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‘O Children of Adam! Let not Satan seduce you in the same manner as he got your parents out of the Garden, stripping them of their clothing, to expose their shame.’ (Quran 7:27) Both freedom of expression and human dignity are values enshrined in the country’s constitution. From a Muslim’s point of view, we find the indecent painting of President Zuma as insulting and totally unacceptable on a number of grounds: Freedom of expression has limits. It is not a licence to demean, ridicule and insult another. The Prophet said: ‘Whoever believes in Allah and the Last Day should speak a good word or remain silent…’ (Bukhari) Honour of humanity is sacred. Protection of hon-
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Igniting the Spirit of Islam May 2012
our is one of the objectives of Islam. Regardless of the personality of the one satirised, every human being deserves respect. The Quran commands: ‘O You who believe, do not let one set of people make fun of another set…’ (49:11) Regardless of the justifications which have been put across for the kind of portrayal of President Zuma, who has been considered as ‘fair game’ for ridicule by sections of the media, the Quran instructs ‘…and, if you judge between mankind, that you judge justly.’ (4:58) Islam shuns indecency. Every Friday we hear the Imam conclude his sermon by reciting the verse of the Quran: ‘…Allah enjoins justice, kindness and the doing of good, to kith and kin; and He forbids all that is
shameful, indecent, evil, rebe llio us and o pp ressive.’ (16:90) The vulgarity of the painting has been apparent and even on that score alone, it is utterly obscene and objectionable. Circulating. As for republishing and circulation of such indecent material, we have to remember that a Muslim is prohibited from speaking about everything that one hears: ‘It is sufficient for one to be called a liar the one who speaks about everything that he hears.’ (Muslim) Islam has nothing to do with a freedom to insult. It lays emphasis on its exact opposite: the freedom from insult. It values human dignity, decency, and harmony in the society. Adapted from article by Jamiatul Ulama SA
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BURMA - Fighting raged since June 8 between Buddhists and Muslims in Rakhine. 25 killed since attack by Buddhists on a bus carrying Muslims. Rakhine state has a sizeable Muslim population, including Rohingyas, a Muslim group who are stateless, as Burma considers them to be illegal immigrants from Bangladesh. (BBC, 12 June) USA - 43 Catholic institutions sued the Obama administration over its mandate requiring employers to provide contraception in their health insurance plans. (BBC, 25 May) TUNISIA - Curfew declared on 8 regions after Islamist attacks in protest at an art exhibition with several blasphemous and lewd paintings. The exhibition included paintings that caricatured Makkah, portrayed a nude woman, and showed the word 'Allah' spelled out with strings of ants. (BBC, 12 June) AZAWAD - Two groups that seized northern Mali two months ago agreed to merge and turn their territory into an Islamic state called Azawad. (BBC, 27
May) KUWAIT - A court sentenced a Shia man to 10 years for insulting the Prophet . (BBC, 4 June) LEBANON - Lebanon sent troops to Tripoli after 10 people were killed in clashes linked to unrest across
the border in Syria. (BBC, 3 June) PALESTINE - An Israeli soldier was killed on the Gaza border after a Palestinian freedom fighter cut through the boundary fence and opened fire on Israeli troops. (BBC, 1 June) QATAR - A fire at a shopping centre in the Doha killed 19 people, 13 of whom were children. (BBC,
28 May) SYRIA â€“ Pres Bashaarâ€™s troops slaughtered 108 people in Houla. 49 were children and 34 women.
(BBC, 28 May) INDONESIA - US popstar Lady Gaga's show called off after Muslim and Christian groups protested.
(BBC, 29 May) PALESTINE - US state department criticised Israel's treatment of thousands of African asylum seekers who are being denied basic social services because of their race. (BBC, 25 May) AZERBAIJAN - Border clashes with Armenia saw 3 Armenian soldiers killed. (BBC, 5 June) AFGHANISTAN - More than 80 killed in a landslide triggered by two quakes. Part of a mountain collapsed, burying an entire village. (BBC, 12 June)
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This was due to two things: 1. Making peace with the decree of Allah in every situation, and 2. Having a firm belief in the reality of the world to come. Everything belongs to Allah and returns to him. So if we don’t own that thing why mourn our loss? We have limited free will for our actions, but we have no control over tomorrow’s events. Worrying over such things is of no use. Urwah bin Zubayr went with his eldest son to Damascus. When he was in the stable admiring the khalifa's fine horses, one of the horses trampled him to death. The grief struck father had barely shaken off the dust from burying his son, when he developed gangrene of the foot. His leg had to be amputated. Back in Madinah Urwah said to the people: ‘Do not be frightened with what you see. Allah has bestowed upon me four sons and He has taken back one and allowed me to remain with three, so for Him is the Praise. Allah has given me four limbs and has taken one and allowed me to remain with three, so for Him is the praise. I swear to you by Allah, that if he has taken from me a little, then he has caused to remain with me much, and if he has tried me once then he has forgiven me many times.’ Once we are resigned to the decree of Allah and make peace with the situation, we will be free from crippling grief and depression.
Islam enjoins love and consideration for the poor:
Love. The Prophet said to his wife, ‘O Aisha, love the poor and let them come to you and Allah will draw you near to Himself.’ (Bukhari) Company. The Prophet prayed: ‘O Allah, keep me poor in my life and at my death, and raise me at resurrection among those who are poor.’ (Nasai) Fruits of Paradise. Abu Saeed Al-Khudri narrates that the Prophet said: ‘f a Muslim clothes a Muslim when he is naked, Allah will clothe him with green garments of Paradise; if a Muslim feeds a Muslim when he is hungry, Allah will feed him with fruits of Paradise; and if any Muslim gives a Muslim drink when he is thirsty, Allah will give him pure wine which is sealed to drink.’ (Abu Dawud) Hunger. Ibn Abbas said that he heard the Prophet say: ‘The believer is not the one who eats when his neighbour beside him is hungry.’ Help. Abu Huraira narrates that the Prophet said: ‘Whoever relieves a believer’s distress of the distressful aspects of this world, Allah will relieve him from a difficulty of the difficulties of the Hereafter. Whoever alleviates one in dire straits, Allah will alleviate his lot in both this world and in the Hereafter. Whoever conceals a Muslim, Allah will conceal in this life and the Hereafter. Allah will continue aiding his servant as long as he is helping his brother.’ (Muslim)
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SOCIAL / SUNNAH
In dealing and coping with loss in life, the Sahaba showed unparalleled excellence in this.
HISTORY / CURRENT
Once rumours were spread about Imam Abu Hanifa rahimahullah that he has made changes in Islam by giving preference to his own reason over the Quran and Hadith. Baaqir rahimahullah asked him: ‘Why have you altered Islam giving preference to your own logic over Quran and Hadith?’ Imam Abu Hanifah asked: ‘Between men and women, who is weaker? Baaqir: ‘Women.’ Abu Hanifah then asked: ‘As inheritance, how much does a man get in comparison to the woman?’ Baaqir: ‘The man gets double.’ Imam Abu Hanifah said: ‘Had I given preference to my own logic over Quran and Hadith, I would have given women double the man’s share.’ Then Abu Hanifah asked: ‘Which act of worship is superior, Salaah or fasting? Baaqir: ‘Salaah.’ Abu Hanifah asked further: ‘When a woman due to menstruation misses Salaah as well as fasting, then which does she have to pay in?’ Baaqir: ‘Fasting.’ Abu Haneefa declared: ‘Had I followed my own reasoning I would have told her to pay in Salaah and not fasting.’ Abu Hanifah then asked: ‘Which liquid is more impure, urine or semen?’ Baaqir: ‘Urine.’ Abu Hanifah: ‘When does Ghusl become compulsory on a person, on the passing out of urine or on the passing out of semen?’ Baaqir: ‘On the passing out of semen.’ Upon this Abu Hanifah said: ‘Had I preferred my own logic I would have made ghusl compulsory after passing urine and wudhu compulsory after semen.’ Baaqir was delighted to hear all those rumours were false and baseless. (Kamaalaat-e-Imam Abu Hanifah, pg 348)
A year of protests against Bashar Assad’s brutal Alawi Syrian regime has seen him continue his father’s legacy of atrocities and massacres against the Muslims of Syria. ATROCITIES AGAINST MUSLIMS. In village after village in the Jabal al-Zawiya region of Syria the scene is the same: burned-down houses and grieving families who described atrocities by Syrian soldiers: relatives of all ages dragged away and shot, their bodies often set on fire. Amnesty International says 9,400 people were killed in Syria since government forces first shot protesters in March 2011. HOULA MASSACRE. Friday 25 May, 2012, after Juma, Assad’s regime shelled Houla. Then government-supported Alawi Shabiha gangs came in, slaughtering Sunni Muslim. 108 were murdered including 49 innocent kids and 34 women. AL QUBAIR MASSACRE. Shabiha gangs also carried out the Al-Qubair massacre on June 6, 2012. 78 people were killed, many of them women and children. Victims were rstabbed and shot by Shabiha forces loyal to Assad. Shabiha militia are led by Fawaz Assad and Munzer Assad, first cousins of President Assad. JIHAD. Senior Syrian Ulama like Sheikh Muhammad Yaqoubi have given the fatwa of Jihad to be undertaken by Syrians against the merciless regime of Assad. The list of unimaginable torture and murder being perpetrated by Assad’s troops is a clear motivation for Sunni states to crush Assad.
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From various Ulama
www.shafiifiqh.com Q: Pork substances in Germany are often in mixed drinks or bread. Can we eat or drink? A: In the 3rd verse of Surah al-Maidah Allah says: ‘Made unlawful for you is carrion, blood, the flesh of swine…’ Intended by the pig is the pig and all its parts, the pig’s meat is specifically mentioned as that is what one would most likely consumes from it. Therefore, food mixed with pork is not permissible as it entails also eating the pork mixed with it. Eating pork is not permissible in Islam.
into meat, not making eating the entirety unlawful. (Nihayat al-Muhtaj 8:158) Reason being: ‘Because once its own qualities were obliterated, then it became as if non-existent.’ (Ibid) Medicine Made from an Impurity: Capsules and coatings may also be made from gelatine. The jurists addressed the issue of medicine made from an impurity. ‘It is permissible to use medicine made from a dead animal’s hoof or bones (sic), pure or mixed…’ (Fatawa 1:28)
Answer by: Shafiifiqh.com Fatwa Dept
Q: What is the ruling on the gelatine in medicine or vitamins? A: The source of gelatine is the collagen found in the skin and bones of animals like cattle, pigs, poultry, and fish. Cellulose from plants may also be used. If one is unsure of the source of a tablet or capsule, then it is considered pure by default. Medicine or vitamins that include gelatine may either be in a capsule or tablet form. In tablet form, besides for coating, the gelatine may have also been used as a processing agent (even if not mentioned on the label). During production, the gelatine may have been mixed with something else until its qualities were obliterated istihlak.
Umum al-Balwa: The principle is: ‘Difficulty brings about ease.’ Difficult circumstance permits dispensation. Various reasons allow relaxation in a given ruling. One such reason is: public affliction or umum al-balwa.
(umum al-balwa); and therefore excusable. If equivalent alternatives exist, then one should opt for them instead. Answer by: Shafiifiqh.com Fatwa Dept
Q: A restaurant sells only fish but it is ‘beer battered. I was told it would be Halal because it was impossible to get intoxicated from it? What is the correct view? A: In Mughni al-Muhtaj 5:517, Khatib Shirbini mentioned a comparable situation, and stated, ‘…as the substance of alcohol is consumed by fire; the bread remains impure.’ Fire/cooking does not remove impurity, and the Shafi School considers alcohol, like beer, impure. Therefore, even when cooking removes all the alcohol, contamination with the impurity makes eating it problematic. Answer by: Shafiifiqh.com Fatwa Dept
In Conclusion: The presence of gelatine in some medications and vitamins may be regarded as istihlak. The jurists discussed using impurities medicinally. The widespread use of gelatine in pharmaceuticals and vitamins could make avoiding it a public affliction
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Istihlak: The jurists discussed cases of istihlak. For example: 1) A pilgrim eating food with perfume in it. (Sharh alMuhadhdhab 7:273) 2) A small piece of flesh falling Islamic Focus
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS
SHAFI Q & A
QUESTIONS & ANSWERS
HANAFI Q & A From various Ulama
www.askimam.org | www.askmufti.co.za | www.daruliftaa.net Q: A personâ€™s cellphone fell in a toilet pan, but he managed to retrieve it in time. Marks of water can be found on the screen. Obviously, he cannot wash the phone. What will be the method of purifying such a phone? A: If the impurity is of such a nature that it has a form and physical structure, one should remove the impurity by wiping it. The stains/ marks of impurity will not affect the pure state of the cell phone if one cannot remove the stains and marks. And Allah Knows Best Checked by: Mufti Ebrahim Desai
Q: Is it permissible for males to use deodorant during Salaah? To my knowledge, the alcohol content evaporates, leaving only the scent. A: Deodorants containing alcohol derived from grapes or dates are impermissible for usage. However, deodorants containing alcohol derived from other sources are permitted if all other ingredients are Halaal. Generally the deodorants nowadays do not contain alcohol derived from grapes or dates. Hence, Sa-
laah performed after applying such deodorants is valid. Checked by: Mufti Ebrahim Desai
Q: What should one do with impermissible food items? A: 1. It is not permissible to give any consumable items which contain Haraam (forbidden) elements to human beings, animals or any other creature. 2. In principle, one will have to dispose of consumable items which contain Haraam elements. 3. Disposing of such items is not considered as Israaf (waste), since Israaf is only applicable to Halaal (permissible) items. 4. If Haraam items are left in any place and if someone takes them away, you will not be responsible for giving away Haraam. Checked by: Mufti Ebrahim Desai
Q: Is it permissible to look up Arabic words in a dictionary during the Khutba on Friday (either in book form or on the mobile phone) in order to better understand the Khutba? A: On the blessed day of Juma, instead of performing Zuhr salaah, one performs the Juma salaah. An essen-
tial part of the Juma salaah is listening to the Khutba delivered before Salaatul Juma. The Khutba of Juma has great sanctity and significance. It takes the place of two rakaats which is performed normally through the 4 rakaats of Zuhr salaah. Amongst the etiquettes of the Khutba is that one should not engage in any other act whilst listening to the Khutba. Even when the name of the Prophet is mentioned instead of verbally reciting Salawaat (salutations) one should recite it in his heart. If one sees others speaking during the Khutba one should not prevent them since this would lead to oneself being engaged in an act besides listening to the Khutba. Just as in Salaah it is not permissible to do anything which is outside the acts of salaah, likewise during the Khutba it is not permissible to do anything besides listen to the Khutba. You may record the Khutba and look up the meanings of the Arabic later. Checked by: Mufti Ebrahim Desai
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Born into poverty, Abraham Lincoln was faced with defeat throughout his life. He lost eight elections, twice failed in business and suffered a nervous breakdown. He could have quit many times – but he didn’t and became one of the most famous presidents in US history. Sketch of his road to the White House: 1816 His family was forced out of their home. He had to work to support them. 1818 His mother died. 1831 Failed in business. 1832 Ran for state legislature – lost. 1832 Also lost his job – wanted to go to law school but couldn’t get in. 1833 Borrowed some money from a friend to begin a business and by the end of the year he was bankrupt. 1834 Ran for state legislature again – won. 1835 Was engaged to be married, sweetheart died and his heart was broken. 1836 Had a total nervous breakdown and was in bed for six months. 1838 Sought to become speaker of the state legislature – defeated. 1840 Sought to become elector – defeated. 1843 Ran for Congress – lost. 1846 Ran for Congress again – won. 1848 Ran for re-election to Congress – lost. 1849 Sought the job of land officer in his home state – rejected. 1854 Ran for US Senate – lost. 1856 Sought the Vice-Presidential nomination at his party’s national convention – get less than 100 votes. 1858 Ran for US Senate again – again he lost. 1860 Elected president of the United States.
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INTERNET / INSPIRATION
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SUNNAH / ORGANISATION
5. Prostration of recitation. The Prophet said: ‘When you read a verse of prostration then prostrate, the devil departs crying and says: ‘Woe be to him. He was ordered with prostration and he prostrated, so for him is Paradise. I was ordered with prostration and I refused, so for me is the Fire.’ (Muslim) 6. Reciting M'uwadhdhataan: Surah alFalaq and Surah an-Naas. Abu Saeed said: ’The Prophet used to seek refuge from the jinn and from the effects of the (evil) of men until the m'uwwadhdhataan were revealed. When they were revealed he clung to them and abandoned what was besides them.’ (Tirmidhi) 7. Supplicating for blessings for something which wins your admiration. The Prophet said, ‘When one of you sees something in his self or in his possessions which amazes him (or wins his admiration) he should invoke blessings upon it as the (evil) eye is indeed true and real.’
FAD (Families Against Drugs) centre was established to serve the community. It is a non profit organization. Its main aim is to offer relief to those trapped in the world of drugs and addiction. The object is to help families along with the addict by equipping them with the necessary skills to stay off drugs. Support Meetings Gelvandale and Surrounding Areas: Al Ansar Building, behind Drop Inn Petrol Station, Bell Road, Parkside. Every Tuesday at 7:30pm. Addicts only support meetings. Every Wednesday at 7:30pm. Parents/ Loved Ones support meeting.
8. Saying ‘Bismillah’ (in the Name of Allah). Abul-Maleeh reports that a man said, ‘I was behind the Prophet and his riding animal stumbled. I said, ‘May the devil perish,’ and he said, ‘Do not say, ‘May the devil perish.’ If you say that he will grow in size until he becomes the size of a house and says, ‘By my strength.’ Instead say, ‘In the Name of Allah.’ When you say that, he reduces in size until he is like a fly.’ (Abu Dawood)
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Anti-drug marches are held to raise awareness in the community. FAD provides a counseling service, support groups, group and individual sessions and drug testing. FAD has volunteers giving their time to the cause. Contact Tel: 071 898 8354 / 084 556 6819 Email: firstname.lastname@example.org www.familiesagainstdrugs.co.za
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Abdel Karim’s father was a Qadi (Islamic judge). Abdel Karim received a traditional education at a mosque school in Ajdir, followed by studies at religious institutes in Tetouan and Fez. He became a journalist for a Spanish newspaper and was appointed chief qadi for Melilla in 1914. He was jailed by the Spanish for anticolonial activities. In 1920 he began a war of rebellion against them. At Anwal, in 3 weeks of fierce battles, his forces killed 8,000 Spanish troops, and the Spanish army of 13,000 was forced to flee, defeated by 3,000 Rifian fighters. This established Abdel Karim as a pioneer of guerrilla warfare and leader of Northern Morocco and led to the collapse of the Spanish Monarchy in 1931. By 1924, the Spanish were forced to retreat to two isolated enclaves. When Abdel Karim invaded French-occupied Morocco in 1925, the French attacked him. In 1925 a French/ Spanish army of 250,000 with aircraft and artillery, attacked the Rif Republic. Intense combat persisted for ten months, but the French/ Spanish armies, using chemical bombs against civilians, defeated Abdel Karim who surrendered in 1926. He was exiled to Reunion and then gained asylum in Egypt where he presided over the Liberation Committee for the Maghreb, and where he died in 1963.
While the notion of a Suez canal is today usually associated with the 19th-century engineer Ferdinand de Lesseps, the Frenchman was actually heir to an idea that goes back hundreds of years. The Muslim ruler Umar was also responsible for a canal that linked the Nile to the Red Sea. In 638 CE when there was drought in Makkah and Madinah, Umar wrote to his general Amr bin al Aas to send food from Egypt. He then commanded him to make a canal linking the Nile to the Red Sea. For the most part, the Canal of the Commander of the Faithful, as it was named in honor of the caliph, followed the route cut by an old Roman canal, which had become covered up. From its mouth on the Nile to its terminus at the Red Sea port of al-Qulzum (modern Suez), the canal coursed a remarkable 170 kilometers. The 14th-century Mamluk historian Ibn Duqmaq writes: ‘No sooner had Amr brought effort to bear than ships were moving in it as they had before. Ships were arriving in the Hijaz in the seventh month (after the start of excavation).’ Amr himself traveled on one of those ships to make the pilgrimage to Makkah. Umar 's canal transformed the fortunes of the Holy Cities, bringing unprecedented food security to the residents of the Hijaz. It operated for 114 years, until caliph Mansur ordered the canal blocked. The Canal continued to flow through Cairo and as far as the central Wadi Tumaylat, about half its original length, throughout the medieval period, becoming known as the Cairo Canal.
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BIOGRAPHY / MUSLIM INFLUENCE
Muhammad Ibn Abd El-Karim El-Khattabi known as Abdel Karim was born in 1880 in Ajdir, Morocco and died in 1963 in Cairo, Egypt. He was a Berber and leader of the armed Berber resistance movement in the Rif, northern Morocco, against French and Spanish occupation. His guerrilla tactics influenced Ho Chi Minh, Mao Zedong and Che Guevara.
HISTORY / INSPIRATION
The Muslim population of Japan has been estimated at around 100,000. There are few records of contact between Islam and Japan before 1853, although some Muslims did arrive in earlier centuries. The first modern Muslim contacts were with Malays who served aboard British and Dutch ships in the late 19th century. In the 1870s, the life of the Prophet was translated into Japanese. Another important contact was made in 1890 when Ottoman Turkey sent a naval vessel to Japan to salute the visit of Japanese Prince Akihito to Istanbul several years earlier. The first Japanese to go on Haj from Japan was Kotaro Yamaoka. He built a mosque in Tokyo in 1938. The real Muslim community life in Japan began with the arrival of several hundred Turkmen, Uzbeks, Tajiks, Kyrgyzs and Kazakh Muslim refugees from Central Asia and Russia in the wake of the Bolshevik Revolution during World War I. These Muslims were given asylum in Japan and had settled down in several main cities. Some Japanese embraced Islam after coming in contact with them. The Japanese invasion of China and South East Asia during the Second World War brought the Japanese in contact with Muslims. Those who embraced Islam through them returned to Japan and established in 1953, the first Japanese Muslim organisation, the Japan Muslim Association. Three Japanese translations of the Quran were published in 1920, 1937 and 1950. The first by a Muslim was in 1972. There are currently 30-40 single-story mosques in Japan, plus another 100 or more Musallahs: apartment rooms for praying.
A 50-something year old white woman arrived at her seat on a crowded flight and immediately didn't want the seat. The seat was next to a black man. Disgusted, the woman immediately summoned the flight attendant and demanded a new seat. The woman said, ‘I cannot sit here next to this black man.’ The fight attendant said, ‘Let me see if I can find another seat.’ After checking, the flight attendant returned and stated ‘Ma'am, there are no more seats in economy, but I will check with the captain and see if there is something in first class.’ About 10 minutes went by and the flight attendant returned and stated: ‘The captain has confirmed that there are no more seats in economy, but there is one in first class. It is our company policy to never move a person from economy to first class, but being that it would be some sort of scandal to force a person to sit next to an UNPLEASANT person, the Captain agreed to make the switch to first class.’ Before the woman could say anything, the attendant gestured to the black man and said, ‘Therefore sir, if you would so kindly retrieve your personal items, we would like to move you to the comfort of first class as the captain doesn't want you to sit next to an unpleasant person.’ Passengers in the seats nearby began to applause while some gave a standing ovation.
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of the people in the Eastern Cape live below the breadline Our target this Ramadaan is to distribute R200,000 worth of Zakaah hampers The joy of Iftaar: Share the barakah and duas of Ramadaan with a hungry family Support our year-long distribution - People are not only hungry in Ramadaan Zakaah distribution is strictly under the supervision of the Ulema Our field workers work among the poorest of the poor to satisfy the strict criterion of Zakaah applicants Certain applicants are granted assistance in rent, electricity and essentials.
“For me to fulfill the necessities of a Muslim family for a month, or for a week, or for whatever period of time Allah pleases, is more beloved to me than performing Haj after Haj.” Hazrat Abdullah ibn Abbas
Malabar Ext 6 Pre-School Madressah Projects Al Fidaa Foundation has opened Madressahs in much-needed areas, making knowledge accessible to young learners in Bloemendal, Kensington, Helenvale and Salt Lake. Certain organizations find it difficult to maintain their Madressah projects; Al Fidaa Foundation assists in salaries of Ustaads and sponsors poor students.
Instilling the Spirit of Islam at a Young Age Covering a wide range of subjects, enhancing their character profile, beautifying their Islamic Belief. The pre-school caters for 3 to 4 year old pupils from 8:30 to 12:00 Monday to Thursday. The school’s enrolment is currently 12 learners.
Our Future Depends On You! Skills Development
Madressah Feeding Many children come to Madressah hungry. Al Fidaa Foundation feeds them with a sandwich to assist them with their concentration in learning the Quraan. This has made a positive impact on their learning.
Al Fidaa Foundation has embarked on an intensive Skills Development Program to train, educate and empower impoverished individuals to become financially independent. Amongst the developments are: sewing classes, computer lab, sponsorship of raining courses and small business start-up costs
ISSN 2223 - 1110 (Print) | ISSN 2223 - 1129 (Online)