Hungary képes füzet

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ver centuries, the descendants of the conquering leader, Árpád, enacted laws without use of a permanent house for the Hungarian parliament. After the 1848 revolution, the dynamically altered nation began to feel the need to change this situation. Thus, in 1882 a competition was announced to design a building that would house the parliament, which was won by Imre Steindl. Three years later on the 12th of October, the works began on Lipótváros’ Tömlő square. This was the biggest investment of the time, and for seventeen years nearly a thousand people worked on it. As there was a wish to undertake the project with Hungarian materials and a Hungarian workforce if possible, entire branches of industry were revived by this initiative. In this building with an internal volume of 473 000 cubic metres, 90 exterior and 152 interior statues stand tall on the walls. The building has 27 doors, and inside 29 staircases enable movement between the levels. The building is 268 m long, 123 m wide and 96 m high, and there are more than 200 offices accommodated. It has become a structural representative of the capital of our homeland.





he history of Buda Castle dates back to the Medieval period. Construction began in the mid 1300s, the golden age in the time of King Matthias Corvinus. The early central palace was severely damaged in the battles against the Turks, but later, thanks to the initiative of Maria Theresa, it was renovated in a majestic baroque style. Unfortunately, the palace fell victim to the Second World War, and at present it does not retain any parts which would ref lect the luxury of the bygone kings.


Reconstruction work on the palace started in 1959 on a rather tight budget. A simpler design was implemented and instead of reconstructing the ornate halls, modern and puritan architectural options were chosen. Today, it has an important role in the country’s culture since its chambers are used by the Hungarian National Gallery, the National SzÊchenyi Library, the Ludwig Museum of Contemporary Art and the Historical Museum of Budapest. It is home to numerous traditional events, including the Crafts Festival and the Buda Castle Wine Festival. The Buda Castle Palace as part of the Buda Castle Quarter has been designated as a world heritage site since 1987. Hundreds of thousands of tourists from all parts of the world visit every year. Numerous sights and points of interest are on offer for them. These include the Buda Castle Labyrinth, the old narrow streets and cosy restaurants of the Castle Quarter. Thanks to the location of the Palace, one can enjoy a wonderful panoramic view over the city of Budapest. 5



atthias Church, with the official name of Buda Castle Church of Our Lady, has occupied a prominent place in Hungarian history from the beginning. According to ecclesiastical tradition it was founded in 1015 by St Stephen. According to written records it was known in the 17th century as St Stephen’s church. The church had been standing for centuries when our King Matthias had a tower built onto it. During this period the church attained the peak of its mediaeval prosperity. King Matthias and the great historic figures following him had their weddings here, and Queen Elizabeth too and Charles I, the last crowned Hungarian king, also took their oaths in this holy place. The building suffered severe damage in World War II. Reconstruction work was begun in 1950 and the finishing touches were completed in 1984. For the first time in the history of the church, the state gave it into the possession of the Church in 1999, and even today this place of holy pilgrimage occupies a position worthy of its rank on Holy Trinity Square in the vicinity of Buda Castle Palace, providing a home for sung High Mass and welcoming visitors with open doors.




eptember 24, 1884 was the long opening of the Budapest Opera House, and the great opening celebration was enhanced by the presence of Karl Franz Jozef.

The awaiting crowd of the Sugรกr road was so excited to see the interior that they swept aside the guarding policemen and ran into the palace-like institute. Although, the name of the road has since been changed, the building is still beautiful and is a favourite of opera lovers.




he word Gundel is synonymous with tradition and quality in the area of hospitality. The founder of the restaurant, Kรกroly Gundel felt it was his goal to gather the values and specialities of Hungarian gastronomy and to amalgamate these with modern gastronomic techniques used in other parts of the world. With his persistent, popularising work he succeeded in putting Hungarian cuisine on the world gastronomy map. Looking back on a past of more than 100 years, the Restaurant has survived the storms of history, the world wars and the changes of regime, and at present is proudly continuing the work of the founder. It has won numerous national and foreign accolades. The Gundel Restaurant is popular with both Hungarians and foreigners, the secret of which is the milieu surrounding the guests, the inimitable hospitality, the tradition which radiates from the building and environment, and the food compositions prepared from outstanding quality ingredients. The Gundel Artistic Prize was created at the turn of the millennium, which is assigned each year in 14 categories for the purpose of acknowledging the best in various branches of the arts and in order to support their work. Since 2010 the chairman has been Miklรณs Szinetรกr, Kossuth prize winner, twice Mari Jรกszai prize winner and director of theatre, opera, TV and film.




iming at ceasing the noisy and dirty outdoor markets, the City Council established the Central Market Hall. The stately neo-gothic building was handed over to the traders in 1897, and almost at the same time, four other market halls

were built on the Pest side. The building is one of the finest creations of historicism in Hungary, built to the designs of architect Samu Pecz together with the neighbouring University of Economic Sciences. The building has a ground space of 10 000 square metres, the roof is adorned with building ceramics from the famous Zsolnay works, the stone entrance gates represent the Neo-Gothic style. The building was declared a monument in 1977, which was magnificently renovated at the end of the 20th century. In 1999 it was awarded the most prominent accolade of the Chamber of Hungarian Architects. This wonderful building is still in operation as a market hall today, welcoming thousands of local and foreign shoppers and visitors with a colourful selection.




ll the lamp posts are facing a peculiar monument on the Hősök tere (Heroes’ square). It is the millennial monument which commemorates the thousandth anniversary of the original settlement of the Hungarians. The monument depicts the heroes who made Hungarian history with their deeds. A Gloriette designed by Miklós Ybl stood here in 1894, which also incorporated a drinking fountain. The Gloriette was short lived, as in the year following its placement the decision was made to build a Pantheon on its site for the Millennium celebration. Sculptor György Zala and architect Albert Schickendanz were commissioned with implementing the task. Statues of 14 Hungarian rulers stood in the original monument. The square was later named Heroes’ Square in 1932. During the communist dictatorship following World War II, the statues were refashioned in accordance with the political views of the age, so the statues of the Habsburg monarchs were replaced. Although the country has been liberated from the dictatorship, the statues of the Habsburgs have still not been returned to their original positions.





he idea of founding the museum emerged in times when the national consciousness and the notion of freedom were both becoming apparent among civilians. In 1802, Ferenc Széchenyi, wanting to grant his rich collection to the Hungarian nation, asked the permission of the ruling Ferenc I who, of course, supported Széchenyi’s idea. Later, the 1832-36 Hungarian Diet carried a motion to build an independent house for the museum. The appropriated sum was half a million Forints, and the professionally recognized Mihály Pollach became entrusted with the designs . His work was finished by 1847, and the place had a significant role in the 1848-49 war of independence. The revolution broke out after the famous poet, Sándor Petőfi, recited his poem to the nation while standing on the stairs of the museum. From that point on, the building became a museum as well as an emblem of the nation’s freedom. Nowadays the Museum welcomes visitors with a permanent exhibition presenting the history of the Hungarian nation, seasonal exhibitions and interesting, colourful programmes for both younger and older people.




he history of the Gellért Hotel and Baths goes back to ancient times. In the 13th century, Andrew II established medicinal baths and a hospital here. During theTurkish period a bathhouse named Acsik ilidzse stoodhere.FollowingthereoccupationofBudaitcame into the possession of Leopold I’s family physician, then in 1718 the ownership passed to the city of Buda.

At that time it was known by the name of Sárosfürdő. In 1894 it was demolished when the Franz Joseph Bridge was built. When the concept of Budapest as a city of bathhouses was in formation in the early 20th century, construction of the baths and the hotel once more came to the fore. The building was completed in 1918 in breathtaking art nouveaustyleandenteredpublicconsciousnessas the first luxury hotel and bath in the capital. It ranked among the most modern medicinal baths of the age . In line with requirements of the time, a a hospital was attached . Cuisine was provided by the world famous Gundel Restaurant until 1945. It now bears the name of Danubius Hotel Gellért, which is one of the best known hotels in Budapest. Preserving its traditions, guests are still welcomed by the politeandamiablestaff,astheycometoenjoy the pleasures of relaxation in magnificent surroundings.




his picturesque town which celebrated its millennium last year was the capital of Hungary under King Charles Robert. The construction of the Upper Castle was initiated by the wife of King Béla IV, Queen Mary in the 1250’s, and later it was enlarged by King Sigismund and King Matthias. The Tower named Solomon is situated on the hillside beneath the castle. A fortified military camp once stood here,


where King Solomon was held between 1081-1083 at the command of King Saint Ladislaus. Visegråd and the Upper Castle are now tourist attractions. The town attracts thousands of tourists from in- and outside of Hungary annually because there are great opportunities for excursions, visiting historic monuments, reliving the past, and taking pleasure in the beautiful sight of the Danube Bend. Visegråd has also hosted the popular summer palace games for several decades ; a unique spectacle in the country. The games are staged in the in the dress of the times of King Matthias’. In the programme spectacular jousts are performed and the visitor can even try archery. 15



t the junction of the mountains and the plain land, on the bank of the Danube, lies the city of museums and art, the cultural paradise of tourists, Szentendre with its more than two thousand years of history. Its museums, galleries, and cozy cafes can be approached via streets of cobblestone, and through narrow alleyways. Szentendre houses the Open Air Museum of Ethnography, which presents folk architecture, and the life of Hungary’s most characteristic regions.




rand Prince GĂŠza chose Esztergom as his kingdom in 972, making it the first capital of our country. King Saint Stephen was crowned here on 1 January 1001; he founded the archdiocese of Esztergom as the centre of the Hungarian church. The Basilica of Esztergom, the largest church in Hungary, was built on the castle hill. This masterpiece was consecrated in 1869, and for that occasion Franz Liszt composed his Esztergom Mass.




he largest park in Hungary was designated a national park in 1973. It features the largest grassland in Central Europe, and is part of the World Heritage. HortobĂĄgy is the perfect plain developed from the planation of the River Tisza, which preserves its character even today. The ancient Hungarian Grey Cattle, the managalica swine, and the Hungarian herd-dogs: the puli and pumi are held here with the purpose of gene


preservation. The symbol of the National Park is the famous Nine-holed Bridge, which was the longest public road bridge in 1833 when it was finished. The herds of the Debrecen cattle merchants traveled to Vienna using this bridge in the times of the Tisza floods. Its unique flora and fauna, the endless horizon are a genuine spectacle and great experience for those who like harmony and nature itself.


KARCAG, WORLD FAMOUS LAMB STEW Nagykunsรกg is located in the middle of the Great Plains. Its capital is Karcag, which is the old name for the plains fox. It is an independent, natural, and cultural ethnic group with more than 800 years of tradition. Among the outstanding aspects of its folk culture are livestock farming, gastronomy, and pottery. Shepherds have always had access to the best foods due to their work, and so over the course of


decades and centuries a gastronomy has developed for these. So there is a very typical mutton stew that is common, cooked the same as in Kazakhstan, which shows that it has a tradition going back several thousand years. The Karcag lamb stew rightfully has entered the collection of Hungarian folk history. The modern and elegant Nimrรณd Bio hotel and Bio restaurant is located in the heart of the city, where there is always food of exceptional quality and quiet, spacious rooms await visitors.




ccording to the written sources, Tokaj was a vine-growing region in 1067. In 1823 Ferenc Kölcsey includes the wine region of Tokaj in his poem – …Tokaj szőlővesszein Nektárt csepegtettél… (…You were trickling Nectar on the vines of Tokaj…) – , the poem which later became the national anthem of Hungary.


This charming historic city which has been attracting tourists for decades is now part of the World Heritage. Boldogkő Castle was buiild as a fortress after the Mongol invasion, with the aim of protecting the Kassai road and Hernåd valley. Today it is a tourist attraction, where a military history exhibition including soldiers made out of lead await tourists. In summer it is home to castle games, where visitors are transported back in time with horsemen, musical parade, military exercises and an archery competition.




árospatak was already inhabited in Palaeolithic times; it was given town status in 1201 by King Emeric of Hungary. Saint Elizabeth of Hungary (Árpádházi Szent Erzsébet) was born here – she was the daughter of King Andrew II of Hungary. King Sigismund gave Sárospatak the status of free royal town, and in 1460 it received the right for markets by King Matthias. Its


Calvinist School is famous nationwide. Several famous persons studied here, among others Mihály Csokonai Vitéz and Lajos Kossuth. Péter Perányi began building the castle in 1534, and it was possessed by several famous noble families in the centuries to come. Among the owners were István Dobó and Ferenc Rákóczi II, whose name hallmarks the castle today The Rákóczi Museum of the National Museum functions among its walls at present. Sárospatak is a starting point for numerous tourist routes and the River Bodrog offers sporting opportunities as well.




ollókő is the only village in Hungary which is a World Heritage site. This tradition- preserving village with a total of 380 residents is not in operation as a museum or a skanzen, but it is a living village, where functional handicraft workshops are to be found in the depths of the whitewashed houses with verandas. The families in the friendly, welcoming guesthouses invite visitors to their tables, where they can find out what real Palóc soup and rösti taste like. The village is surrounded by the picturesque Hollókő Landscape Protection Area, which offers numerous opportunities for relaxation and excursions.




his thousand-year-old small town with a glorious past is famous for its monuments, good wine and thermal waters. Although almost everything was destroyed in the time of the Tartars, the town later played an important role in the time of the struggle against the Turks when Istvรกn Dobรณ and his handful of soldiers heroically defended the castle for 38 days in

1552, against an army forty times larger. Eger was part of the Ottoman Empire for 92 years, until 1687.The most spectacular monument of Eger, the minaret, is still standing. The town centre of Eger is often called the Baroque pearl of Europe. The third largest church of Hungary can be seen here, among others. Besides the numerous monuments, many interesting programmes and experiences await the visitor.





ihany is the only peninsula on Lake Balaton and it is unique in its historical and natural richness. King Andrew I (Andrรกs) in the 11th century had the burial place for his family and a monastery built here. He brought Benedictine monks into the monastery. The best-known sight and symbol of Tihany today is the abbey church, which has been standing since 1752.




ake Balaton is the largest lake in Central Europe and it is often referred to as the ’Hungarian sea’. Tourists from within Hungary and abroad enjoy visiting the lake thanks to the numerous recreation activities offered, including bathing and swimming. Kayak, windsurfing, water-skiing, fishing and sailing enthusiasts also share the water. For those who are more adventurous, there is the adventure park of Lake Balaton. The towns and villages surrounding the lake also offer many interesting sights and activities for visitors. In some towns there are spa baths and thermal springs to the great pleasure of those hoping to find cure. In the hills of the northern side of the lake, in the Balaton Uplands one will find the home of renowned wine growers, who offer, famous and delicious wines. After sunset when the beaches clear, the reflection of night lights billow on the surface of the water. This is the time when restaurants, cafes, bars, and nightclubs become alive.




significant castle had stood here by the time the settler Magyars arrived. In 1009, King Saint Stephen chose Győr as one of the ten bishoprics he founded , and one part of the quartered body of the pagan Koppány was put out here. Today it is known for its waters, museums, beautifully renovated Baroque buildings and palaces that can be accessed via the narrow surrounding streets.




he town of Kalocsa is as old as the Hungarian state and was one of the archbishoprics founded by King Saint Stephen in 1009. Kalocsa is the second archbishopric in the country. The Cathedral beside the compelling building of the Archbishop’s Palace gained its present form in 1754. Today the town is the centre of national paprika growing and production; its history can be explored in the Hungarian Red Pepper Museum. The famous Kolcsa embroidery, which has become a part of Hungarian culture, has patterns and motifs that ref lect the painted walls of houses. The f lower ornamentations are very well-known, and show the f lowers of the fields and gardens: violets, star f lower, tulips, bluebells, roses, and the famous red peppers of Kalocsa.




he written mention of this town comes from 859. Sopron was a popular residence of noble families, the memory of which is preserved in the Esterházy Palace, the Széchenyi Palace, and others as well. The town successfully resisted the Tatars, Turks, the Kuruc movements and the battles of the 1848 revolution and war of independence. Thus there are many medieval churches and houses standing in the town today. The symbol of the town is the Fire-tower (Tűztorony) built in 1676.




he “busójárás” (Hungarian for Busówalking) is a fun carnival which is the folk tradition of the Sokác of Mohács. The traditional Buso dress is the same as it is today: made of a fur coat with a painted mask carved out of wood. They are accompanied by the Jankels, whose role is to keep the people of the street away from them, which they accomplish by sprinkling ash, flour, and sawdust at the passers-by who jeer at them – primarily children. The women with veiled faces and the witches are an inevitable part of the parade. Every year thousands of visitors view the festivities, the festival, the crossing of the Danube, and the huge bonfire in the main square, which symbolizes winter, and in which a coffin is burned, and the dance that is danced in a circle around it. The special winter carnival did not escape the attention of many foreigners, and every year the festivities are visited by people from abroad, while street vendors help make the festival even more lively. As a deserved recognition, the busójárás was inducted in 2009 into the Representative List of the Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.





he history of Hévíz spa and the therapeutic effects of the lake were already known to the Romans, but the earliest written reference dates from 1328. The development and revival of bathing in Hévíz is linked with the name of Count György Festetics, who purposefully built up the bathing resort. Its popularly has grown so much that today several hundred thousands of tourists visit the place every year, which provides opportunity for comfortable relaxation not only for those looking for healing, but for anyone at all. Besides the baths, visits to promenades, parks, wine bars, churches and statue parks can make a trip here more colourful.





he city of Pécs, at the foot of the mountain Mecsek, was founded by the Romans in the 2nd century AD. After the Settlement of the Magyars in the Carpathian Basin in 1009, King Saint Stephen chose the settlement as one of ten bishoprics he founded. In the place of today’s cathedral, there was a chapel stand-


ing in the 4th century, which was rebuilt several times, gaining its present form as a result. The 4th century building of the Early Christian Mausoleum is an unparalleled sight of the city. The Early Christian necropolis is part of the World Heritage. From the 18th century the city saw great development, and to acknowledge this, Queen Maria Theresa declared it a free royal town in 1780. In the 1850’s and 1860’s factories of nationwide fame were established in the city, which still function today. Pécs with its unique past is a cultural centre today. Numerous beautiful and interesting sights await the visitor. Wonderful buildings, houses with Zsolnay-roofs and foliage ornaments, interesting museums all welcome those wishing to see this pearl with their own eyes. 39



he predecessor of the city of Pécs in Roman times was the city of Sopianae. This city’s more aff luent residents left behind a number of tomb monuments. A particularity of the late Roman and early Christian cemeteries and mausoleums is that these tombs are built out of stone and their interiors are decorated with murals depicting biblical scenes. This unique burial ground was inducted into the UNESCO World Heritage list in 2000.





he history of the Pannonhalma Abbey goes back more than a thousand years. The Benectine monks are to thank for introducing Christian beliefs and current European culture to the Hungarians who had settled in the eastern parts of Europe. The Benedictine monasteries have always held important cultural and public functions, and behind their walls operated the first school in Hungary. Even today it plays a very important role, since besides its student dormitory and high school, 42

the abbey operates both a college and a nursing home for the elderly. The main abbey is considered a unique monument by the more than one hundred thousand visitors that seek it out every year. The basilica with its classical towers is a popular place for young couples to have weddings. To the left of the basilica is the library, which besides books is also decorated with stunning frescoes and sculptures. Devotees of St. Benedict obey the Benectine rule of supporting themselves not from donations, but by their own labor. The Pannonhalma Abbey is successful both abroad and at home, and markets premium products. The herbal tea recipes are three hundred years old, their soaps are made from lavender they grow themselves. 43



he Fertő region is unique in Europe thanks to the diversity of its f lora and fauna. In the western part of the area there is a high salt-content steppe lake, which stretches into Austria, where hills and mountains rise around the lake. On the Hungarian side of Lake Fertő there is a network of reeds, the nesting place for the great egret, the great crested grebe

and herons. A 240 km long system of canals has been cut into the reeds to provide access to the inner lakes as well. Shorter or longer trails let visitors observe the animal life on the water and dry land. They can also see the region’s birds of prey: the white-tailed eagle, peregrine falcon, harrier, and the Hungarian Grey cattle and racka sheep grazing on the meadow grass surrounding the lake. On the areas covered with water there live anatidae and black-headed gulls, which can be observed from a high viewpoint.




ебрецен - самый большой и самый значительный город Затисайского региона, и одновременно культурный, интеллектуальный, экономический, туристический и транспортный центр Восточной Венгрии. Здесь находится самая большая в стране реформатская церковь площадью 1500м2. Значительным событием в жизни города является Фестиваль

цветов, который вот уже на протяжении пяти десятилетий проводится каждый год 20 августа в честь Дня Конституции. В этот день на 5-километровом участке города проходит шествие потрясающих цветочных композиций, для которых флористы используют до 3 миллионов цветов. Выступления венгерских и зарубежных танцоров и музыкантов оставляют незабываемые впечатления у гостей города и




ounded in 1826, the Herend Porcelain Manufactory really started to flourish under Mór Fischer in 1839. In 1842 it was awarded the Imperial royal porcelain title, then in 1843 won the gold medal in the 1843 national exhibition. At this time porcelain was called white gold, because it represented great wealth and was a privilege to own. Queen Victoria ordered a floral pattern Herend dinnerware for the 1851 world fair, and this pattern, called the “Victoria” pattern, has been well-known ever since. One recognition followed another, as a result of which Mór Fischer received a title of nobility. In 1874 Mór Fischer handed the factory over to his sons, who did not consider exclusivity to be important, and so began the dark days of the factory, and in the end it had to declare bankruptcy. From 1896 on the manufactory again flourished, once Jenő Farkasházi took over leadership. The second world war was not kind to the manufactories, and in its aftermath they were taken over by the state, before being again privatized in 1992. The owners are in large part its workers, and one quarter is owned by the state. Among manufactories, it was the first to win the Hungarian Heritage title. The extensive range of the beautiful handmade products is shown by the fact that there are nearly 16,000 pieces. There is strong demand for the unique, high-end porcelain, and a testament to this is the fact that Herend Porcelain is available in 50 countries around the world.




erenc Puskás is one of the best-known Hungarians, and left behind a life work which is recognized and honored throughout the world. In 1943 – at the age of 16 – he officially began his football career with the Kispest NB team 1. In 1952 the Hungarian team led by Ferenc Puskás won an Olympic title. At the World Cup a year later, which has passed into history as the match of the century, they defeated the English national team in their own home. Following this the team won numerous matches, a streak that only the revolution of 1956 interrupted, when Ferenc Puskás left the country. After a short break he was invited to play for Reál Madrid and he managed to stay at the world forefront for nearly ten years, on one of Europe’s most successful teams. The 84 goals he scored in 85 matches playing in Hungary stands as a world record to this day, and after this he won the most goals for Spain four times. Overall he is the highest scorer of all time. Later he worked on every continent as a coach, and at the end of his career returned home and represented his country for several years, until he became ill. The Puskás Football Academy was founded on his 80th birthday. Construction of the building was started in 2012, and included a 3500 capacity stadium, which the UEFA classifies as a category 2 stadium.




UNESCO World Heritage Site, the Baradla Cave is found in the Aggteleki National Park, and is one of Hungary’s best-known and most beautiful natural phenomena. The 25 kilometer long cave, a 7 km section of which extends into Slovakia, has many interesting and exciting features. Based on artifacts that have been discovered, it was already inhabited 7,000 years ago, and later the caves served as a burial site. The water that seeped through cracks in the limestone pooled up and over thousands of years etched out corridors and halls as it flowed. The walls have breathtaking gleaming stalactite and stalagmite formations, which have gorgeous red, yellow, and white colors. he tallest chambers is called the Giants Hal, and is 200 m long and 60 m high. The unique acoustics of the “Concert Hall” seen on the photo is used to hold concerts and performances there. In the caves tour guides guide visitors through long and short trips, which offer many interesting, exciting, and unforgettable experiences for both children and adults. 48