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  

            

  

                              

internationalsocialistpakistan@yahoo.com  www.worldtowinpk.net    92-333-2298922 10

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                                 '                                                                                                                                                                     345 lailonihar@gmail.com 0301-4250618

          Imperialism and Global Political Economy                     worldtowinpk.net

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                    "            "                                    (1)                                                                                                                2002                                                                         

                            (2)       

                                                                                                 1990     3

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                                                            

 (3)             

                                                     "    "                                                                         (4)                                                                                                                                                                                                  "         "    (5)                                   "     "                   "       "                   "  "       (6)      

   

                                                          4

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                                    (7)                                                              (8)                                                                    19                                                                              (9)                                                                                                 ii      i           ���                           (10)                                                                   5

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                                                                                                                        1990                 

           1974                                                                                                       

               

                  

                                          (11)  

                                                                                                                                                                                   6

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                                                 (12)                                                                                                                                                                                                                        1970  1960                                                                                                (13)       20                                                                                                      30  1943                             (14)   7

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                                                                                     2005                                                                                 

  

                                                                                                                                  (15)                                                                                                                                                                                                                    8

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                                              (16)    (17)                                                      ���          (18)                                                                                                   (19)                                                                                                                                                                       (20)                                                                                                                                                                 9

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                                                                         19                                                                                                                                      (22)                                      1990                                                                 (23)20                                                                                                                                                           1940        (24)                                                   10

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                                          19                                                                         1960                                                                19         (25)                                   20                                                                                                                                   1960                     (26)                                                                                   (27)                                                               11

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 1916                                                                                                                                                                             ���         Capital Logician                1970    1960                                                (28)                                                                                                     

                                              

                       

                           

                                                               

                 (29)   

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 2007                                                                            2007                      13

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       (30)         

      

 Imperialism           

                                                     14

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                      2007                                                                                                               19                                                                                                                           2003                       (31)                                                                                                              1                                                                                        19                          2                   non-Reductionist 15

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                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                          3                                                                                                                                 16

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                     (32)                                                                                                                                                (33)                                                                                (34)                                                                            (35)                           1970                                                                                                                                           (36)                                              (37)        17

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  1970    1960                 1                             2                          3                                                                   (38)                                                                                                (39)   19                    ���                                                                                                                       (40)                                        5                                                                                  18

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                                                                                           (41)                              (42)    NOTES AND REFERENCES 1 This introduction is based on my inaugural lecture at King'sCollege London, 15 October 2007 2 R. Suskind, 'Without a Doubt', New York Times Magazine,17 October 2004 3 Z. Brzezinski, The Grand Chessboard (New York, 1998),p. 10 4 N. Ferguson, Empire: How Britain Made the Modern World(London, 2003), p. xxi 5 N. Ferguson, Colossus: The Rise and Fall of the AmericanEmpire (London, 2004), pp. 183, 193 6 F. Cooper, Colonialism in Question (Berkeley and Los Angeles,2005), p. 5; see also ibid., eh. 2, 'The Rise, Fall, and Rise ofColonial Studies, 1951-2001'. I am grateful to Sharad Charifor this reference 7 M.W. Doyle, Empires (Ithaca, 1986), p. 30. Unless there issome specific reason for doing otherwise, I shall use the terms'imperialism' and 'empire' interchangeably 8 Cooper, Colonialism in Question, pp. 26-7. Cooper offersan extended discussion of empire as a political form in ibid.,eh. 6, 'States, Empires, and Political Imagination'. C. Calhounet al., Lessons of Empire (New York, 2006) seek to bring thehistoriography of past empires to bear on the current situation See also H. Münkler, Empires (Cambridge, 2007), criticized inB. Teschke, 'Imperial Doxa from the Berlin Republic', NewLeft Review, 1/40 (2006). For Marxist discussions of precapitalistempires, see E.M. Wood, Empire of Capital (London,228NOTES TO PAGES 3-102003), chs 2 and 3, and K. Van Der Pijl, Nomads, Empires,States (London, 2008), ch. 3 9 V.I. Lenin, Imperialism, The Highest Stage of Capitalism, inid., Collected Works, XXII (Moscow, 1964), p. 267 10 F. Halliday, 'The Persistence of Imperialism', in A. Rupert andH. Smith, eds, Historical Materialism and Globalization(London, 2002), p. 76. This judgement is all the more remarkablein the light of Halliday's political hostility to contemporaryanti-imperialism, which he dismisses as 'a coalition of theromantic and the authoritarian', ibid., p. 85 11 P. Patnaik, 'Whatever Has Happened to Imperialism?', SocialScientist, 18/6-7 (1990): 73, reprinted as 'Whatever Happenedto Imperialism?', in Monthly Review, November 1990 12 N. Geras, 'Reductions of the Left', Dissent, winter 2005 (www dissentmagazine.org) 13 See Nigel Harris's brilliant, if overstated, The End of the ThirdWord (London, 1986) 14 P. Clarke, The Last Thousand Days of the British Empire(London, 2007), p. 280. On the Great Bengal Famine, see A.K Sen, Poverty and Famines (Oxford, 1981), ch. 6

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15 For a survey, see R.J.C. Young, Postcolonialism: An HistoricalIntroduction (Oxford, 2001), and, for a more critical responsefrom a historian, Cooper, Colonialism in Question 16 J. Darwin, After Tamerlane (London, 2007), p. 491 17 Ibid., p. 505 18 M. Hardt and A. Negri, Empire (Cambridge, MA, 2000) andMultitude (New York, 2004) 19 P. Anderson, 'European Hypocrisies', London Review ofBooks, 20 September 2007 20 N. Chomsky, Hegemony or Survival: America's Quest forGlobal Dominance (London, 2003), pp. 182, 232 21 B. Porter, Empire and Superempire (New Haven, 2006). LindaColley makes some perceptive and partly parallel observations,in 'The Difficulties of Empire: Past, Present and Future', HistoricalResearch, 79 (2006) 22 J. Gallagher and R. Robinson, 'The Imperialism of Free Trade',Economic History Review, 2/VI (1953): 6 23 W.A. Williams, The Tragedy of American Diplomacy (NewYork, 1991) 24 Quoted in R. Wiggershaus, The Frankfurt School (Cambridge,1994), p. 256. Halliday offers a related paraphrase of Horkheimer:'those who do not want to talk about capitalism,229NOTES TO PAGES 11-17230should not talk about international relations, or globalization','The Persistence of Imperialism', in A. Rupert and H. Smith,eds, Historical Materialism and Globalization, p. 77 25 M. Kidron, 'Imperialism - Highest Stage but One', InternationalSocialism, 9 (1962) and 'International Capitalism', ibid.:20 (1965), both reprinted in Capitalism and Theory (London,1974) and available at: (www.marxists.org) 26 A. Callinicos, Althusser's Marxism (London, 1976) 27 R.J.C. Young, White Mythologies (London, 1990) 28 D. Harvey, Spaces of Hope (Edinburgh, 2000), ch. 1 29 L. Althusser and E. Balibar, Reading Capital (London, 1970),p. 180 30 See A. Callinicos, The Resources of Critique (Cambridge,2006), esp. chs 3 and 4 31 D. Harvey, The New Imperialism (Oxford, 2003), and A. Callinicos,The New Mandarins of American Power (Cambridge,2003). For some reservations about Harvey's treatment of accumulationby dispossession, see S. Ashman and A. Callinicos,'Capital Accumulation and the State System', and B. Fine, 'Debatingthe "New Imperialism"', Historical Materialism, 14:4 (2006) 32 See the symposia on The New Imperialism in Historical Materialism,14:4 (2006) and around my article 'Does CapitalismNeed the State System?', in the Cambridge Review of InternationalAffairs, 20/4 (2007), and subsequent issues 33 Hardt and Negri, Empire and Multitude, and W. Robinson, ATheory of Global Capitalism (Baltimore, 2004) 34 E. Wood, 'Global Capital, National States', in Rupert andSmith, eds, Historical Materialism and Globalization 35 L. Panitch and S. Gindin, 'Global Capitalism and AmericanEmpire', in Panitch and Colin Leys, eds, The New ImperialChallenge: Socialist Register 2004 (London, 2003), 'Financeand American Empire', in Panitch and Leys, eds, The EmpireReloaded: Socialist Register 2005 (London, 2004), and 'SuperintendingGlobal Capital', New Left Review, 11/35 (2005) 36 Perry Anderson offers a very similar view of contemporaryimperialism as an American-led Concert of Powers in 'Jottingsin the Conjuncture', New Left Review, 11/48 (2007). See, for acritique of Hardt and Negri in line with this perspective, A Boron, Empire and Imperialism (London, 2005) 37 R. Kiely, 'Capitalist Expansion and the Imperialism-Globalization Debate', journal of International Relations andNOTES TO PAGES 18-43231Development, 8 (2005), pp. 3 2 - 4 . See, in addition to the textsby Harvey and me cited above, W. Bello, Dilemmas of Domination(New York, 2005), P. Gowan, The Global Gamble(London, 1999), C. Harman, 'Analysing Imperialism', InternationalSocialism, 2/99 (2003), J. Rees, Imperialism andResistance (London, 2006), and C. Serfati, Imperialisme etmilitarisme (Lausanne, 2004) 38 For example, G. Arrighi, The Long Twentieth Century (London,1994), and Adam Smith in

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Beijing (London, 2007) 39 R. Brenner, 'What is, and What is Not, Imperialism?', HistoricalMaterialism, 14.4 (2006), and 'Imperialism and Neoliberalism',paper given at Historical Materialism conference, London,10 November 2007. Aijaz Ahmad occupies a broadly similartheoretical position: Iraq, Afghanistan and the Imperialism ofOur Time (New Delhi, 2004) 40 B. Sutcliffe, 'How Many Capitalisms?', in Rupert and Smith,eds, Historical Materialism and Globalization, p. 50 41 B. Sutcliffe, 'Imperialism Old and New', Historical Materialism,14/4 (2006): 74 42 Among my earlier efforts are: A. Callinicos, 'Imperialism, Capitalism,and the State Today', International Socialism, 2/35(1987), 'Marxism and Imperialism Today', InternationalSocialism, 2/50 (1991), and 'Periodizing Capitalism and AnalysingImperialism', in Robert Albritton et al., Phases of CapitalistDevelopment (Basingstoke, 2001). For the InternationalSocialist tradition, in addition to the texts by Harman, Kidron,and Rees cited above, see T. Cliff (1957), 'The Economic Rootsof Reformism', in id., Marxist Theory after Trotsky (London,2003), N. Harris (1971), 'Lenin and Imperialism Today', inid., India-China: Underdevelopment and Revolution (Delhi,1974), J. Rees, 'The New Imperialism', International Socialism,2/48 (1990), and Callinicos et al., Marxism and the New Imperialism(London, 1994). I have incorporated fragments fromthe first two articles cited, and from 'Bourgeois Revolutionsand Historical Materialism', International Socialism, 2/43(1989), albeit altered, and surrounded by much new material,in chapters 1, 3 and 4 43 Callinicos, 'Does Capitalism Need the State System?', p. 542,and, in response, G. Pozo-Martin, 'Autonomous or MaterialistGeopolitics?', Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 20/4(2007)

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Imperialism and Global Political Econony Chapter 1 Introduction Alex Callinicos