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In the first years of the 19th century, the Alsea, the Amahami (Anahami, Ahaharway, Wattasoon), the Arikara (Sahnish), the Assinboin, the Atsina (Gros Ventre), the Bannock, the Blackfeet, the Cathlamet (Kathlamet), the Cayuse, the Chehalis (Chilwitz, Chiltz), the Cheyenne, the Chinook, the Clackamas, the Clatskanie, the Clatsop, the Cowlitz, the Crow (Absaroka), the Flathead (Salish), the Hidatsa, the Kickapoo, the Klickitat (Klikitat), the Kootenai (Kootenay, Kutenai), the Mandan, the Minitari (Minnetaree), the Missouri, the Multnomah, the Nez Perce (Sahaptin, Shahaptin), the Omaha, the Oto, the Palouse (Palus), the Pawnee, the Quinault, the Shoshone (Snake), the Siletz, the Siuslaw, the Skilloot, the Tenino, the Teton Sioux, the Tillamook, the Umatilla, the Umpqua, the Wahkiakum (Wahkiaku), the Walla Walla (Walula), the Wanapum (Wanapam, Sokulks), Wasco (Kiksht), the Wishram (Wishham, Tlakluit), the Yakima, and the Yankton Sioux (Western Dakota) discovered Meriwether Lewis and William Clark.


Kaw Point Industrial Park, Kansas City, KS


This book was written on the ancestral lands of the Osage and the Kaw, currently known as Kansas City, Missouri. In 1803 Meriwether Lewis and William Clark spent three unremarkable days here at the confluence of the Kansas and Missouri rivers as they made their way to the Pacific Ocean, surveying the land bought in the Louisiana Purchase. They passed through this area after French fur trappers, Spanish conquistadors, and English traders, who all came after the Kaw, the Osage, the Missouri and dozens of other Natives from around region, passing through for travel and trade routes. I have no affiliation with any of the dozens of tribes that encountered these two men, however, I am currently occupying the land “discovered” by the expedition and am surrounded everyday by hints, suggestions, and propaganda to remind me of this. The six men on the trip who were literate wrote in journals every day, filling thousands of pages to be shared and spun like yarn, adding yet another tale of discovery to the founding stories of this nation. As a country born of settler colonialism, slavery, and white supremacy, this nation’s creation stories are smoothed over, spoken in hushed tones, violently suppressed, and over exaggerated, often to soothe guilt. Beautiful ancestral knowledge of this land has been ripped from the Native people, bent, twisted, repackaged to be presented as “new” and as a “discovery” while hiding any visible ties to a past Indigenous history. Settlers’ telling of history shape the monuments, textbooks, plaques, and museums. We have purposefully turned away from the complexities of our nation for long enough to lose nauance and historical accuracy. 213 years after the Corps of Discovery, I traveled the same path beginning in St. Louis, MO up the Missouri River northwest to the headwaters in Montana, crossed the Rockies, and followed the Columbia River west out to the Pacific Ocean. Along the trail, I installed plaques and markers in an attempt to redirect the narrative of Lewis and Clark to a broader context. The text on three of these plaques was written specifically for their locations by Juan William Chavez, José Faus and Stephanie Knappe, and a fourth plaque is a quote from Roberta Conner’s essay Our People Have Always Been Here. I am grateful for their words that have inspired and guided me. This project has given me the opportunity to dig deeper into the historical memory of the region I currently occupy and to ask how the weight of history guides our relationship with the land in pervasive and unseen ways. Thank you for reading. —Issac Logsdon, 2018


BLACKFEET

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Museum of the Plains Indian

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Lewis and Clark Interpretive Center

Knife River Indian Villages National Historic Site

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BISMARCK

Fort Abraham Lincoln State Park On-A-Slant Village

TETON SIOUX

tone R i v e r

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Pompeys Pillar National Monument NORTHERN CHEYENNE

S O U T H D A K O T A

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Lake Oahe TETON SIOUX

NORTHERN CHEYENNE

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Lily Park Bad River Confluence/Teton Council site

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SANTEE SIOUX BIG BEND

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Lower Brule TETON SIOUX 90

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Lewis and Lewis a Visito

Lake Francis Case

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Sacajawea Interpretive Center

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Missouri Headwaters State Park

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Three Forks of the Missouri

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Big Hole National Battlefield

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Fort Mandan

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Tamástslikt Cultural Institute

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Long Camp

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Lake Sakakawea

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Canyon Ferry Lake

Travelers’ Rest State Park

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Hat Rock State Park

PENDLETON

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Weippe Prairie

NEZ PERCE

Charles M. Russell National Wildlife Area

Judith River

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Three Affiliated Tribes Museum

Giant Springs State Park

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Columbia Gorge Interpretive Center

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Sacajawea State Park Interpretive Center

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Ilwaco Museum C O W L I T Z Fort Columbia State Park Station Camp CHEHALIS Beacon Rock State Park Clark’s Dismal Nitch 82 COWLITZ STEVENSON YAKAMA Ridgefield Fort Clatsop National C L A T S O P Wildlife Refuge Maryhill W I S H R A M Museum

Fort Peck Lake

T E C LIFFS“

Gates of the Mountains MISSOULA

Lolo Pass Canoe Visitor Center

Missouri-Yellowstone Confluence Interpretive Center

NEW TOWN MANDAN HIDATSA ARIKARA

Great Falls of the Missouri

Lewis and Clark Pass

Nez Perce National Historical Park

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Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail Interpretive Center

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SPALDING

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The People’s Center

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Fort to Sea Trail Salt Works Ecola State Park

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Cape Disappointment State Park Fort Stevens State Park

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Lewis and Clark National Historical Park

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LITTLE SHELL CHIPPEWA

Upper Missouri River Breaks National Monument

FORT BENTON

SALISH KOOTENAI PEND D’OREILLE

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ASSINIBOINE Fort Union Trading Post TETON SIOUX National Historic Site YANKTON SIOUX SISSETON-WAHPETON SIOUX

BLACKFEET Camp Disappointment

Missouri-Marias confluence

LOWER CHINOOK

ASSINIBOINE

GROS VENTRE

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Jean Baptiste Charbonneau grave

North

Lewis and Clark outbound journey, 1804-1805

Lewis and Clark return journey, 1806 (route shown where different from outbound journey)

Lewis return journey Clark return journey

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Historic Indian group location

WASCO

Present-day Indian tribe reservation location

Some Indian Nations who lived along the Missouri River during the Lewis and

Clark expedition were later relocated to Oklahoma. These include the Delaware, Kaw, Osage, Otoe-Missouria, Pawnee, Ponca, Potawatomi, and Shawnee.

Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail driving route

Trail point of interest

Present-day state names and boundaries shown for reference only.

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notes: -text surrounded by a black box appears on the grey plaques in the image on the opposite page

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SENECA PHILADELPHIA

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American Philosophical Society Academy of Natural Sciences

P E N N S Y L V A N I A

WINNEBAGO

LANCASTER

SUSQUEHANNOCK

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O C E A N

SENECA

SANTEE SIOUX

M O U N T A I N S

PITTSBURGH

SHAWNEE

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MINGO

Museum

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Clark Information Center and Clark Spirit Mound State Park or Center Missouri National

WYANDOT

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Recreational River

SIOUX CITY

P O TAWAT O M I

Sergeant Floyd Monument/Interpretive Center Lewis and Clark State Park

CINCINNATI

PEORIA

I N D I A N A

KICKAPOO

OTOE-MISSOURIA COUNCIL BLUFFS

Western Historic Trails Center

I L L I N O I S

Lewis and Clark Monument

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NEBRASKA CITY

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CLARKSVILLE

Falls of the Ohio State Park

Steamboat Trace Trail Indian Cave State Park IOWA SAC and FOX

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OTOE-MISSOURIA

KICKAPOO

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Independence Park POTAWATOMI

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FORT LEAVENWORTH

Frontier Army Museum

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KANSAS CITY

Lewis and Clark Memorial

ST CHARLES

Lewis and Clark Center

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Arrow Rock State Historic Site Fort Osage National Historic Landmark

INDEPENDENCE

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KATY Trail State Park

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Historic Camp Wood/Camp River Dubois

Bellefontaine Cemetery/William Clark grave

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Big Bone Lick State Park

SHAWNEE

Locust Grove

LOUISVILLE

K E N T U C K Y

ST LOUIS

Jefferson National Expansion Memorial

CAHOKIA Museum of Westward Expansion Gateway Arch

KASKASKIA JEFFERSON CITY

National Frontier Trails Center

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Fort Massac State Park

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Lewis and Clark Memorial

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Missouri River Basin Lewis and Clark nterpretive Trail and Visitors Center

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DeSoto National Wildlife Refuge

Fort Atkinson State Historical Park

Lewis and Clark National Historic Trail Headquarters

PAMUNKEY

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OMAHA PAWNEE

V I R G I N I AP A M U N K E Y

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IOWA

WINNEBAGO OMAHA

White House U.S. Capitol

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Ponca State Park Blackbird Hill Visitor Center

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WASHINGTON, D.C.

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ate Park SANTEE SIOUX

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Harpers Ferry National Historical Park Harpers Ferry Arsenal

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SHAWNEE

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and Clark Lake YANKTON SIOUX

HARPERS FERRY

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200 Miles

CHICKASAW Natchez Trace Parkway Meriwether Lewis grave

Official Lewis and Clark Trail Map, National Park Services, U.S. Department of the Interior


Lewis and Clark in front of the Gateway Arch, St. Louis, MO


Sergeant Patrick Gass of the Expedition (as reenacted by Mike Calwell) claimed the Corps made sure they never ran out of two things:

Powder and Ball Pen and Ink


Lewis, Clark, and 33 others went west in 1804 just after President Thomas Jefferson bought about 828,000 square miles of land west of the Mississippi River from the French called the Louisiana Purchase. Jefferson hired Meriwether Lewis to lead a military excursion, known as the Corps of Discovery, with the main goal of finding a water passageway to the western coast of the continent to use as a route for trade. In addition to searching for this waterway, Jefferson’s orders were very specific to record the names, numbers and how to deal with the Indigenous people encountered along the path, as well as the plant life, animals, rock formations, minerals, and weather.


Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were not alone on this military expedition. Out of the 33 who went the 4000 miles and back, York is the only person who was not officially recognized as a part of the expedition, despite his contributions as a skilled hunter, scout, and caretaker. Historians often refer to York as Clark’s “servant,” or even “servant companion,” in an attempt to dodge the accountability that accompanies the fact that York was enslaved. It is not always made clear that his participation in the expedition was not voluntary. Returning from the Pacific Coast, everyone from the original party—except York—was paid and given land. Along the way at Fort Mandan, located in what is currently known as North Dakota, Sacagawea (Lemhi Shoshone) joined the expedition with her captor Toussaint Charbonneau. At an early age, Sacagawea was captured by the Hidatsa and sold as a slave to Charbonneau. In the Corps, she was a valuable member of the group because she spoke both Shoshone and Hidatsa. The Corps used her abilities as a tool to help in negotiations with Native people along the way. In addition to contributing to the Corps, she cared for her infant child, Jean-Baptiste Charbonneau, while crossing the Rockies and traveling out to the Pacific Ocean. Sacagawea’s participation in the expedition was not voluntary. A couple of people on the expedition were Métis—of both French and Native descent—a few more were French, and the remainder were Anglo-Americans. The Métis and French were mainly trappers, hired for their knowledge of the territory and ability to speak some of the Native languages of the region. The Anglo-Americans were sergeants and privates on this excursion for the money and fame that came along with what they perceived as a historic endeavor. Lewis and Clark were the expedition’s captains. In the context of the larger, devastating consequences of this expedition and westward expansion, Lewis and Clark are often defended with they couldn’t possibly have known what was going to come after or sometimes that was just socially acceptable at the time. But honestly, I don’t have time for that kind of justification. In some ways, the people of this expedition are not important to how our collective memory understands the Louisiana Purchase or westward expansion. The exact details of what we need to know about Lewis and Clark are up for debate, but the one thing I do know for sure is that Meriwether Lewis and William Clark were not alone on this military expedition. They were followed by thousands of settlers and homesteaders in covered wagons that mimicked their example to venture out west. They have been supported by hundreds of historians justifying their journey and never asking for accountability in the aftermath. They have been backed by policies that give this white supremacist police state power over Indigenous people and land. The groundwork laid by this expedition is silently accepted every day by hundreds of thousands of people who uphold settler colonial values and never acknowledge that they are on stolen Native land. Lewis and Clark have always had accomplices.


Hammer Strikes, Gateway Arch, St. Louis, MO


Public Law 105–124—DEC. 1, 1997 50 STATES COMMEMORATIVE COIN PROGRAM ACT SEC. 2. FINDINGS. The Congress finds that— (1) it is appropriate and timely— (A) to honor the unique Federal republic of the 50 States that comprise the United States; and (B) to promote the diffusion of knowledge among the youth of the United States about the individual States, their history and geography, and the rich diversity of their national heritage


View of St. Louis from on top of the Cahokia Mounds, IL


View of St. Louis from on top of the Cahokia Mounds, IL


­Cahokia, IL


In every Arch is a Mound ­ —Juan William Chavez


In prepartion for the trip, the Corps of Discovery brought following intended as gifts for the encountered Indian tribes: 12 dozen pocket mirrors 4,600 sewing needles 144 small scissors 10 lbs of sewing thread Silk ribbons Ivory combs Handkerchiefs Yards of bright-colored cloth 130 rolls of tobacco Tomahawks that doubled as pipes 288 knives 8 brass kettles Vermilion face paint 20 lbs of assorted beads, mostly blue 5 lbs of small, white, glass beads 288 brass thimbles Armbands Ear trinkets


Parfleche and Trunk at the feet of Lewis, Clark, Sacagewea, and York, Kansas City, MO


Kaw Point Industrial Park, Kansas City, KS


Kaw Point Riverfront Park, Kansas City, KS


Confluence of the Missouri and Kansas Rivers, KS


­ June 29,1804 The first extra legal proceeding west of the Mississippi Three days in June’s early heat where the Kaw feeds the Missouri a man is want to get thirsty, make a raucous night of sipped rum— the portion not meant for him and dance the night’s vigil raw. But here on the banks of this virgin camp, lashes against skin are justice. On these banks the law takes a first wobbly step onto a nascent land —José Faus


Native people are the only group of people that fall under the Department of the Interior, a branch of the Federal Government, which includes:

Bureau of Indian Affairs Bureau of Land Management Bureau of Ocean Energy Management Bureau of Reclamation Bureau of Safety and Environmental Enforcement National Park Service Office of Surface Mining Reclamation and Enforcement U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service U.S. Geological Survey

In an endless fight for basic human rights and recognition, relations between Indigenous people and the federal government are being “managed” by the same department as the fish caught in lakes, the fucking uranium mined for nuclear weapons and left exposed to poison the drinking water of thousands of Diné (Navajo), the public lands sold off to turn the upper plains into monoculture farming that starves and poisons the soil once stewarded by the Oceti Sakowin (Lakota, Eastern Dakota, Western Dakota), the waterways endangered with pipelines, the old-growth forests of the Niimílpu (Nez Perce) cleared for lumber, the dams that block waterways of life-giving salmon for the Pacific Northwest tribes, and the sacred burial grounds, religious sites, and bones of ancestors stolen to be turned into a park, now sold off to the highest bidder ready to drill oil, poison the water, draw imaginary lines in the earth to make parcels for sale.


Sand Dredging Along the Lower Missouri River, Google Earth


ESTAMOS AQUÍ by José G. González, an essay in Whose Parks are These? (excerpt) “‘What do you think of when you think of parks?’ 1. Beautiful majestic landscapes where I can connect to nature and find myself. 2. White-supremacist spaces.” “When we talk about our public lands, we talk mainly about how they should be enjoyed and protected at this moment of history—with a presumption of accepting them as they are now presented to us. But what is now a national forest was once a Mexican or Hispano merced, a land grant and before that it was a communal territory to a diverse population of American Indians. This can be lost, pushed out, or ignored in favor of mainstream narrative telling us that these are our lands to enjoy without having to reflect on how they came to us. Opening up to those histories and narratives provides more connection points to the increasingly diverse American public. We cannot accept the expectation to approach discussion of our public lands in exactly the same way that the American mainstream has in the past, with the same enshrined values that helped set up the National Park System. This does not mean that those values do not have an important role in the stewardship of these places. It is just that if we are true to the practice of diversity, equity, and inclusion, we must accept how the lived experience of other communities alter the way those communities look at public lands—and how the expectations and culture of the outdoors also can affect communities working to connect to our open spaces. It is all connected. When we think of issues and questions of social justice, civil rights, and inequities, we may often limit them to urban settings and to our “disadvantaged” communities. But questions of social justice are not just found in the courts and the criminal justice system, or in our obvious examples of privilege and institutionalized discrimination. These questions are also present in the wild and open spaces we value as the outdoors, and the human systems that manage them.”


Stone State Park, IA


View of Monoculture Farming from Stone State Park, IA


“All of those seeds, the Haudenosaunee or Mohawk seeds that have been handed down from one generation to another, had been grown in our specific bioregion using the three sister planting method, so they were very much selected to thrive within that particular type of polyculture, or permaculture planting system, and so they were very well adapted to our very specific traditional food system. The definition of a traditional seed is that it has been grown by a particular community over many generations and its been handed down in that way, but the beautiful part about these traditional seeds is that they all carry a very unique cultural memory and story that makes them so precious to us and really a vibrant part of our cultural renewal, and is when we begin to carry these seeds again, and care for them and tend to them in our gardens, we’re rehydrating a whole constellation of cultural memory about what it means to be Indigenous.” —Rowen White, on episode 5 of Toasted Sister: Radio about Native American Food


Pierre, SD


In the first years of the 19th century, the Alsea, the Amahami (Anahami, Ahaharway, Wattasoon), the Arikara (Sahnish), the Assinboin, the Atsina (Gros Ventre), the Bannock, the Blackfeet, the Cathlamet (Kathlamet), the Cayuse, the Chehalis (Chilwitz, Chiltz), the Cheyenne, the Chinook, the Clackamas, the Clatskanie, the Clatsop, the Cowlitz, the Crow (Absaroka), the Flathead (Salish), the Hidatsa, the Kickapoo, the Klickitat (Klikitat), the Kootenai (Kootenay, Kutenai), the Mandan, the Minitari (Minnetaree), the Missouri, the Multnomah, the Nez Perce (Sahaptin, Shahaptin), the Omaha, the Oto, the Palouse (Palus), the Pawnee, the Quinault, the Shoshone (Snake), the Siletz, the Siuslaw, the Skilloot, the Tenino, the Teton Sioux, the Tillamook, the Umatilla, the Umpqua, the Wahkiakum (Wahkiaku), the Walla Walla (Walula), the Wanapum (Wanapam, Sokulks), Wasco (Kiksht), the Wishram (Wishham, Tlakluit), the Yakima, and the Yankton Sioux (Western Dakota) discovered Meriwether Lewis and William Clark.


TEARING DOWN CAMP by MG Salazar from Striking the Black Snake October 27th they came for camp set up on the 1806 smashed elders into the frozen ground pinched tender skin in zip ties they lined up our people kidnapped prisoners on the side of the road snapped pictures while the elders cried strip-searched grandmothers and scrawled numbers on their arms threw them in dog kennels piles of sacred objects ransacked from the camps urinated on and burned while a man made a wave of his hand in disdain bulldozers trumpeted smashed dwellings mindless machine Tell me where it says these gaping jaws have jurisdiction over a treaty Indian on treaty land engaged in ceremonies given to them by the Great Spirit so they might know peace


This map shows the area around the Sacred Stone Camp with the proposed pipeline route, labelled with Lakota/Dakota place names and oriented to the South. Map by Jordan Engel with assistance by Dakota Wind. The Dakota Access Pipeline Indigenous Protest map can be reused under the Decolonial Media License 0.1. Íŋyaŋwakağapi Wakpá – Cannonball River “Stone-Make-For-Themselves River” Íŋyaŋ Wakháŋagapi Othí – Sacred Stone Camp / Cannon Ball, North Dakota “Sacred Stone Camp” Íŋyaŋ Woslál Háŋ – Standing Rock Reservation Mníšoše – Missouri River “Turbulent Water” Pȟá Šuŋg Wakpána – Horsehead Creek “Horse Head Creek” Zuzéča Sápa – Dakota Access Pipeline “Black Snake”


Donald Trump in the Oval Office in front of the painting of his choice for decor, a portrait of “Indian-Killer� Andrew Jackson


“I’m pleased to announce that the Dakota Access Pipeline…is now officially open for business. A 3.8 billion dollar investment in American infrastructure that was stalled and nobody thought any politician would have the guts to approve that final leg. And I just closed my eyes and said, ‘Do it.’ [gestures a signing motion with eyes closed] Think of it to [sic] a company standpoint, they build this massive pipeline, going for miles. Then, they have to hook it up, a little section, and they’re stopped. And I said, ‘that’s not fair.’ And you know, when I approved it, it’s up, it’s running, it’s beautiful, it’s great, everybody’s happy, the sun is still shining, the water’s clean. But you know, when I approved it, I thought I’d take a lot of heat and I took none. Actually none. People respected that I approved it.” —Donald Trump, from a speech on June 7th, 2017, seven days before Judge James Boasberg of the U.S. District Court of Washington DC ruled that the federal permits granted to Energy Transfer Partners to construct the fracked oil Dakota Access Pipeline across the Missouri River­— just upstream from the Standing Rock Sioux Tribe—failed to fulfill National Environmental Policy Act (NEPA) requirements, violating the law


In the first years of the 19th century, the Alsea, the Amahami (Anahami, Ahaharway, Wattasoon), the Arikara (Sahnish), the Assinboin, the Atsina (Gros Ventre), the Bannock, the Blackfeet, the Cathlamet (Kathlamet), the Cayuse, the Chehalis (Chilwitz, Chiltz), the Cheyenne, the Chinook, the Clackamas, the Clatskanie, the Clatsop, the Cowlitz, the Crow (Absaroka), the Flathead (Salish), the Hidatsa, the Kickapoo, the Klickitat (Klikitat), the Kootenai (Kootenay, Kutenai), the Mandan, the Minitari (Minnetaree), the Missouri, the Multnomah, the Nez Perce (Sahaptin, Shahaptin), the Omaha, the Oto, the Palouse (Palus), the Pawnee, the Quinault, the Shoshone (Snake), the Siletz, the Siuslaw, the Skilloot, the Tenino, the Teton Sioux, the Tillamook, the Umatilla, the Umpqua, the Wahkiakum (Wahkiaku), the Walla Walla (Walula), the Wanapum (Wanapam, Sokulks), Wasco (Kiksht), the Wishram (Wishham, Tlakluit), the Yakima, and the Yankton Sioux (Western Dakota) discovered Meriwether Lewis and William Clark.


Fort Peck Dam, MT


“Nothing new occurred worth mentioning.” —Joseph Whitehouse, member of the Corps of Discovery on March 29th, 1805


Oxbow in the Upper Missouri River, MT


Clearwater-Nez Perce National Forests, ID


“...to discover tribes takes nothing away from our history, or so it seems, but for indigenous peoples the act of discovery is loaded, charged, and offensive. Why? Because there is a larger, more consequential, insidious application when lands and indigenous people are ‘discovered.’ The idea that an official government-ordered expedition of discovery conducted by a military unit is or was altruistic, innocent, virtuous, and heroic must come from the discoverer’s vantage point. Such a notion is naive, or disingenuous and reckless.” —Roberta Conner


Lochsa River, ID


A large, metal-framed, informational plaque is drilled into an aged wooden armiture built to hold an older sign on a gravel pull off of U.S. Highway 12 at the edge of the Lochsa River. This highway clings to the banks of the Lochsa, weaving through the low points in topography in the Bitterroot Range of the Northern Rockies. This late in spring the snowmelt turns to tumbling whitewater, cutting through the mountains covered with fragrant pines, firs, and cedars. A large, metal-framed, informational plaque tells the story of why the land is parcelled into an unnatural checkerboard pattern. In 1908 the U.S. Federal Government granted the Northern Pacific Railroad alternating sections of land along their proposed path to build a railway to the Pacific Northwest. Instead of building the railroad, the company kept the land and eventually sold it to Plum Creek Timber Company. After decimating the old-growth forests for decades, the U.S. Government then bought it back from the Plum Creek Timber Company. The sign has the guts to call this most recent decision to buy back by the land once given away for free, sold for profit, and exploited for lumber, a “visionary� move. A large, metal-framed, informational plaque on the side of U.S. Highway 12 probably mentions something about Lewis and Clark too, but honestly those things reveal more about the person writing than the thing they’re writing about.


To Captain William Clark and the eleven members of the Corps of Volunteers for Northwestern Discovery at Cape Disappointment on November 18, 1805: More than four thousand miles of gathering “knolege.” A journey to seek what was already known, to open a vast and varied region never locked, to christen the previously named, to pull a nation forward in your wake. At the site of Captain John Meares’ failure, you turned from the “soil & face of the country” it was your commission to witness and record. Backs to the continent you crossed, you confronted the sea. Was there fulfillment in the spray? Were you as satisfied as you say? Cape Disappointment—a place name you did not change. Was this designation rendered ironic by your achievement? Or did it chart a secret mood—a longing to continue wrapped in regret that this was the end? Did it foreshadow your attitude during the monotony of Fort Clatsop, where more than four thousand miles of “estonishment” were reduced to the dispirited disclosure: “nothing worth notice occurred today”? —Stephanie Fox Knappe


Cape Disappointment State Park, WA


“Perhaps it is in our culture, perhaps it is in our DNA, or perhaps it is a bit of each of those, but we humans seem hardwired to explore. Not all of us feel it, but so many people today and in the past have felt an irresistible urge to see for themselves what lies just beyond the horizon. And we are grateful that they have. Explorers make great discoveries, find new places to settle, and identify resources that benefit their sisters and brothers who stayed at home. The explorers of the space frontier are doing the same thing.” ­—Virgin Galactic website, “Why We Go: Exploring Space Makes Life on Earth Better”


NATURE POEM by Tommy Pico (excerpt, pg 40) “...Science predicts we’ll discover alien life by 2025 Dudes’ legs on the subway are constantly spreading Nature asks aren’t I curious abt the landscapes of exoplanets—which, I thought we all understood planets are metaphors like the Vikings, or Delaware The night sky yawns over the city, indistinct but for the spell Miss Night Sky of my childhood was darkest toward the desert, where her features chill and sparkle and swoon with metal lighting up the dark universe I wanted to stop looking up and start matching forward like a metaphor NDN teens have the highest rate of suicide of any population group in America. A white man can massacre 9 black ppl in a church and be fed Burger King by the cops afterward. A presidential candidate gains a platform by saying Mexican immigrants are murderers and rapists It’s hard for me to imagine curiosity as anything more than pretext for colonialism so nah, Nature I don’t want to know about the colonial legacy of the future...”


Somewhere Near the End of the Trail


Settler colonialism is an active term. The forces that took land through state-sanctioned violence are the same forces that continue to brutalize and oppress Black and Native people today. This includes the largest acts of explicit racism and oppression to the smallest acts of accepting the status quo and power dynamics of this country. There is no neutral way to tell the past. Historians often search for a detached tone, in an attempt to dissolve into the background, but forget that even rejecting emotional repsonses is a cold, empiricist, European way of approaching what came before. Categorizing stories is not a question of what is fiction or nonfiction, but it seems more productive to ask ourselves how much of this is fiction and what intentions were placed behind these words? If we do not examine our relationship to the dominant culture’s telling of the past, colonial heteropatriarchal forces will continue to invade our relationships to each other and to the earth. Through out the process of working on this project, I have learned so much from others. I hope it is apparent that this collection of writing is really my attempt to stitch together many of the things that have inspired me around Indigenous rights, land use, outgrowing colonial structures, and addressing our past in new ways. Thank you to those who have pushed me, asked questions, and enabled me to grow throughout this. Thank you again to those who wrote new work for this project—Juan William Chavez, José Faus, and Stephanie Knappe. And thank you to my partner, Emily, who guided me through the process of using a CNC mill, drove 5,000 miles with me, and helped dig post holes in state parks while keeping eye turned to the road. This work couldn’t have happened without so many of you. —Issac Logsdon


In the first years of the 19th century, the Alsea, the Amahami (Anahami, Ahaharway, Wattasoon), the Arikara (Sahnish), the Assinboin, the Atsina (Gros Ventre), the Bannock, the Blackfeet, the Cathlamet (Kathlamet), the Cayuse, the Chehalis (Chilwitz, Chiltz), the Cheyenne, the Chinook, the Clackamas, the Clatskanie, the Clatsop, the Cowlitz, the Crow (Absaroka), the Flathead (Salish), the Hidatsa, the Kickapoo, the Klickitat (Klikitat), the Kootenai (Kootenay, Kutenai), the Mandan, the Minitari (Minnetaree), the Missouri, the Multnomah, the Nez Perce (Sahaptin, Shahaptin), the Omaha, the Oto, the Palouse (Palus), the Pawnee, the Quinault, the Shoshone (Snake), the Siletz, the Siuslaw, the Skilloot, the Tenino, the Teton Sioux, the Tillamook, the Umatilla, the Umpqua, the Wahkiakum (Wahkiaku), the Walla Walla (Walula), the Wanapum (Wanapam, Sokulks), Wasco (Kiksht), the Wishram (Wishham, Tlakluit), the Yakima, and the Yankton Sioux (Western Dakota) discovered Meriwether Lewis and William Clark.

213 Years After the Corps of Discovery  
213 Years After the Corps of Discovery  
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