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   Global Cities and Global Workers in 21st Century

 

                        

         



              Pakistan InternationalSocialists           0304-2181821 ww.worldtowinpk.net

 12

  

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       

              

                              2000      

                                                 

     

                                            

                  

            

                                       

    

                                                                                                                                             

   

                                                   InternationalSocialists Pakistan                             

How to Order Books, CDs, pamphlets can be ordered only within Pakistan. To order books or CDs call 0304-2181821 or order via email internationalsocialistpakistan@yahoo.com or write to PO Box 8404, Karachi, Pakistan. Please add Rs 10 per book as postal charges and Rs 50 per order for Postal Registry. Books will be send by VP post, i.e. you pay when you receive the books. You can avoid postal charges by paying through mobile money transfer but ensure you call our number before and after transfer, books will be sent after mobile transfer.

        www.worldtowinpk.net 2

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                            http://www.isj.org.uk/index.php4?id=760&issue=132                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 3 Print to PDF without this message by purchasing novaPDF (http://www.novapdf.com/)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         4 Print to PDF without this message by purchasing novaPDF (http://www.novapdf.com/)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           5 Print to PDF without this message by purchasing novaPDF (http://www.novapdf.com/)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                    6 Print to PDF without this message by purchasing novaPDF (http://www.novapdf.com/)


                                                                                                                                                                                                         7 Print to PDF without this message by purchasing novaPDF (http://www.novapdf.com/)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              8 Print to PDF without this message by purchasing novaPDF (http://www.novapdf.com/)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      9 Print to PDF without this message by purchasing novaPDF (http://www.novapdf.com/)


 

                                                                              ���                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                           10 Print to PDF without this message by purchasing novaPDF (http://www.novapdf.com/)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            11 Print to PDF without this message by purchasing novaPDF (http://www.novapdf.com/)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                           12 Print to PDF without this message by purchasing novaPDF (http://www.novapdf.com/)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              13 Print to PDF without this message by purchasing novaPDF (http://www.novapdf.com/)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     ���                                                                                                                                        14 Print to PDF without this message by purchasing novaPDF (http://www.novapdf.com/)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                       15 Print to PDF without this message by purchasing novaPDF (http://www.novapdf.com/)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                     16 Print to PDF without this message by purchasing novaPDF (http://www.novapdf.com/)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                      17 Print to PDF without this message by purchasing novaPDF (http://www.novapdf.com/)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                              

              18 Print to PDF without this message by purchasing novaPDF (http://www.novapdf.com/)


                                        ���                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                         19 Print to PDF without this message by purchasing novaPDF (http://www.novapdf.com/)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               20 Print to PDF without this message by purchasing novaPDF (http://www.novapdf.com/)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                21 Print to PDF without this message by purchasing novaPDF (http://www.novapdf.com/)


                             .                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                            22 Print to PDF without this message by purchasing novaPDF (http://www.novapdf.com/)


                                                                     ���                                                                   

                                                                  23 Print to PDF without this message by purchasing novaPDF (http://www.novapdf.com/)


                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                 24 Print to PDF without this message by purchasing novaPDF (http://www.novapdf.com/)


                                                                                                          Notes 1:The weaknesses of UN urban statistics and the often arbitrary variations in the definitions of towns and cities are explored in Cohen, 2004. 2: These figures and estimates are subject to frequent revision. The figures in italics are rough estimates drawing on the work of Paul Bairoch (see Bairoch, 1991) and back-projections by the author. 3: Weber, 1899; Vaughan, 1843. 4: UN-HABITAT, 2010. 5: Cohen, 2004. 6: Reader, 2004. 7: Ooi and Phua, 2007, p29. 8: Montgomery, 2009, discusses in detail the variation in health patterns within cities and between cities and the countryside. 9: There is an extensive debate on the detail of these relationships that has been surveyed on a number of occasions. 10: Burawoy, 2010, p308. 11: Chang and Grabel, 2004, p17. 12: Davis, 2006. 13: UN quoted in Davis, 2006, p23. 14: I have used Angus Maddison’s data for GDP per head for these calculations-Maddison, 2003.

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15: Davis, 2006, p19. 16: Perry, 2008, p25. 17: UN-HABITAT, 2009. 18: UN-HABITAT, 2008, 2009. 19: See Montgomery, 2009. 20: Cohen, 2004. 21: Table excludes CIS countries and Oceania. 22: ILO, 2008, pp119-121. 23: Quoted in Drakakis-Smith, 1987, p94. 24: Seabrook, 1990, pp64-95. 25: Davis, 2006. 26: Ooi and Phua, 2007. 27: Davis, 2006, p138. 28: Mohan and Dasgupta, 2005, pp217, 218. 29: Although these events are called “natural” disasters they reflect the way that people are physically separated by inequalities of wealth and poverty. The rich live more safely, the poor are vulnerable-so that some have even suggested that earthquakes should be called “classquakes” to reflect who lives and who dies. 30: Aksoy, 2005. 31: UNCTAD, 2009. 32: On the debate about food prices see Morelli, 2008. In 2010-11 they have again risen precipitously. Those in the countryside may not gain from increased food prices if input prices also rise. Worse, growing numbers in the countryside also buy food. So far as the global food supply is concerned it will be adequate if output grows and less of it is used inefficiently to produce meat-which is food and energy intensive as cereal calories are converted into meat ones, or biofuels, which are ridiculously expensive in food terms. To fill the tank of an SUV with a biofuel takes the same amount of grain as would feed a person for a year-McMichael, 2009. For projections of the global population-food supply balance to 2050 see Dorin, Paillard and Treyer, 2011. 33: Quoted in McMichael, 2009, pp238-239. 34: Ellis, 2006; Rigg, 2005.

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35: Beall and Fox, 2007, p9. 36: Quoted in Drakakis-Smith, 1987, p49. 37: El-Mahdi and Marfleet, 2009. 38: Zeilig, 2010. 39: Times, 25 June 2005. 40: Quoted in Ooi and Phua, 2007, pp27-28. 41: Holloway, 2002. 42: For some sense of the importance of this in poor cities see Montgomery, 2009. 43: See Perlman, 2009; also Beall and Fox, 2007, p10. 44: He argues this in his 2003 article but the argument is not carried over into his 2006 book. 45: In El-Mahdi and Marfleet, 2009, p119. 46: Mike Davis’s Planet of Slums, for all its power, makes only cursory references to more positive political responses. See Davis, 2006, p185. 47: Munck, 2010, p218. 48: In making this comparison our aim is not so much to search for solace as realism. Levels of unionisation in poor countries are not so different from past experience as is often suggested. 49: Silver, 2003, p171. 50: Mason, 2007. 51: Brady and Martin, 2007. 52: Brady and Martin, 2007. 53: Zeilig and Ceruti, 2007, pp74, 77. 54: I have compiled this from data in Solidarity Center, 2010, and from data on the Egyptian Land Center for Human Rights website. The data is no doubt imperfect and will be improved if change proceeds and the Egyptian state archives are properly opened up. The two entries for 2004 represent the first and second halves of the year. 55: Seddon and Zeilig, 2005.

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56: Lenin, 1965, pp355-356. References Aksoy, M Ataman, 2005, “The Evolution of Agricultural Trade Flows”, in M Ataman Aksoy and JC Beghin, Agricultural Trade and Developing Countries (World Bank). Bairoch, Paul, 1991, Cities and Economic Development: From the Dawn of History to the Present (University of Chicago). Beall, Jo, and Sean Fox, 2007, Urban Poverty and Development in the Twenty First Century (Oxfam). Brady, Nathan, and David Martin, 2007, “Workers of the Less Developed World Unite? A Multilevel Analysis of Unionization in Less Developed Countries”, American Sociological Review, volume 72, number 4. Burawoy, Michael, 2010, “From Polanyi to Pollyanna: The False Optimism of Global Labor Studies”, Global Labor Journal, volume 1, number 2. Chang, Ha-Joon, and Ilene J Grabel, 2004, Reclaiming Development (Zed Books). Cohen, Barney, 2004, “Urban Growth in Developing Countries: A Review of Current Trends and a Caution Regarding Existing Forecasts”, World Development, volume 32, number 1. Davis, Mike, 2003, “Planet of Slums”, New Left Review, II/24. Davis, Mike, 2006, Planet of Slums (Verso). Dorin, Bruno, Sandrine Paillard and Sébastien Treyer, 2011, Agrimonde: Scénarios et Défis pour Nourrir le Monde en 2050 (Quae). Drakakis-Smith, David, 1987, The Third World City (Routledge). El-Mahdi, Rabab, and Philip Marfleet (eds), 2009, Egypt: The Moment of Change (Zed Books). Ellis, Frank, 2006, “Agrarian Change and Rising Vulnerability in Rural Sub Saharan Africa, New Political Economy, volume 11, number 3. Holloway, John, 2002, Change the World Without Taking Power: The Meaning of Revolution Today (Pluto). International Labour Organisation (ILO), 2008, World of Work Report 2008: Income Inequalities in the Age of Financial Globalisation (International Institute for Labour Studies). Lenin, VI, 1965, “The Discussion on Self-Determination Summed Up”, in Collected Works, volume 22 (Progress).

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Maddison, Angus, 2003, The World Economy: Historical Statistics (OECD). Mason, Paul, 2007, Live Working or Die Fighting: How the Working Class Went Global (Harvill). McMichael, Philip, 2009, “Banking on Agriculture: a Review of the World Development Report 2008$9_$, _Journal of Agrarian Change, volume nine, number two. Morelli, Carlo, 2008, “Behind the World Food Crisis”, International Socialism 119 (winter), www.isj.org.uk/?id=455 Mohan, Rakesh, and Shuhagato Dasgupta, 2005, “The 21st Century: Asia becomes Urban”, Economic and Political Weekly (15 January). Montgomery, Mark, 2009, “Urban Poverty and Health in Developing Countries”, Population Bulletin, volume 64, number 2. Munck, Ronaldo, 2010, “Globalisation and the Labour Movement: Challenges and Responses”, Global Labour Journal, volume 1, number 2. Ooi, Giok Ling, and Kai Hong Phua, 2007, “Urbanisation and Slum Formation”, Journal of Urban Health, volume 84 number 1, www.who.or.jp/publications/2008-2010/KNUS%20thematic_papers/KNUS_ThematicPaper13.pdf Perlman, Janice, 2009, “Megacity’s Violence and its Consequences in Rio de Janeiro”, in K Koonings and D Kruijt (eds), Megacities: The Politics of Urban Exclusion and Violence in the Global South (Zed Books). Perry, Alex, 2008, Falling off the Edge: Globalisation, World Peace and Other Lies (Macmillan). Reader, John, 2004, “No City Limits”, Guardian (11 September), www.guardian.co.uk/world/2004/sep/11/2020 Rigg, Jonathan, 2006, “Land, Farming, Livelihoods and Poverty: Rethinking the Links in the Rural South”, World Development, volume 34, number 1. Seabrook, Jeremy, 1990, The Myth of the Market: Promises and Illusions (Green Books). Seddon, David, and Leo Zeilig, 2005, “Class and Protest in Africa: New Waves”, Review of African Political Economy, volume 32, number 103. Silver, Beverly, 2003, Forces of Labor: Workers$7_$ _Movements and Globalization Since 1870 (Cambridge University Press). Solidarity Centre, 2010, The Struggle for Worker Rights in Egypt (Washington: Solidarity Center). United Nations, 2009, World Urbanisation Prospects, 2009 Revision.

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