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That thing which is inevitable in everyone’s life is death: Every soul will taste death… (Quran 21:35) PURPOSE The purpose of living this temporary life and then facing death: ‘Glorious is the One in whose hand is the Kingdom (of the whole universe), and He is powerful over every thing, The One who created death and life, so that He may test you as to which of you is better in his deeds. And He is the All-Mighty, the MostForgiving.’ (Quran 67:1-2) INTELLIGENCE ‘The smart person is the one who takes control of their self and acts for what which comes after death...’ (Tirmidhi) ‘Remember frequently the thing that cuts off pleasures,’ i.e. death.’ (Tirmidhi)

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Issue 111

Igniting the Spirit of Islam Mar 2013

‘The hearts become rusty just as iron does when water affects it.’ On being asked what could clean them the Prophet sallallahu alaihi wa sallam replied, ‘A great amount of remembrance of death, and the recitation of the Quran.’ (Tirmidhi) PAIN The pain at the time of death, when the soul is separated from the body, is extremely severe. But for a believer, death’s agony turns into joy when he realises that he is to meet Allah and that Pa r a d ise a w a it s: ‘Whoever loves to meet Allah, Allah (too) Loves to meet him; and whoever hates to meet Allah, Allah (too) Hates to meet him!" Aisha radhiallahu anha said to the Prophet sallallahu alaihi was sallam: ‘But we (all) dislike death!’ He replied: ‘It is not like this, but

it is meant that when the time of the death of a believer approaches, he receives the good news of Allah's Pleasure and His Blessings upon him, and so at that time nothing is dearer to him than what is in front of him (the meeting with His Lord). He therefore loves the meeting with Allah, and Allah (too) Loves the meeting with him…’ (Bukhari) PREPARATION Among the things we can do to secure a better life after death is: 1. Reading the Quran which will comfort us after death, in the grave and beyond. (Tirmidhi) 2. Charity from which people continue to benefit. 3. Knowledge we taught others about Islam from which they benefit. 4. Kids who pray for us. (Muslim)  Scan the QR code with your cellphone to go to our website: www.islamicfocus.co.za


WORLD NEWS

EGYPT - The Egyptian army killed over 3,000 people supporting Muslim Brotherhood president Morsi who was deposed in an army coup on 3 July. Thousands of people protested the coup. Many were killed in protests at various Musjids. The US-backed army is cracking down on the Brotherhood with mass arrests. It also wants to ban the group which advocates Islamic law and won Egypt’s first democratic elections. (BBC, 18 Aug) LEBANON - The leader of Lebanon's militant Shia Hezbollah group, which supports the brutal regime of Bashar Assad in Syria, lambasted Sunni Muslims and pledged more militant support against Sunnis in Syria. Hundreds of people were injured in bomb blasts at a Hezbollah stronghold in Beirut. Hezbollah blamed Sunnis while Lebanese politicians blamed the bombings on Jews. Militants from Hezbollah are actively fighting alongside Bashar’s soldiers in Syria.

(BBC, 16 Aug) PAKISTAN - There was a five-hour stand-off between police and a gunman 15 Aug in Islamabad. The gunman was overpowered after being shot in the leg by police. (BBC, 16 Aug) YEMEN - 27 members of a Yemeni wedding party died after the vehicles they were travelling in were swept away by heavy floods. Several other people have been killed by flash floods in Yemen, which is prone to flooding during the Monsoon season. (BBC,

16 Aug) PALESTINE - Israel-Palestinian peace talks resumed in Jerusalem after 3 years. The meeting began hours after Israel freed 26 Palestinian prisoners

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as part of the deal to restart the stalled negotiations. In the meantime 2,000 more illegal Jewish settlements were approved in the occupied West Bank and East Jerusalem. 500,000 Jews now live in illegal settlements built on the occupied territories. In a separate development, Israel carried out air strikes in northern Gaza. (BBC, 16 Aug) LIBYA - Members of Libya's minority Berber, or Amazigh, community stormed the parliament building in Tripoli. Windows were smashed, furniture destroyed and documents stolen. The Amazigh were demanding that the future constitution recognise their language, ethnicity and culture. Amazigh fighters played an important role in the armed rebellion against Gaddafi. (BBC, 15 Aug) YEMEN - Al-Qaeda fighters killed five soldiers in an attack on a gas terminal in southern Yemen. 8 Aug 14 people were killed in Yemen in three illegal US drone strikes. (BBC, 11 Aug) SYRIA - More than 100,000 people have been killed in 28 months by the Shia-supported regime of Bashar Assad. (BBC, 16 Aug) USA - The US National Security Agency (NSA) broke privacy rules and overstepped its legal authority thousands of times in the past two years, according to documents leaked by Edward Snowden. Mr Snowden leaked top secret documents to the US and British media. He has been given asylum in Russia. An internal audit dated May 2012 counted 2,776 incidents of unauthorised data collection over the previous 12 months. (BBC, 12 Aug) 

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A Waqf or charitable endowment is encouraged in Islam. Over the centuries, Muslims have made many thousands of Waqfs.

Recognition. Allah created different races and tribes so that we would recognize each other: ‘O mankind, verily, We have created you from male and female and made you peoples and tribes that you may know one another …’ (Quran 49:13)

Fully fitted and staffed hospitals for the poor Starter-pack apartment buildings for newly weds Utensils and trousseau for disadvantaged brides Public water fountains Caftans and outer garments for the old Replacement of broken plates to save maids from censure from madams Provision of grass for the mule ridden by the Shaykh of Al Azhar Havens for old horses and sick animals Food for animals during winter months Public musafir/travellers lodges, roads, and bridges Salaries of imams, ulama, ustaadh/a, muezzins, qaris Schools, research institutions, orphanages Stipends and support for students Skills, craft training, and job creation guilds Orchards and food gardens Flea markets.

Superiority. “O people, verily, your Lord is one and your father Adam is one. There is no favoritism of an Arab over a foreigner, nor a foreigner over an Arab, and neither red skin over black skin, nor black skin over red skin, except through righteousness.” (Ahmad) Rebuke. Once a Sahabi told Bilal : “O son of a black woman!” Bilal  told Prophet  who became angry and said to the Sahabi: “By the one who revealed the Book to Muhammad , none is more virtuous over another except by righteous deeds …” (Bayhaqi) Lineage. “There are certainly people who brag about their ancestors who have died. Verily, they are coal for Hellfire such that they are more contemptible to Allah than the beetle that rolls dung with its nose …” (Tirmidhi) Tribalism. “He is not one of us who calls to tribalism. He is not one of us who fights for the sake of tribalism. He is not one of us who dies following the way of tribalism.” Abu Dawud)  By Abu Amina Elias

Here are some of the more amazing ones. Note the variety and needs of the time:

The Prophet  said: “When a man dies, his deeds come to an end except for three things: Sadaqah Jariyah (ceaseless charity); knowledge which is beneficial; or a virtuous descendant who prays for him (the deceased).” [Sahih Muslim]  From: Awqaf SA

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SOCIAL / HISTORY

Dignity. Islam is against all forms of racism. All races are equal to Allah and the only characteristic that makes someone superior to another is righteousness. Allah has dignified all humans: ‘We have certainly honored the children of Adam …’ (Quran 17:70)


WORSHIP / SOCIAL

In Ramadan most people managed to increase their recitation of the Quran. During the rest of the year many will not even touch the Quran. Here are some tips to continue reciting Allah’s Speech after Ramadan: STEP 1: DON’T BE OVERWHELMED Some are overwhelmed by the number of pages. Remove ‘I can’t’ from your vocab and eliminate negative thinking, for the believers put their trust in Allah, matched by striving with their actions. STEP 2: PLAN AHEAD Prior to commencing with your recitation it’s important to plan around your routine and block out time for your Quran goal e.g. your work hours, rest hours and any other commitments. Structure a realistic plan, review it constantly and put it into action! STEP 3: UNDERSTAND THE QURAN Read the translation of the part you will be reciting. Having a basic knowledge of the theme, topic, message and meaning of what you are reciting makes the recitation of the Quran an incredibly uplifting experience that you do not want to miss out on! STEP 4: TIME TIPS A. Recite a little before and/or after every Salah. In this way you break down the amount you want to recite for the day into manageable amounts. B. Recite before going to sleep. “Indeed, the hours of the night are more effective for concurrence and more suitable for words” (Quran 73:6). Reciting during the day is also beneficial, however the night time recitation is easier.  Adapted from Fee Qalbee blog

“Live with them in kindness.” (Quran 4:19) “You will never be able to be equal between wives, even if you should strive to do so. So do not incline completely toward one and leave another hanging …” (Quran 4:129) “Treat women well, for woman is created from a rib and the most curved portion of the rib is its upper portion. If you try to straighten it, it will break, but if you leave it as it is, it will remain curved; so treat women with kindness.” (Bukhari) “A believer should not despise a believing woman. If he finds something in her character he dislikes, he will be pleased by something else.” (Muslim) “I enjoin you to treat women well, for they are like captives in your hand …” (Tirmidhi) “The most complete of the believers in faith are those with the best character, and the best of you are the best in behaviour to their women.” (Tirmidhi) The Prophet  enjoined: “Do not strike the maidens of Allah.” Umar  complained that women had become emboldened toward their husbands. So the Prophet  allowed it. Then, many women came to the family of the Prophet  and complained about their husbands. The Prophet  said: “Many women have come to the family of Muhammad () complaining about their husbands. These men are not the best among you.” (Abu Dawud) 

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From various Ulama

www.shafiifiqh.com Q: If someone put on khuffs (leather socks) before zuhr, made the prezuhr sunna rakats and the zuhr prayer itself. However in between the zuhr prayer and the postprayer sunnas their wudhu broke. Could they make zuhr the next day (if resident) or zuhr three days later (if traveler) by wiping over the khuffs? A: The time-limit for wiping over footgear (khuff) is 24 hours (one day and one night) for a non-traveller and 72 hours (three days and three nights) for a traveller. This time starts from the first invalidation of one's wudu after wearing the footgear. In the case described in your question, the clock would start ticking from the time your wudu was invalidated. So, for example, if your sequence of actions was as follows:

your footgear. Then you may pray while having wiped your footgear until 12.45 p.m. the following day if you are a non-traveller, and until 12.45 p.m. three days later if you are a traveller.

10.00 a.m. You make wudhu and wear your footgear 12.30 p.m. You pray your pre-zuhr sunnas followed by your zuhr prayer 12.45 p.m. You wudhu is invalidated, so you re-perform your wudhu and wipe over

1) That they be strong such that one can walk continuously on them for the length of time that a traveller would in his comings and goings to fulfill his needs, such as going somewhere to fulfil his needs, such as relieving him-

So if, as a non-traveller, you pray zuhr before 12.45 p.m. the following day, you may pray while having wiped over your footgear. If you pray zuhr after 12.45 p.m., then you will have to remove your footgear and wash your feet before praying.

self, buying food, and so forth. It is not intended that one must be able to walk in them throughout the duration of the journey. 2) That they be thick, whereby if water is poured on it, it would not penetrate through quickly. 3) That it completely cover the part that is to be washed during wudu, which is the feet including the ankles. 4) That they be pure of filth

Answer by Shaykh Hamza Karamali

Q: What are the characteristics of the socks which makes wiping over them permissible? A: Just like the khuff, socks must fulfill five conditions before it is permissible to wipe over them during wudu. They are:

5) That they be worn after one has made a complete wudu, having washed both feet first, for if one washes one foot and puts on one sock, then washed the other foot and puts on the other sock, it is not permissible to wipe over them. So whenever a sock fulfills these five conditions, it is permissible to wipe over it, and when it doesn’t, then it is not valid.  Answer by Shaykh Amjad Rasheed

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QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

SHAFI Q & A


QUESTIONS & ANSWERS

HANAFI Q & A From various Ulama

www.askimam.org | www.askmufti.co.za | www.daruliftaa.net Q1: If a lady suffers extreme pain in her knees and therefore cannot go into the sajdah position but she's able to walk around and complete her household chores, should she sit for the duration of her Fardh and waajib salaah or is it waajib for her to stand? Q2: If one has the ability to stand will the fardh and waajib salaah be valid if it is executed in the sitting position (on a chair/bed)? A: A person who is able to stand (make Qiyaam) but cannot make Sajdah has the following options: a. She may perform the entire Salaah including the gestures for Ruku and Sajdah standing up. b. She may perform the Qiyaam and Ruku standing up and then sit down to perform the gesture for Sajdah. c. She may perform the entire Salaah including the gestures for Ruku and Sajdah sitting down. From the three options mentioned above, the Jurists have stated that the last option (to perform the entire Salaah in a sitting posture and gesture) is best. Q: My question is regarding zakaat on income tax. I pay the tax on my previous financial year before January of next year. e.g. income tax on the income between April 2012 and March 2013 will be paid before January 2014. My income tax consists of Islamic Focus

two parts. Tax on income of previous year and some advance tax for coming year (April 2013 and March 2014). I pay my zakaat in Ramadan every year. My question is that whether zakaat is to be paid on this income tax if the Ramadan will be between March 2013 and January 2014. In short will this tax to be paid on later date be considered my liability or not? If yes then does this include both the portions of tax i.e. previous and advance? A: If your Islamic financial year is Ramadan, then the taxes due only till Ramadan will be regarded as a liability and exempt from Zakaat. The taxes due after Ramadan will not be considered as a liability. Q: Can I give my Zakat to my parents? A: It is not permissible to give Zakat to one’s parents. Q: Can the Quran be physically held to recite surahs in Taraweeh? A: In principle, it is not permissible for one who has not memorized the Quran to look into the Quran and recite any portion of the Quran in Salaah. If one who has not memorized the Quran looks into the Qur’an and recites any portion of the Quran in Salaah, the Salaah is invalid.

constitute Amal e Katheer which renders one’s Salaah invalid. Q: If one does the last circuit of Saee (walking between Safa and Marwa) without wudhu, is the Saee valid? A: Wudhu is not a condition for the validity of Saee. However, it is Mustahab (preferable) to be in the state of wudhu while performing Saee. Q: Many old people are now dyeing their hair and beard in dark brown or blackish brown colour. The intention is for it to look black. And it appears as black after dyeing. Islam prohibits colouring in black and intention is important in Islam. Is it halal to do this? A: It is prohibited to use pure black dye. If the dye is any other colour besides pure black, it is permissible even though it looks like black. Q: If a person is in Itikaf can he go out of the masjid for Jumuah (Friday) ghusl (bath)? A: In a sunnah itikaf a person should not leave specifically for the Jumuah ghusl. Rather when he goes to the washroom to relieve himself, he can in the process and by the way also take a bath without spending excessive time in taking a bath. In a nafl itikaf a person may leave specifically for the Jumuah ghusl. 

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A small town chamber of commerce invited a speaker to address its annual dinner. The community’s economy was bad, people were discouraged, and they wanted this motivational speaker to give them a boost. During his presentation, the speaker took a large piece of white paper and made a small black dot at the center with a marking pen. Then he held the paper up before the group and asked them what they saw. One person quickly replied, “I see a black dot. “Okay, what else do you see?”

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Others joined in agreement: “A black dot.” “Don’t you see anything besides the dot?” he asked. A resounding “No” came from the audience. “What about the sheet of paper?” asked the speaker. “I am sure you have all seen it”, he said, “But you have chosen to overlook it.”

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“In life, we also tend to overlook and take for granted many wonderful things that we have or happen around us and focus our attention and energy on small, dot-like failures and disappointments.

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The so called ‘problems’ that we have are usually like the black dot on the paper. They are small and insignificant if we can widen our horizon and look at the whole picture.” Are you one of the person who focus your attention and energy on dot-like problems? 

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INTERNET / INSPIRATION

Enrich your web experience. Not all content on all sites


SOCIAL / HISTORY

Meaning. The journey of life often encompasses difficulties, challenges, trials and tribulations. Every hurdle we face in life has a meaning and “Allah does not burden a soul beyond that it can bear…” (Quran 2:286) Allah’s Love. “Great reward comes with great trials. When Allah loves a people, He tests them, and whoever accepts it attains His pleasure, whereas whoever shows discontent with it incurs His wrath.” (Tirmidhi) High ranks. “Nothing befalls a believer, a (prick of a) thorn or more than that, but Allah will raise him one degree in status thereby, or erase a bad deed.” (Bukhari) Bigger picture. Hardships and trials are part of everyone’s life. The important thing is for us to have the right attitude of trusting Allah and His plans when facing such hardships and trials. We may not know that our hardships may be part of a bigger plan of which we may have only limited knowledge. It’s only at a later stage that it may be revealed. When the step brothers of Prophet Yusuf  were taking him to throw him into a dark well, Allah revealed to him that: “Allah will bring about, after hardship, ease.” (Quran 65:7) and this is exactly what happened. For the best. Allah also reminds us: " … and it may be that you dislike a thing which is good for you and that you like a thing which is bad for you. Allah knows but you do not know." (Quran 2:216) 

The Kansu Braves were a unit of 10,000 Chinese Muslim troops from Kansu who were transferred to Beijing in 1898. They took part in the Boxer Rebellion when the Chinese fought the colonial western forces intent on looting China and spreading opium in the country. They were commanded by General Dong Fuxiang. Dong was extremely anti-foreign, and gave full support against the invaders. The Kansu Braves attacked the 8 nation alliance relentlessly. They were dubbed as the ‘10,000 Islamic rabble’ by westerners. They were also known for their intolerance towards the Opium trade. The Muslim troops were armed with modern repeater rifles and artillery. After the German diplomat in Beijing killed a Chinese civilian for no reason, thousands of Chinese Muslim Kansu Braves under General Dong Fuxiang of the Imperial Army and Boxers went on a violent revolt against the western invaders. Another Muslim general, Ma Anliang, joined the Kansu braves in fighting the foreigners. Ma Anliang would go on to be an important Chinese leader in the Warlord Era. The Muslim troops led by Dong Fuxiang defeated the Seymour Expedition of the 8 nation alliance at the Battle of Langfang on June 18. The Chinese won a major victory, and forced Seymour to retreat to Tianjin with heavy casualties by June 26. Langfang was the only battle the Muslim troops fought outside Beijing, with the rest of their fighting being done in the city. 

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Being a devout Muslim, Diponegoro was alarmed by the relaxing of religious observance at his half brother's court, as well as by the court's pro-Dutch policy. Diponegoro he started a holy war (Jihad) against the Dutch. The beginning of the war saw large losses on the side of the Dutch, due to their lack of strategy in fighting Diponegoro's guerrilla warfare. Ambushes were set up and food supplies were denied to the Dutch troops. The Dutch finally increased the number of troops. From 1829, Diponegoro lost the initiative and he was put in a defensive position. Many troops and leaders were defeated or deserted. In 1830 Diponegoro's military was as good as beaten and negotiations were started. He was invited to negotiate under a flag of truce. He accepted but was taken prisoner. The Dutch exiled him to Makassar where he eventually passed away. Today Diponegoro is a National Hero of Indonesia, and the Central Java Military Region is named after him. The Indonesian Navy had named two ships after him. He had 3 wives, 17 sons and 5 daughters. 

In light of the increasing usage of social media, we bring you Twitter accounts of interest to Muslims. Not all content might be Islamiccompliant:

@iFalasteen: Tweeting on Palestine and other social issues @NMunshie: Moulana Nazir Munshie, Ameer of Al Fidaa Foundation @IdealMuslimahs: The Celebrating Sisterhood

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BIOGRAPHY / TWITTER

Diponegoro (Mustahar) (Born 1785, Yogyakarta. Died 1855, Makassar, Dutch East Indies) was a Javanese prince who opposed Dutch colonial rule. He played an important role in the Java War (1825–1830). He was the eldest son of Sultan Hamengkubuwono III of Yogyakarta.


HISTORY / SUNNAH

The Muslim conquest of Persia (637–651) led to the end of the Sassanid Empire and the eventual decline of the Zoroastrian religion in Persia. When Islam was introduced to Iranians, the nobility and city-dwellers were the first to convert, Islam spread more slowly among the peasantry. By the late 11th century, the majority of Persians had become Muslim. Shiasm entered Iran around the 15th century with the Safavid dynasty which made Shiasm the official state religion and aggressively forced it on the population. Muslims invaded Iran in the time of Umar radhiallahu anhu (637) and conquered it after several great battles. By 674, Muslims had conquered Greater Khorasan (which included modern Iranian Khorasan province and modern Afghanistan, Transoxania) Many important Muslim scholars were Persian or lived in Iran including Imam Bukhari, Imam Muslim, Imam Ghazali, and physicians, astronomers, mathematicians and scientists like Al-Farabi, Avicenna, as well as Sheikhs of Sufism like Rumi and Abdul-Qadir Gilani. Sunni Muslims are about 9% of the Iranian population. While the Zoroastrians, Jews, and Christian Iranians are recognized as religious minorities, no Sunni mosques are allowed in places where Sunnis are not a majority. There are around 48,983 mosques in the country. In 1979 the Shias established a theocratic state and have and are providing military and other support to Shias fighting Sunnis in various parts of the world. 

With our lives being so far distanced from the Prophet ’s, it can be difficult to see how implementing his example can be easy. Here are practical ways to incorporate the sunnah into your life: 1. Find Out What It’s About To follow the sunnah, you first need to know what it’s all about. This involves gaining knowledge – but make sure that the information you’re getting is authentic. 2. Seek Good Friends “Man is on the religion of his friend, so let every one of you examine whom he befriends.” [Tirmidhi] Try to surround yourself with good people who will remind you of the sunnah. It’s good to be around those who verbally remind you, but it’s even better to be around those who actively practice the sunnah themselves. 3. Make It a Habit Turn your selected sunnahs into everyday habits. This involves: identifying the sunnah, knowing what the reward is, and finding a trigger that will remind you to do the action. Say you want to implement the sunnah of making wudu before sleeping every night: Action: Making wudu before sleeping each night. Reward: Forgiveness will be sought for you by an angel (wow!) – as per the hadith of Tabaranee. Trigger: Identify the last thing you do before getting into bed e.g., brushing your teeth. Make that the trigger, telling yourself that from now on, after you brush your teeth, you’ll make wudu.  productivemuslim.com

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FINAL FOCUS

MUEQSA (Muslim Equestrians South Africa) is a South African initiative to network Muslim equestrians from around the country. Its designed for horse enthusiasts of all levels of involvement including dealers, breeders and riders. MUEQSA was started in 2011 with the objective of encouraging riding as a Sunnah. It also aimed to promote the importance of horses in Islam and about the various Hadith on their care. AIMS  To make it easy for Muslim horse owners in South Africa to get in touch with others, to ride, share ideas and knowledge and form smaller riding communities.  To gather Muslim equestrians under one database so that all can be informed about news, events, views, updates and new comers in the Muslim horse world.  Establishing a base to promote horse riding and archery. The database has grown to over 600 members and subscribers. A monthly e-newsletter keeps people informed of happenings. The website has information on various aspects of horses including events, horses in Islam and classifieds.  CONTACTS Email: mueqsa@gmail.com Web: www.mueqsa.co.za Fax: 086 730 0881

Imagine that a Genie offers you any car in the world. The catch is that it is the only car you will ever own. What would you do? You would read the manual ten times, change the oil twice as often as required, and you would take fastidious care so that that car remained the car of your dreams forever. Think about what this tells you about your body. You get only one mind and one body–the same ones you will have at 20, 40, 60, etc. Take care of them and maximize their potential. It will be too late to take care of your body and mind (and car) later on. You can maintain them, but it is hard or impossible to undo big mistakes or negligence later on. You do not want to end up with a wreck on your hands. Your main asset in life is yourself. Treat yourself as a valuable asset. I often explain to students that I would be willing to pay today for a percentage of the future earnings of good students. If you value yourself, and invest in yourself, you will be worth a great deal through out your lifetime, both to yourself and to your community. Author: Warren Buffet 

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Islamic Focus Issue 111