs from the Uplands in 1718. According to record, Hungarian, Jewish and Roman settlers also appeared afterwards. This town in the Danube-Tisza Interfluve with its interesting and eventful history is worth visiting today for several reasons. It is famous for its healthy thermal water, cozy restaurants where abundant meals are served , as well as its museums and country houses, including the birth-house of Sándor Petőfi--the poet of the people-- and monuments of the famous persons who translated his poems in its garden.




KALOCSA The town of Kalocsa is as old as the Hungarian state and was one of the archbishoprics founded by King Saint Stephen in 1009. Kalocsa is the second archbishopric in the country. The Cathedral beside the compelling building of the Archbishop’s Palace gained its present form in 1754. Today the town is the centre of national paprika growing and production; its history can be explored in the Hungarian Red Pepper Museum.


SZEGED This beautiful city on the bank of the Tisza has a significant economic and cultural past. Its first written mention comes from 1183. In 1879 the settlement was washed away by the great Tisza flood, but it was rebuilt in three years with unbelievable dynamism allowing it to became a modern city. The most important museums of the city offer numerous interesting sights: the Mรณra Ferenc Museum, the Paprika Museum and the Castle Museum. The most characteristic building of the city is the Votive Chrurch of Our Lady of Hungary (Fogadalmi templom or Dรณm). The buildings around the Church house university institutions, the Theological Academy and the episcopal cathedral operate therein . The Szeged Open-Air Festival, the most important cultural programme of Szeged, has been organized in the city for 80 years.




HORTOBĂ GY The and largest park in Hungary was designated a national park in 1973. It features the largest grassland in Central Europe, and is part of the World Heritage. HortobĂĄgy is the perfect plain developed from the planation of the River Tisza, which preserves its character even today. The ancient Hungarian Grey Cattle, the managalica swine, and the Hungarian herd-dogs: the puli and pumi are held here with the purpose of gene preservation.


HORTOBĂ GY The symbol of the National Park is the famous Nine-holed Bridge, which was the longest public road bridge in 1833 when it was finished. The herds of the Debrecen cattle merchants traveled to Vienna using this bridge in the times of the Tisza floods. Its unique flora and fauna, the endless horizon are a genuine spectacle and great experience for those who like harmony and nature itself.




KARCAG Karcag is the capital of the Nagykunság. Its history goes back to the 8th century, when the Cumans from the Kipchak branch of the Asian Turkic peoples settled here. They became Hungarian, but they have preserved certain elements of their ancient language and culture to the present day. The town has a significant art life and it is famous for its pottery. Kossuth prize winner Sándor Kántor lived and worked here, Munkácsy prize winning sculptor Sándor Györfi works in the town, whose outdoor statutes set up in many public squares are to the praise of his handiwork.


DEBRECEN Debrecen, also called the civic city (cĂ­vis vĂĄros), is the largest and most significant city of the Trans-Tisza region. At the same time it is the cultural, intellectual, economic, tourist and transport centre of Eastern Hungary. In 1361, Debrecen was granted the status of market town, and in 1683, it was elevated to free royal town status. Its name was known all over the continent thanks to its famous markets and protestant school which was considered excellent even to European standards. Debrecen was deemed the capital of Hungary twice in history, from 1848-1849 and in 1944. The Great Calvinist Church (Nagytemplom) is the most characteristic building of Debrecen, and with its ground-space of 1,500 square metres, it is the largest Calvinist church in Hungary. A church has stood in the place where it stands currently since the Middle Ages, and three of them were subsequently damaged by fire. Building of the present church was completed in 1824; its height is some 61 metres.



NYÍREGYHÁZA Nyíregyháza is a county seat with a population of nearly 120,000, bordering three countries. The first written mention of the city comes from 1209, although it was known as Nyír at the time. The second half of its name originated in 1236 when the church (egyház) of the settlement was built. The excellence of its population is shown by the fact that in the 1800’s Nyíregyháza became free from its feudal landlords, the Károlyi and Dessewffy families, and in 1837 the city was granted royal


privilege. From that time on, the city developed quickly. Schools were established, a new town hall and a hospital were built, and the nearby Sóstó (”salty lake”) Thermal Bath also started to flourish . In 1990, it became a city with county rights. Today it is the second most significant city of the Northern Plain region. The inhabitants of Nyíregyháza are trying hard to preserve the tranquillity, humanity and hospitality longed for in addition to the dynamic development.



MISKOLC Miskolc, the third largest city of Hungary, was granted town status in 1365. Erzsébet Bath and the Cave Bath in Miskolctapolca are popular resorts. The foundations of the castle in Diósgyőr were already standing in the 13th century. The castle houses the Castle Games twice a year where jousts and other performances are held evoking reminders of the Middle Ages.


TOKAJ According to the written sources, Tokaj was a vine-growing region in 1067. In 1823 Ferenc Kölcsey includes the wine region of Tokaj in his poem – …Tokaj szőlővesszein Nektárt csepegtettél… (…You were trickling Nectar on the vines of Tokaj…) – , the poem which later became the national anthem of Hungary. This charming historic city which has been attracting tourists for decades is now part of the World Heritage.




HOLLÓKŐ Hollókő is the only village in Hungary which is a World Heritage site. This tradition- preserving village with a total of 380 residents is not in operation as a museum or a skanzen, but it is a living village, where functional handicraft workshops are to be found in the depths of the whitewashed houses with verandas. The families in the friendly, welcoming guesthouses invite visitors to their tables, where they can find out what real Palóc soup and rösti taste like. The village is surrounded by the picturesque Hollókő Landscape Protection Area, which offers numerous opportunities for relaxation and excursions.


4 - 25 Budapest

26 Szentendre

36 Veszprém

38 -41 Balaton

28 Visegrád

30 Esztergom

32 Székesfehérvár

28 56

42 Lillafüred

44 Keszthely

30 140

52 48




46 Hévíz



48 Győr


32 38-41

46 44


50 Pannonhalma

52 Fertőd 74 58

54 Nagycenk

56 Sopron

34 Tata



58 Kaposvár

60 Herend

62 - 65 Pécs

66-69 Mohács

70 Kecskemét

72 Kiskőrös

74 Kalocsa

76 Szeged

78-81 Hortobágy

82 Karcag

84 Debrecen

88 Miskolc

90 Tokaj

92 Hollókő

42 88










86 Nyíregyháza

István Tutunzis photographer Published by CasteloArt Ltd.

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István Tutunzis

Photographs copyright © István Tutunzis , p47 Ivanhoe p66,67

ISBN 978-615-5148-74-3

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