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TRABAJO EN INGLÉS REALIZADO POR LOS ALUMNOS DE 4º E.S.O. DE TECNOLOGÍA SOBRE COMPONENTES ELECTRÓNICOS. I.E.S. MAESTRO JUAN RUBIO DE LA RODA (ALBACETE) CURSO 2013-2014


ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS ABEL GALIANO Y JULIO JIMร‰NEZ

4ยบ ESO


POTENTIOMETER A potentiometer is a resister which value of resistance is variable. Hereby, indirectly, it is possible to control the intensity of current that flows for a circuit if it connects in parallel, or the potential difference if it is connected in series. These videos show its operation: • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v =DsdjHtIkJXM • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v =zx-2lfUvj8I


LDR •

It is an electronic component whose resistance diminishes with the increase of intensity of light. It can be called also fotorresistor, photodriver, photoelectric cell or resister dependent on the light. Its initials, LDR, means lightdependent resister.

These videos show its operation: • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v =nEABf4ke34U • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v =4jUeKtnwzrs


THERMISTOR NTC A thermistor is a resistive sensor of temperature. Its functioning is based on the variation of the resistance that presents a semiconductor with the temperature. The term thermistor comes from Thermally Sensitive Resister. NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient): its resistance increases if the temperature decreases.


THERMISTOR PTC PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient): its resistance increases if the temperature increases. These videos show its operation: • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v =vHItwJxYSMg • https://www.youtube.com/watch?v =1a2LhZ5Qacs


REALIZADO POR: RUBÉN GARCÍA Y JUAN VASILACHE. 4º E.S.O.


Potenciometer Function: It serves to regulate the energy in one o more areas. In the circuit below, the potentiometer can change the intensity of light bulbs emit. These videos show its operation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XR8ede6V6eA https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zx-2lfUvj8I


LDR It is an electronic component which resistance diminishes with the increase of intensity of incidental light. It can be called also fotorresistor, photodriver, photoelectric cell or resister dependent on the light. These videos show its operation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4jUeKtnwzrs https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LQImmpcFDBw


Thermistor It is a resistive sensor of temperature. His functioning is based on the variation of the resistance that presents a semiconductor with the temperature. There are two types : NTC: its resistance will be greater if the temperature decreases. These videos show its operation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vHItwJxYSMg https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1a2LhZ5Qacs


Thermistor PTC: its resistance will be lower if the temperature decreases


ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS Maria del Mar Calder贸n y Noelia Arteseros

4潞B


POTENTIOMETER A potentiometer informally a pot, is a three-terminal resistor with a sliding contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider. If only two terminals are used, one end and the wiper, it acts as a variable resistor or rheostat.


SYMBOL

PHOTO CROCO's CIRCUIT These videos show its operation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DsdjHtIkJXM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f-5GI-72h4M


LDR A photoresistor or light-dependent resistor (LDR) or photocell is a resistor whose resistance decreases with increasing incident light intensity; in other words, it exhibits photoconductivity.


PHOTO

SYMBOL

CROCO S CIRCUIT These videos show its operation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4jUeKtnwzrs https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LQImmpcFDBw


THERMISOTOR NTC A thermistor is a type of resistor whose resistance varies significantly with temperature. Thermistors are widely used as current limiters, temperature sensors, self-resetting overcurrent protectors and selfregulating heating elements. NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient ): its resistances decreases if the temperature increases.


PHOTO

SYMBOL

CROCO S CIRCUIT

These videos show its operation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vHItwJxYSMg https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1a2LhZ5Qacs


THERMISTOR PTC A thermistor is a resistive sensor of temperature. His functioning is based on the variation of the resistance that presents a semiconductor with the temperature. PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient): its resistance increases if the temperature increases.


SYMBOL

PHOTO


Componentes electrónicos Electronic components Se denomina componentes electrónicos a aquel dispositivo que forma parte de un circuito electrónico. Se suele encapsular, generalmente en un material cerámico, metálico o plástico, y terminar en dos o más terminales o patillas metálicas. Se diseñan para ser conectados entre ellos, normalmente mediante soldadura, a un circuito impreso, para formar el mencionado circuito. It is named electronic components to that device that forms part of an electronic circuit. It is usually encasulate, generally in a ceramic, metallic or plastic material, and ending in two or more terminales or metallic sideburns. They are designed to be connected between them, normally by means of weld, to a printed circuit, to form the mentioned circuit.

TRABAJO REALIZADO POR: PABLO SÁIZ Y GABRIEL ALARCÓN. 4º E.S.O.


Potenciรณmetro/ Potentiometer Un potenciรณmetro es un resistor cuyo valor de resistencia es variable. De esta manera, indirectamente, se puede controlar la intensidad de corriente que fluye por un circuito si se conecta en paralelo, o la diferencia de potencial al conectarlo en serie. Normalmente, los potenciรณmetros se utilizan en circuitos de poca corriente. Para circuitos de corrientes mayores, se utilizan los reรณstatos, que pueden disipar mรกs potencia. A potentiometer is a resistor whose resistance value is variable. In this way, you can indirectly, control the intensity of current flowing through a circuit connected in parallel, or the potential difference when it is connected in series. Normally, the potentiometers are used in circuits of little current. For higher current circuits, resistors are used, which can dissipate more power.


You can understand its operation, watching these videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DsdjHtIkJXM https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=f-5GI-72h4M


LDR/ Light-dependent resistor Una LDR es un componente electrónico cuya resistencia disminuye con el aumento de intensidad de luz incidente. Puede también ser llamado fotorresistor, fotoconductor, célula fotoeléctrica o resistor dependiente de la luz, cuya siglas, LDR, se originan de su nombre en inglés light-dependent resistor. Su cuerpo está formado por una célula o celda y dos patillas. A LDR is an electronic component whose resistance decreases with an increasing of incident light intensity. It can also be called photoresistor, PCU, photoelectric cell or dependent resistor the light, whose acronym, LDR, originate from its name in English light-dependent resistor. Your body is composed of a cell or cell and two pins.


You can understand its operation, watching these videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LQImmpcFDBw https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=nEABf4ke34U


Termistor NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient) Un termistor es un sensor resistivo de temperatura. Su funcionamiento se basa en la variaci贸n de la resistividad que presenta un semiconductor con la temperatura. El t茅rmino termistor proviene de Thermally Sensitive Resistor. Cuando la luz aumenta su resistencia disminuye. A thermistor is a resistive temperature sensor. Its operation is based on the variation of resistivity that a semiconductor experiences with the temperature. The term thermistor from Thermally Sensitive Resistor. When the light increases its resistance decreases.


You can understand its operation, watching these videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vHItwJxYSMg https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1a2LhZ5Qacs


PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient) Un termistor es un sensor resistivo de temperatura. Su funcionamiento se basa en la variaci贸n de la resistividad que presenta un semiconductor con la temperatura. El t茅rmino termistor proviene de Thermally Sensitive Resistor. Cuando la luz aumenta su resistencia aumenta. A thermistor is a resistive temperature sensor. Its operation is based on the variation of resistivity that a semiconductor experiences with the temperature. The term thermistor from Thermally Sensitive Resistor. When the light increases its resistance increases.


Condensador/ Condenser Es un dispositivo pasivo, utilizado en electricidad y electrĂłnica, capaz de almacenar energĂ­a sustentando un campo elĂŠctrico. It is a device used in electricity and electronics, capable of storing energy sustaining an electric field passive


You can understand its operation, watching these videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YDXWACqLnmo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BZNwtNzv4Y0


Diodo Rectificador/ Diode Rectifier Un diodo es un componente electrónico de dos terminales que permite la circulación de la corriente eléctrica a través de él en un solo sentido. Este término generalmente se usa para referirse al diodo semiconductor, el más común en la actualidad; consta de una pieza de cristal semiconductor conectada a dos terminales eléctricos. El diodo de vacío (que actualmente ya no se usa, excepto para tecnologías de alta potencia) es un tubo de vacío con dos electrodos: una lámina como ánodo, y un cátodo. A diode is an electronic component of two terminals that allows the flow of electric current through it in one direction only. This term is usually used to refer to the semiconductor diode, the most common nowadays; It consists of a piece of semiconductor crystal connected to two electric terminals. Vacuum diode (which now no longer used, except for high power technologies) is a vacuum tube with two electrodes: a blade as anode and a cathode.


You can understand its operation, watching these videos:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9G6iqxLRSp4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_E-h-GGakAY


Electronic components Sara Fernández – Brenda González 4B – 4A


Conceptual map Electronic components

Potentiometer

LDR

Thermistor NTC

Thermistor PTC


Potentiometer. Potentiometer informally a pot, is a three-terminal resistor with a sliding contact that forms an adjustable voltage divider. If only two terminals are used, one end and the wiper, it acts as a variable resistor or rheostat.


THESE VIDEOS SHOW ITS OPERATION: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zx-2lfUvj8I https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XR8ede6V6eA


LDR A fotorresistencia is an electronic component whose resistance diminishes with the increase of intensity of light. It can be called also fotorresistor, photodriver, photoelectric cell or resister dependent on the light, whose initials, LDR, originate from his name in English lightdependent resister. His body is formed by a cell or cell and two sideburns.


THESE VIDEOS SHOW ITS OPERATION:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=LQImmpcFDBw https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4jUeKtnwzrs


Thermistor NTC A thermistor is a type of resistor whose resistance varies significantly with thevtemperature. Thermistors are widely used as current limiters, temperature sensors, self-resetting overcurrent protectors and selfregulating heating elements. NTC (Negative Temperature Coefficient): it is a thermistor whose resistance increases when the temperature decreases.


THESE VIDEOS SHOW ITS OPERATION:

https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vHItwJxYSMg https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=1a2LhZ5Qacs


Thermistor PTC A thermistor is a resistive sensor of temperature. His functioning is based on the variation of the resistance that presents a semiconductor with the temperature.

PTC (Positive Temperature Coefficient): it is a thermistor whose resistance decreases when the temperature decreases.


Electronic components

Sergio Blázquez Risueño Agustín Cebrián Martínez


- CAPACITORS •

Function: is a component used to store electrostatic energy electrostatically in an electric field.The electrid charge stored is proportional to the potential difference and the proportionality constant is called capacity or capacitance. In the International System of Units is measured in farads (F):1 farad capacity of a condenser means that, under a ddp of 1 volt, they acquire an electric charge of 1 coulomb.


YOU CAN UNDERSTAND BETTER ITS OPERATION, WATCHING THE FOLLOWING VIDEOS: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YDXWACqLnmo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BZNwtNzv4Y0


-DIODE RECTIFIER •

Function: it is used to eliminate the negative phase of the AC and not leading this polarization. It is mainly used in power supplies, more specifically in the phase where it moves from rectifying alternating current to direct by a diode array called diode bridge.


YOU CAN UNDERSTAND BETTER ITS OPERATION, WATCHING THE FOLLOWING VIDEOS: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_E-h-GGakAY https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F737oSkWdpc


-LED DIODE •

Function: an LED allows that electrons release energy in the form of photons. This effect is called electroluminescence and the color of light is determined from the energy band of the semiconductor.


YOU CAN UNDERSTAND BETTER ITS OPERATION, WATCHING THE FOLLOWING VIDEOS: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WjvUVjuHRtc https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5slI9FFAjnY


-TRANSISTOR •

Function: it is a semiconductor electronic device used to produce an output signal in response to another input signal. A transistor can work as an amplifier, oscillator, switch or rectifier.


YOU CAN UNDERSTAND BETTER ITS OPERATION, WATCHING THE FOLLOWING VIDEOS: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OetXABLq0fw https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5zQkJWLK7Tk


Electronic components

Alonso RozalĂŠn Cuevas Rodrigo Jimenez Cuevas 4Âş A/B


Capacitor

Capacitors are widely used in electronic circuits for blocking direct current while allowing alternating current to pass. In analog filter networks, they smooth the output of power supplies. In resonant circuits they tune radios to particular frequencies. In electric power transmission systems they stabilize voltage and power flow. These videos show its operation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=BZNwtNzv 4Y0 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UiIn1ItqEg o


Rectifier

Rectifiers have many uses, but are often found serving as components of DC power supplies and high-voltage direct current power transmission systems. Rectification may serve in roles other than to generate direct current for use as a source of power. As noted, detectors of radio signals serve as rectifiers. In gas heating systems flame rectification is used to detect presence of flame. These videos show its operation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_E-hGGakAY https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F737oSk Wdpc


Diode led

A light-emitting diode (LED) is a semiconductor light source. LEDs are used as indicator lamps in many devices and are increasingly used for general lighting. Appearing as practical electronic components in 1962, early LEDs emitted low-intensity red light, but modern versions are available across the visible, ultraviolet, and infrared wavelengths, with very high brightness. These videos show its operation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=Wjv UVjuHRtc https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5slI 9FFAjnY


Transistor

A transistor is a semiconductor device used to amplify and switch electronic signals and electrical power. It is composed of semiconductor material with at least three terminals for connection to an external circuit. A voltage or current applied to one pair of the transistor's terminals changes the current through another pair of terminals. Because the controlled (output) power can be higher than the controlling (input) power, a transistor can amplify a signal. Today, some transistors are packaged individually, but many more are found embedded in integrated circuits. These videos show its operation: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5zQkJWLK 7Tk https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9G6iqxLR Sp4


Electronic components Carlos Castillo y JosĂŠ Gabriel HernĂĄndez


CAPACITOR It is a passive device used in electricity and electronic, capable of storing electric energy. These videos show its operation:  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v =YDXWACqLnmo  https://www.youtube.com/watch?v =BZNwtNzv4Y0


DIODE RECTIFIER In electronics, a rectifier is the element that allows to turn the alternating current into direct current. This is realized using rectifying diodes. These videos show its operation:  https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=_E-h-GGakAY  https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=F737oSkWdpc


LED DIODE When a led is in direct polarization, the electrons can release energy in the shape of photons. These videos show its operation:  https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=WjvUVjuHRtc  https://www.youtube.com/watch? v=5slI9FFAjnY


TRANSISTOR The transistor is an electronic device semiconductor used to produce a sign of exit in response to another sign of entry. Its functions are: amplifier, oscillator, switchboard or rectifier. These videos show its operation: ď Ź https://www.youtube.com/watch?v =OetXABLq0fw


SONIA POVAR MIRIAM CORTIJO


CAPACITOR A capacitor (originally known as a condenser) is a passive twoterminal electrical component used to store energy electrostatically in an electric field. The forms of practical capacitors vary widely, but all contain at least two electrical conductors separated by a dielectric (insulator); for example, one common construction consists of metal foils separated by a thin layer of insulating film. Capacitors are widely used as parts of electrical circuits in many common electrical devices. When there is a potential difference across the conductors, an electric field develops in the dielectric, causing positive charge to collect on one plate and negative charge on the other plate. Energy is stored in the electrostatic field. An ideal capacitor is characterized by a single constant value, capacitance. This is the ratio of the electric charge on each conductor to the potential difference between them. The SI unit of capacitance is the farad, which is equal to one coulomb per volt.


THE FOLLOWING VIDEOS SHOW ITS OPERATION: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=UiIn1ItqEgo https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=YDXWACqLnmo


RECTIFIER DIODE ď ľ A rectifier diode lets electrical current flow

in only one direction and is mainly used for power supply operation. Rectifier diodes are generally used in order to change alternating current into direct current. They are designed as discrete components or as integrated circuits and are usually fabricated from silicon and characterized by a fairly large P-N-junction surface.


THE FOLLOWING VIDEOS SHOW ITS OPERATION: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9G6iqxLRSp4 https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_E-h-GGakAY https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=F737oSkWdpc


DIODE LED ď ľ The LED (Light-Emitting Diode: light emitting diode), is a semiconductor device

that emits light of reduced spectrum. This phenomenon is a form of electroluminescence, LED is a special type of diode that works as a common diode, but that to be crossed by electric current, emits light. This semiconductor device is commonly encapsulated in a plastic housing of greater resistance than the glass usually used in incandescent lamps. Although plastic may be colored, it is only for aesthetic reasons, since it does not affect the colour of the light emitted.


THE FOLLOWING VIDEOS SHOW ITS OPERATION: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=WjvUVjuHRtc https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5slI9FFAjnY


TRANSISTOR ď ľ The size of a transistor is related to the power that is capable of

handling. A transistor is a semiconductor electronic device used to produce an output signal in response to another input signal. [1] Its functions are: amplifier, oscillator, switch or rectifier. The term "transistor" is contraction in English transfer resistor ("transfer resistance"). The transistors are used in many electronic devices : radios, televisions, audio and video, players watches quartz, computers, fluorescent lamps, cell phones, etc.


THE FOLLOWING VIDEOS SHOW ITS OPERATION: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=OetXABLq0fw https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=5zQkJWLK7Tk

ELECTRONIC COMPONENTS  
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