Industrial And Theoretical Contexts:
How Does The Design Process Differentiate Between That Of A Dyslexic And Non-Dyslexic Designer?
An Introduction Dyslexia The Creative Process Dyslexia And The Creative Process Studying The Difference Case Study #1 The Dyslexic Case study #2 The Non-dyslexic The Comparison Conclusion The Appendix The Bibliography
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Chapter 1: An Introduction
About the design
A brief look at the motive behind the design.
The design of this report has been carefully considered to be suitable for dyslexic readers. I have chosen a clear sans serif font as the more traditional serif fonts tend to obscure the letter forms. This can make absorbing the content for dyslexic readers harder than necessary. The paper I have chosen is a shade of gray as a bright white page can be too dazzling for dyslexicâ€™s. An overlay has also been included if the reader wishes to use it. An overlay can mitigate a range of visual perceptual problems for dyslexic people. The weight of the paper was also considered as text showing through from the next page can also distract the reader. I have adjusted the line spacing for clarity and aim to structure the paragraphs clearly. I will also be avoiding unnecessarily long sentences.
An Introduction To The Report
The purpose of the study, and the rationale behind it.
This study aims to identify the differences between how dyslexic and non-dyslexic designers work in the creative design process, and what, if any, impact it has on the quality of the outcome. From being dyslexic myself I have witnessed a vast difference in how my mind works compared to that of my non-dyslexic peers. I have first hand experience in how being dyslexia can affect and complicate what you want to achieve. As there are many successful dyslexic designers currently practising, it is clear that it is however not a barrier to employment or success, and therefore my interests lie with discovering how dyslexia impacts on an individuals creative design process. The aim of the study will be addressed using qualitative data from interviews and a survey to explore the differences in the creative design process, and to establish whether these can be attributed to dyslexia. This will allow both dyslexic and non-dyslexic designers to offer their perspectives of the design process, which can then be compared and contrasted.
The introduction to this study pulls out key facts about dyslexia and its symptoms, and looks at how perceptions of it may not always be an accurate picture of the impact that it has on sufferers. It also identifies typical differences in learning, reading and writing between dyslexics and non-dyslexic individuals. Chapter 2 then goes onto apply these behaviours to the design process, looking at how it might be impacted by them at each stage. This sets up chapter 3 to analyse the data from the questionnaire and interviews of designers, to evaluate the accuracy of this depiction. Chapter 3 brings together key findings and the conclusions that can be drawn from findings, as well as reflecting on the study at-large and ways that this work could be developed or expanded.
A closer look behind the learning difficulty.
Dyslexia is a specific learning difficulty that affects around 10% of the population (British Dyslec). It affects the mind in many different ways; some sufferers still enjoy reading and writing, for example, whereas others find it an impossible chore. Because of this, dyslexia can often leave sufferers in situations where they have to think on their feet and create a way around a difficult task. The compensational strategies and mechanisms that dyslexics develop in order to succeed in spite of difficulty, are of particular interest; especially the ways in which they might relate to design. There are strong links between dyslexia and creativity. It has been proven that dyslexic people are much more successful ‘visual thinkers,’ as Bonnie Magoon Haley argues:
“Actual exposure and hands-on experience enhances my ability to visualize solutions. It is very important to learning and gaining understanding for those with dyslexia. The more experience that is gained, the better one is at creating solutions.” Bonnie Magoon Haley, Founder and Director of the National Society of Creative Dyslexics.
Dyslexic people tend to think in pictures, rather than words (Eide and Eide, 2011: 24). Non Dyslexics have verbal thoughts, which thinking in words and have a linear process that occurs with a speed of about 150 words per minute (Ibid, 25). Dyslexics naturally have non-verbal thoughts, thinking in pictures, where the image grows and develops as the thought process adds more concepts. Because of the speed at which this happens, these thought processes can take place inside the subconscious mind (Ibid, 28). Being able to think in pictures can however prove problematic for dyslexic people, as this makes it more difficult to apply the linear thought process that processing written words requires. Words like ‘and,’ ‘as’ and ‘the’ - conjunctive words or words that cannot be accompanied by an image cause the sufferer to have a disjointed view. When reading this can lead them to feel disorientated in the text (Davis, 1995: 18). Therefore, dyslexics find themselves struggling to follow storylines and written arguments.
“I can’t think clearly without seeing a picture. If I cant mentally visualise a picture from the words that are being communicated to me, I will rarely understand those words properly.” (West, 2008: 4)
However, the ability to think and learn with the use of pictures is becoming more recognized as being beneficial. The internet, and other information technology developments, mean that we are much less reliant on the written (or the spoken) word to communicate. The growth of other media has meant that pictures can now be used to communicate a point or idea just as clearly and deeply as the written word ever could. Itâ€™s important not to see dyslexia as just an obstacle in the way of being able to read, write and spell easily. It is also a reflection of radically different patterns of brain organisation and ways of processing information. It is one that predisposes a person to important abilities on top of the well-known difficulties. It is almost a false representation to refer to it as purely a learning difficulty; through the right eyes it can be seen simply as a particular learning process or style. During school a dyslexic child may not be at the top of their class but as soon as they can specialise in the subjects that work for them they can begin to excel.
“Its like looking through the telescope the wrong way, its a shrinking perspective of what these people are. People say its in spite of dyslexic that they succeed, but if you look the right way you can see the talent. Its like two side of a coin”
(Valerie Muter, BBC Radio 4 Women’s Hour, 26th October 2011)
Often subjects at school that do not feel easy to excel maybe written off as unenjoyable. Thus, dyslexics may shy away from subjects that involve a lot of writing and turn instead to those where other media of expression can be employed, such as graphic design, or even the world of business. In the summer of 2011 Tom Pellereau won BBC’s apprentice. As someone who suffers from dyslexia, Pellereau has spoken out about how he has used it to his advantage in the world of business. Pellereau states that his learning problems aided him to realise his strengths and weaknesses from a young age:
“I was in some ways very lucky because from a young age I was very bad at certain things, so that meant I was always going to do science, engineering and design. I discovered I could do things better than other people. If I had an idea, I could visualize it in my brain and spin it around.” (Tom Pellereau, 19 July 2011)
It has been proven that Dyslexic people can visualise from multiple perspectives, making them stronger in fields such as Architecture, design and construction. However we may question is it that dyslexics excel in the creative fields, or is it that they struggle to find enjoyment in subjects which rely on literacy skills and there for are more willing to put time and practise into creative subjects? And can these enhanced creative abilities be seen as simply mitigating from the written word?
Chapter 2; The Creative Design Process
What is creativity?
Design can be described as one of the most creative of human pursuits. The definition of creativity could be considered ambiguous appearing in many forms other than design, including music creation, fine arts and sculpture, to name but a few. It can be applied to varying career paths. When considering the term creativity in a design field the designer has a number of expectations to fulfill. These include solving problems that are not their own, fulfilling the needs of others, whilst creating visually beautiful outcomes. Herman Hertzberger, architect, relays this when he describes what he sees as his definition of creativity within architecture:
â€œ For me creativity is, you know, finding solutions for all these things that are contrary, and the wrong type of creativity is that you just forget that sometimes there are many people, and you just make beautiful stairs from the one idea you have in your head. This is not creativity, this is fake creativity.â€? (cited in Lawson 1994a:153)
How can Dyslexia Change the Creative Design Process?
Below I list the different stages of the design process. At each one, considering how the stage might be different for a dyslexic designer as opposed to a non-dyslexic one, using the characteristics of dyslexia described in Chapter 1. + Discover, Research Into The Problem; Most projects begin with researching as it allows a designer to gain a thorough understanding of a subject area, problem or issue. It is however the first hurdle in the design process that dyslexics may find problematic. Most secondary research methods consist of analysing books or online resources, absorbing information so that it can then be applied to the design problem. Absorbing this type of information can be difficult for a dyslexic designer as their reading speed is considerably slower, and they find it harder to scan read so may end up finding themselves reading bodies of text which are not directly relevant. This lack of efficiency might increase the time that the research process takes, meaning that working speed might be slower for a dyslexic designer than their non-dyslexic counterpart at this stage. As Dyslexics think more visually it is likely that they will watch films or Youtube videos at this stage rather than scan through books or heavily worded websites. This was recognized by a dyslexic participant in the interview discussed in chapter 3: 11
â€œWhen I am researching a subject matter I go straight to Google images, I then look through the pictures to try and gauge whether the website will be relevant to meâ€? (Participant A)
Retaining information could also prove problematic at this stage as unlike their non-dyslexics counterparts dyslexic designers are less likely to remember and retain subjects they have researched in the past, as participant B describes:
â€œ After working on a project for a sufficient amount of time I begin to feel quite the expert on my subject matter. When I finish it and begin my next project, I am able to look back to the project before and feel a complete novice with pretty much no retained information on the subject.â€? (Participant B)
+ Delve Brainstorming; Mapping The Problem To Understand It The next stage of the design process is to somehow visualize initial thoughts and ideas. Some designers find that writing a list at their computer is an adequate representation of their ideas, whereas others choose to map their thoughts with a mind map. A mind map is a good way to view all of one’s ideas at once, and map the connections between them. For dyslexics, who commonly have short-term memory problems, a mind map would be an effective way to view all of the ideas at once, from which a solution can be drawn. (West, 2007:10) Dyslexic designers will be more likely to turn to a pen and paper at this stage. Their thoughts are much less linear than a non-dyslexic and therefore something with less order, such as a mind map, is a much more efficient method. Non-dyslexic designers also use mind mapping techniques but that is more out of choice rather than need.
“Creating a mind-map helps to analyse my possible ideas effectively. To see them laid out on paper helps me approach them with a clear head. If I don’t spend time on a mind-map ideas can quickly get forgotten. (Participant B)
+ Define, Drafting Possible Outcomes Drafting possible concepts is a stage where potential ideas can be pulled from the idea generation stage and can be looked at in greater detail. Questions such as, what would an effective format be? Or ‘what would the target audience relate with most,’ are relevant to ask at this stage. As dyslexics often have problems with working memory, an idea can come and go in a matter of seconds so its important for the designer to get it recorded. It can be difficult to explain particular ideas through writing or speaking. Sometimes dyslexics find using images or symbols can help to explain an idea. Non-dyslexics take a much more linear and, arguably, logical approach. It’s at this point where the different techniques could compete against each other; Non-dyslexics and their logical linear approach versus the sporadic multi technique dyslexic approach.
+ Develop, Working With Research To Shortlist Best Outcomes When it comes to the stage of making decisions about ideas, itâ€™s useful to have absorbed enough knowledge from the research to be working on an educated level. This can help you decipher not only what is a good idea, but one that will solve the problem or meet the criteria. This can be a frustrating time for a dyslexic as pulling the relevant bits out of a potentially large pool of research and placing it with the possible concepts can be difficult. Often research will have to be repeated for dyslexics as its difficult to remember information and the chances are the bits relevant to this stage of the design process could have well be buried by other elements of the process. The way in which a non-dyslexic designer approaches this stage is much more controlled and tidy. He or she is able to focus on key findings that they have kept at the forefront of their mind and can easily multitask by measuring the concept against their findings.
+ Testing, Prototyping At this stage, the key concepts have been whittled down and it’s time to start experimenting with the creation. Depending on what format is required for the outcome, often the designer will experiment with versions of the physical form. Dyslexics might, at this stage, benefit from have something physical to work with. He/she may use paper and pens rather than a computer, to start to bring the idea to life. This can be a trial and error process but it’s generally a more rewarding stage for the dyslexic designer. The non dyslexic designers prototypes may be slightly more accurate at this stage. It’s a good time to use the organisation skills that many non-dyslexics have and they can begin to plan the content as well as the physical form. Some dyslexics thrive on creating things of this nature, but can often neglect the planning element when it comes to the information or content the design will hold. This can seen when Participant A speaks of similar experiences as a dyslexic designer:
“ When prototyping I love getting pens and paper out and making my ideas come to life, I do however tend to overlook the part where I should really be finalizing the content. Its easy for me to get distracted with folding and experimenting, as that’s something I feel comes a lot more natural to me” (Participant A) 17
Conclusion: Differences, not Disadvantage This chapter has explored the creative process and the ways in which it could be impacted by the behaviours associated with dyslexia. Whilst some stages might be harder for sufferers, others are made easier and, overall, there is a balance between the two. As long as they recognize their strengths and weaknesses, dyslexic designers need not be disadvantaged by their condition. In fact, they may sometimes be able to spot opportunities and links that their non-dyslexic counterparts cannot. In Chapter 3 we will explore this further and test the validity of the above using qualitative data gathered from both dyslexic and nondyslexic designers. This will help us to pick out the key differences in creative design processes, and how these might affect the final products.
Chapter 3: Primary Research into Design Process Differences
Introduction To The Method Used
In order to find out more about how dyslexia affects the creative design process, two interviews were undertaken to get a better sense of the differences between dyslexic and non-dyslexic designers. Both interviewees are professional creative designers, but one has been diagnosed as dyslexic whilst the other has never shown any behaviours associated with the condition.
Participant 1 (dyslexic designer) Chris Shone graduated from Ravensbourne College of Design and Communication in 2009 with a degree in Design for Moving Image. He has since gone onto freelance for various design agencies in this field, working on projects such as the recent Take That tour and musician Gray Go’s promotion and videos. The first thing that Chris does when presented with a brief is to look up the definition of the main subject or theme. “Sometimes seeing a literal definition of the subject can get my mind going,” he explains. Next, he browses the Internet to learn about the subject. “This is a task I don’t find very natural. I type words into search engines and scan websites. Often I come across books that could potentially be relevant. I’m normally keen to buy books or go to the library but 9 times out of 10 I don’t end up even opening them. I find books quite intimidating.” Next, Chris tries to put what he has learned into image form. “Normally when I Google a word or subject I go straight to the images. This helps me judge whether the website may have something of interest to me.” After that, he will usually brainstorm with a pen and paper. “My brainstorms tend to look a lot like word association. I often think that, to someone else, it would make no sense. This is normally quite a productive method for me. I find I can get more out of it with a pen and paper then if I was on a computer.”
From the brainstorm, Chris is able to note down his key findings, sometimes in the form of pictures. “I need to do this immediately after, while its still fresh in my mind. Otherwise I will forget a lot of my ideas. I have previously done this- losing sight of what I remember were good concepts.” Next, he develops key findings into possible concepts. “I find this is easier for me to do by creating mini-brainstorms for each potential idea. At this stage I write a brief summary of each idea, but include pictures or images (moving or static) as I find it difficult to express my concepts in words alone.” “I next attempt to research each concept to see what has already been done. It is important to me to think of and develop an original concept. The internet has made this much easier, as I can avoid having to heavy reading. Relevant information in picture or moving image form instead of textbooks or articles.” As I do a lot of my work on moving image, I tend to present my ideas in storyboard format. This is a useful method for me, as I can express my ideas in picture form and do not have to worry about not being able to describe my concepts in words alone.”
Chris describes his dyslexia as giving him an advantage in graphic design. “During school when I had to study certain academic subjects, it was always a struggle. Since I have been working in design, I can get my ideas across through the use of images which make a lot more sense to me than written words. This means that I can work to my full potential without having to work in a medium that feels unnatural.” See below for some examples of Chris’s work.
Participant 2 (non-dyslexic designer) Robbie Bates graduated from London College of Communication in 2010 with a degree in Graphic and Media Design. After working on charity branding as part of his dissertation, he interned with a number of design agencies specialising charity identity and now works for Uscreates. When Robbie receives a brief, he starts by reading it over carefully, before breaking it down and re-writing it. “This gives me a better understanding of what is being asked for,” he says. He then works on creating a detailed project plan with the client, depending on client deadlines and client needs. “This helps me to define the purposes of the project, as well as things like the audience.” “My research process tends to be fairly structured. I start by writing a short but informative literature review, which lets me assess work and research which has and is being done currently in the area/ field, and then I write a research plan and plan co-design methods which can be used with project stakeholders to gain in-depth primary insights. Once this stage is completed, Robbie is then able to distill all key insights and then use it to re-define the original brief and uses this to start mind-mapping possible solutions.
“This part of the process is where I scribble down all possible and impossible ideas, as for me its much better to have both good and bad ideas down on paper. I use a lot of idea generation methods during this part of the process to give me a huge range of ideas to work with. Once I’m happy with the quality and quantity of ideas I’ve generated, I will then try and organize all of the ideas depending on various factors and using various methods such as S.W.O.T.“ Narrowing the ideas down in this ways helps Robbie to focus on the purpose of the problem, and deciding if project solutions/ ideas actually suit the need or solve the problem. “Once I’m happy with the selection of ideas I will prototype the ideas so that they can be used and presented to project stakeholders. This may involve workshops or pitches, so that the client can give feedback on initial ideas.” This part of the process allows ideas to be distilled further, and for Robbie to establish what is and is not possible. Up until this point, the actual design process is not a huge consideration for Robbie. “Up until now it is more identifying and defining needs, and then outlining possible solutions. Design can then be applied to successful prototypes.” Once design has been finalized with the client, and design has been applied to the final solution, one final prototype is created, ready to be tested with the audience. “They can then provide feedback on design, and the solution.
I then make any final changes that have been discussed during this final stage of prototyping. A design is then ready to be rolled out and then later evaluated.â€? See below for some samples of Robbieâ€™s work;
Comparison And Conclusions The above case studies highlight significant differences that emerge in each stage of the creative design process. Participant 1 (dyslexic) works in a very different way to Participant 2 (non-dyslexic), both broadly following the design process but adopting very different working practices at each stage. + Discovering And Delving; research and brainstorming. Whilst 1â€™s research process is quite short and very visual, 2 takes a lot more time and is much more willing to write ideas as opposed as drawing them out. For 2, the actual design seems to come at the end of the process, whereas 1 seems to be considering the final product throughout the research, brainstorm and prototyping. This is perhaps because of the much less linear way of thinking that is associated with dyslexia. In the survey that explored the design processes of those with dyslexia, 95% of respondents said (unprompted) that the most difficult aspect of the design process was research. This is due to having to use secondary sources such as books, magazines and journals- all presented in written prose, which dyslexic people find the most difficult to engage with.
This suggests that dyslexic designers think of research as being especially difficult for them, and might mean that they do not do as much as their non-dyslexic colleagues. Indeed, it might even that they do not research in this way at all. It could be the case that, because people with dyslexia find themselves thinking in pictures already, they do not have to do as much secondary research, or they do it in a way that they do not define as research. + Design and Prototype When asked how their design process differs as a result of being dyslexic, one survey respondent noted â€œit makes me think of the finished product first, without doing much research.â€? The design processes detailed in chapter 2 all focused on the importance of a research stage, yet this response suggests that it might in fact vary in importance. What is clear is that dyslexics get a sense of the prototype much earlier than non-dyslexics, perhaps because of the visual thinking style associated with the condition. Participant 2 was clear that he only undertakes the design and prototyping at the end of the process, whilst 1 suggested that the evolution of the product was more continual. The survey suggested this was true too, with one respondent noting that they got a sense of the final product earlier than their colleagues. This might be an advantage on occasion, but some clients will need to see clear evidence of the creative process, which might be more easily provided by non-dyslexics. 28
Chapter 4: Conclusion
How does the design process differentiate between a dyslexic and a non-dyslexic designer? Dyslexia certainly has an impact on the design process. Similar problems became apparent such as researching and other areas that involve reading writing and absorbing information. It was clear from my study that the problem’s dyslexic designers may have does not jeopardize the finished outcome. The only time dyslexic designers may get into difficulty is when clients wish to see a clear documentation of there design process. It can be hard for an outsider to grasp the chosen methods that are used on route to the outcome. From the case studies in chapter three It was clear that there is a sufficient difference in how the two participants work. Participant number 2, the non-dyslexic designer’ approaches a brief in a much more linear and organized way, as expected. Participant number 1, the dyslexic designer, has a very sporadic approach and use’s his own personally adapted methods for researching. Never the less both participants are successful designers and dyslexic or not, the quality of the overall out come is not effected. From my recent survey, 80% of participants felt that actually, being dyslexic makes design easier. As someone who is also a dyslexic designer, I would say the same. I believe that thinking so visually about everything means that you don’t have to dig deep to come up with a visual solution to a problem.
Should dyslexics be able to miss out the parts of the design process that they find difficult? It appears that despite not enjoying research, dyslexic designers still manage to get enough done to forfill briefs and please clients. Adapted methods of researching should be encouraged by employers. Primary research can be found as less challenging, as interview participant Joanna Choukeir states below when talking about secondary research;
“I can do it well, but it takes me longer and I don’t enjoy it. Primary research is different. I quite enjoy the latter.” Joanna Choukeir Research needs to be involved in design, weather or not the dyslexic individual has a preference on how to approach it. So long as an efficient enough amount is completed in order to not jeopardise the quality of the outcome or ideas. With technology advancing so quickly I believe that some of the difficulties dyslexic people face will begin to be resolved. With more information making its way online everyday it is becoming much easier for people, dyslexic or not, to source information. Making time to read through books to find relevant material will soon become a rare occurrence. If I was to extend my study I would ask a larger number of people, I would be interested to question a larger number of non-dyslexics also. Do many non-dyslexics find them selves working in a similar way to dyslexics out of preference? 30
In the scenario of extending this survey I would also study the design process further, I would review the physical workings of a dyslexic and non-dyslexic working on the same project, which working process takes longer? And which designer has the most original idea? As mentioned at the beginning of this report it must be noted that each individual will find there own working methods, dyslexic or not. However it would seem that the differences found in the process of a dyslexic designer to relate to the characteristics one would expect to find in a dyslexia sufferer.
An Interview with Dyslexic Graphic Designer, Joanna Choukeir; When were you diagnosed with dyslexia and how severely do you feel effected out of 10, 1 being very little, 10 being very severe. Knew I always had it without diagnosis. Was diagnosed a couple of months ago. My dyslexia is at 5-6. Do you feel it influenced you to work with in design? If so, how? Definitely helps my thinking when I sketch thought out rather than take notes. I always need a sketchbook on me whenever wherever. Taking notes on a computer doesn’t help. Need to scribble things down with a pen to make sense of it. What elements of design and the design process do you find your dyslexia effects? None really. I think it improves it. Possibly secondary research most of all though. Reading and writing. Do you struggle with researching? I can do it well, but it takes me longer and I don’t enjoy it. Primary research is different. I quite enjoy the latter. Have you created any tricks or short cuts to help with working with dyslexia? I can’t tell my left from right, so sometimes I use the L technique, or look for small scars on right hand. It’s still very difficult for me to tell right from left. 32
An Interview with Dyslexic Graphic Designer Joe Joiner; How severe do you consider your dyslexia to be? Not severe, mild. Seems to be hard to notice from an outsiders perspective. What is the biggest problem it causes you? I become easily distracted from my original focus quite often. Sentence structure, reading, simple spelling mistakes and mishaps. All causing me to read things a quite a few times to make sure itâ€™s correct. Do you find it enhances your creativity and ability as a designer? I think it does enhance my creativity. I guess It has already decided for me as far as tipping the scales over to being a visual thinker. Although Iâ€™m never sure whether I have created the imbalance [dyslexia] myself through my interests or whether I was born with it. However it has manifested, I seem to live life through thinking of visual ways to explain things, and i enjoy that. An Interview with Joe Steel, Dyslexic Designer and Animator; How severe do you consider your dyslexia to be? Its not to bad, but i do feel it affects me everyday. What is the biggest problem it causes you? When i need to write up pitches/ideas to people, as i cant get my words across in the correct way. Its like hitting a brick wall!
Do you find it enhances your creativity and ability as a designer? Iâ€™m not so sure, as i dont know what it would be like, without having dyslexia. But on a simple term, i guess that why i choose i the industry i am in, I would be useless and a lawyer! But i do feel, i can across, what i want to say though design and being creative, than though other mediums Do you feel you work differently to non dyslexic designers? Think everyday will have a different way of working, i do feel non dyslexic people who i work with have more of a logically way of thinking
Survey Findings I asked 20 dyslexic designers the following questions. Do you find being dyslexic has influenced how you work as a designer?
Have you found that you think in pictures?
Do you feel you would have been less creative if you werenâ€™t dyslexic?
Bibliography Books - Davis, R. (2010) The Gift of Dyslexia, 3rd edn, London: Souvenir Press - Eide, B. & Eide, F. (2011) The Dyslexic Advantage: unlocking the Hidden Potential of Dyslexic Britain, London: Hay House - Lawson, B. (2006) How Designers Think: The Design Process Demystified 4th edn, Oxford: Architectural Press - West, O. (2007) In Search of Words Plymouth: Oliver West (selfpublished) - Cochrane, K & Wood, T (2007) Understanding and Managing Dyslexia for Dummies , Indiana: Wiley Publishing.
Online - Logan, J (2009) ‘Dyslexic Entrepreneurs: Their Incidence, their Coping Strategies and their Business Skills’ InterScience at http://www.cassknowledge.com/sites/default/files/articleattachments/419~~julielogan_dyslexic_entrepreneurs.pdf (last accessed 20th December 2011) - Magoon Haley, B ‘Dyslexia: Its impact on my Creative Process,’ Creative Dyslexics (date unknown) at http://www.creativedyslexics.org/sitebuildercontent/sitebuilderfiles/dyslexias_creative_process_by_bonnie_magoon_haley.pdf (last accessed 15th November 2011)
Audio Muter, V (2011) Women’s Hour, BBC Radio 4, 26th October