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here’s your coffee written and illustrated by ISHITA AGGARWAL


contents 1

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Obsession (Introduction)

The Birth of Coffee

It’s all about the Beans

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Page 8


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Top Four Cultivators

What’s Trending

Coffee Culture

Affogato with Chocolate Cigars

Busting Myths

Decaffeination

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obsession... BECOMING STRONGER EVERYDAY

Coffee lets us step out of the madness of our lives.

Coffee always fascinates me and I love everything about it – the taste, the smell, and also that wonderful feeling of relaxation that a nice cup of coffee can bring. But the more I think about, it dawns on me that coffee is no longer just a type of hot beverage. In other words, when we buy or make coffee, we’re not just making or buying the drink or

the taste itself. Instead we’re buying some good feeling. Yes, drinking good coffee is a nice experience that affords us the opportunity to step out of the madness of our lives and relax! So to me, coffee has become a really important part of my life: it’s a symbol for modern day living. I drink a lot of coffee and I can say that without any shame.

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the birth of

coffee FROM ETHIOPIA TO THE WORLD

When you consider coffee’s wonderful journey from cherry to beverage, you have to wonder how coffee was discovered, who discovered it and how it took the form of the drink enjoyed by everyone today. That information is lost to history, unfortunately, though there are stories that may or may not be true. The most popular of these stories involves an Ethiopian goat herder by the name of Kaldi, who lived – at least according to legend – during the 9th century. One day, he noticed his goats dancing energetically after eating bright red berries from a flowering bush. Legend doesn’t go into much detail about precisely what Kaldi did with his observation, but we do know that in those earliest days coffee was more like tea: a concoction made by steeping dried leaves and dried berries from the Coffee Arabica bush in hot water.

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Coffee made its way from Ethiopia and the Sudan into Yemen and Arabia, most likely carried by slaves. In Yemen farmers began to cultivate coffee trees. The cultivation and sale of coffee beans from Yemen, through the port of Mocha, was well established by the 1500s. For centuries, coffee has successfully played a far more important role in the world than most people realize. Of course, it’s one of the most popular beverages in disparate cultures, it is also a valued commodity and a central element in the economies of many countries; as the primary agricultural export in dozens of regions across the Equatorial Belt, this epic drink provides a living for millions of people around the world involved in its cultivation, processing and distribution. By 1830, the total world coffee production already amounted to about 2.5 million bags per year.


COFFEE is the Seed

of a Cherry

The coffee tree grows fruit referred as “cherry.” Coffee beans are actually the pit of that cherry. When the cherries are dark red, they’re ready to be harvested. The cherries are either picked by hand or by a machine, and then the pit or green coffee bean is separated from the fruit and dried before they are shipped for roasting. and selling.

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it’s all about the beans AND THEIR JOURNEY BEFORE THEY REACH YOUR CUP

A coffee bean is a seed of the coffee plant and the source for coffee. It is the pit inside the red or purple fruit often referred to as a cherry. Just like ordinary cherries, the coffee fruit is also a so-called stone fruit. Even though the coffee beans are seeds, they are referred to as “beans” because of their resemblance to true beans. The fruits – coffee cherries or coffee berries – most commonly contain two stones with their flat sides together.

The two most important varieties of coffee plant are the Arabica and the Robusta; 60% of the coffee produced worldwide is Arabica and 40% is Robusta. Arabica beans consist of 0.8–1.4% caffeine and Robusta beans consist of 1.7–4% caffeine. Once roasted, pretty much all coffee beans look the same. But did you know that there are actually dozens of different varieties of coffee beans?

Robusta and Arabica differ in taste, price and condition of growing.

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When it comes to your daily cup, though, there are really only two that matter: Arabica and Robusta. These are the two primary types of coffee cultivated for drinking. The two varieties differ in taste, growing conditions, price. Arabica beans tend to have a sweeter, softer taste, with tones of sugar, fruit, and berries. Also, their acidity is higher, with that winey taste. Robusta, however, has a stronger, harsher taste, with a grain-like overtone and

peanutty aftertaste. They contain twice as much caffeine as Arabica beans, and they are generally considered to be of inferior quality compared to Arabica. Some Robustas, however, are of high quality and valued especially in espressos for their amazingly deep flavor and good crema. Robustas, however, are easier to grow. They can grow at lower altitudes than Arabicas, and they are less vulnerable to pests and weather conditions. They produce fruit much more quickly than the Arabicas, which need several years to come to maturity, and Robusta yield more crop per tree. Robusta is grown exclusively in the Eastern Hemisphere, primarily in Africa and Indonesia. Arabica is also grown in Africa and Papua New Two methods are primarily used to process


Guinea, but it’s grown dominantly in Latin America. Colombia only produces Arabica beans. Some countries, like Brazil and India, produce both Arabica and Robusta. Arabica, then, ends up being pricier. Most supermarket coffee is exclusively Robusta, and instant and cheap ground coffees are certainly robusta. You can still find Arabica in the grocery store, but just because it’s Arabica doesn’t mean it’s of high quality. The coffee tree height averages from 5–10 m (16– 33 ft.) in height. As the tree gets older, it branches less and less and bears more leaves and fruits. When the fruit is ripe, it is almost always handpicked, using either “selective picking”, where only the ripe fruit is removed, or “strip-picking”, where all of the fruit is removed from a limb all at once.

The first, “wet” or “washed” process has historically usually been carried out in Central America and areas of Africa. The flesh of the cherries is separated from the seeds and then the seeds are fermented – soaked in water for about two days. This softens the mucilage which is a sticky pulp residue that is still attached to the seeds. Then this mucilage is washed off with water. The “dry processing” method, cheaper and simpler, was historically used for lower-quality beans in Brazil and much of Africa, but now brings a premium when done well. Twigs and other foreign objects are separated from the berries and the fruit is then spread out in the sun on concrete, bricks or raise beds for 2–3 weeks, turned regularly for even drying.

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LATTE

MACCHIATO

AMERICANO AFFOGATO

RISTRETTO

DOPPIO FLAT

WHITE BREVE 10


top four

cultivators BRAZIL

COLOMBIA

VIETNAM

INDONESIA

Brazil is the largest coffee-producing nation in the world. In 2016, Brazil produced a staggering 2,595,000 metric tons of coffee beans. Brazil also distinguishes itself from other coffee producing nations as the coffee cherries are dried in the sun rather than washed in a wet process.

Vietnam is the second largest nation in the world to produce coffee – 1,650,000 metric tons in 2016 alone. While there was understandably a hiatus during and after the Vietnam War, coffee remained a huge part of the Vietnamese economy, with the only greater export being rice.

Coffee from Colombia is famous worldwide. However, climate has recently been playing a negative role in Colombian coffee production. Between 1980 and 2010, the temperature has slowly risen, as has precipitation. Colombia was traditionally second to Brazil for coffee production but has moved to third now.

Though they may not be as internationally known as a top producer, the nation of Indonesia produced over 660,000 metric tons of coffee beans in 2016. Indonesia has opted for a quantity over quality method, as the climate is better suited for the production of lower-quality Robusta beans.

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Cold Brew MADE WITH COLD WATER LESS ACIDIC AND BITTER MORE EXPENSIVE

what’s trending MADE WITH HOT OR ROOM TEMPERATURE WATER MORE ACIDIC AND BITTER CHEAPER THAN COLD BREW

Iced Coffee

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While cold brew is cold coffee, it is definitely not iced coffee. One isn’t “better” than the other, but they’re made very differently and definitely have distinct tastes. Cold brew uses cold or room temperature water, and the water usually has direct contact with the coffee grounds between 12-24 hours. Once the coffee has finished steeping, the end product is a strong concentrate that can be mixed with water to make cold brew (usually it’s about a 50:50 mix of coffee concentrate to water, but it depends how strong you want to make your coffee). Because there’s no hot water involved in the brewing process, cold brew is generally less acidic, has more body, and is a bit mellower tasting. When restaurants first started serving iced coffee, they simply poured hot coffee over ice. The end product tasted too diluted, so most people have moved away from that process and started making a double batch (by using double the amount of coffee grounds in their coffee maker), letting it cool, and then pouring it over ice. To make your brew taste stronger, you can take a pot of cool coffee and pour it into an ice cube tray and freeze it. The next day, pour hot coffee over your coffee ice cubes.

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coffee culture

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KAHVE, TURKEY

IPOH WHITE COFFEE, MALAYSIA

Originated in the Ipoh Town of Malaysia, this style involves roasting the beans with palm oil margarine, which helps in giving this drink a slight hint of charcoal and smoke.

The best way to take coffee in Morocco is “nous-nous”, Arabic for “half-half” – half coffee, half hot milk. It results in something like a piccolo latte, a strong, tasty beverage served in a small glass.

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Brewed black and strong, it’s left unfiltered so that at the bottom of each glass you’ll always find a sludge that is undrinkable but the beverage is delicious.

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NOUS-NOUS, MOROCCO

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CA PHE SUA DA, VIETNAM

Coffee in Vietnam is prepared like nowhere else in the world, with hot water poured into a mini percolator of rich, dark grains that sits on top of a glass. Black liquid then drips through that percolator and lands in a puddle of thick, sweet, condensed milk. Add a handful of ice cubes, stir, and you have a delicious drink.

KAAPI, SOUTHERN INDIA

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ESPRESSO, ITALY

This really tiny, strong cup of pure coffee worshipped by the Italian masses is either hand-pulled or drawn from an espresso machine. This is coffee at its best, unadorned with fancy syrups, chocolate splodges or even milk. An Italian espresso is traditionally consumed while standing at a bar and yelling at people.

Locally grown coffee in South India is roasted and finely ground, percolated, topped with frothed milk, and then “pulled” between the cup and saucer, a process that cools and mixes the liquid. It costs about 10 cents. Delicious.

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INGREDIENTS

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Coffee Cigar

Affogato

Garnish

¼ cup butter (60 ml) ¼ cup sugar (60 ml) Juice of 1/2 a lemon ¼ cup maple syrup (60 ml) 2 Tbsp. espresso (30 ml) ⅓ cup flour (80 ml) 2 Tbsp. crushed hazelnuts

Vanilla ice cream ½ cup of strong espresso (125 ml)

Zest and juice of 1 lemon Sugar


affogato with coffee cigars THE CLASSIC ITALIAN WAY OF SERVING COFFEE AND ICE CREAM WITH A TWIST COFFEE CIGARS 1. Preheat oven at 180 C (350 F). 2. In a stockpot, melt the butter with sugar, maple syrup, espresso and lemon juice. Bring to a boil, add the flour and cook for about 1 minute, stirring constantly until it thickens slightly with a wooden spoon. Remove from heat. 3. Drop a teaspoon size amount of batter on a baking sheet lined with parchment paper. Spread thinly with the back of a spoon or a palette knife into a circular sized shape. Sprinkle with hazelnuts. Repeat until all the batter has been used. Bake in the oven for about 8 minutes or until slightly golden brown. Remove and let cool only slightly until you can handle them, about 5 minutes. Carefully roll them into a cigar shape using the handle of a wooden spoon to guide you if necessary. If you see they are hardening too quickly, you can put them back in the oven for a minute or two to re-soften and continue rolling. Set aside for a while before serving.

SERVE 1. Rim the edges of the espresso cups with lemon juice and then lightly dip the cup in sugar. Add a shot of espresso coffee. Garnish with a scoop of ice cream and lemon zest.

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BUSTING

myths IT IS TIME TO WAKE UP & DRINK THESE 5 FACTS ABOUT YOUR ALL TIME FAOURITE BEVERAGE

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1

Coffee gives you insomnia

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It helps you lose weight

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A darker roast is stronger

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It will dehydrate you

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It will stunt your growth

Everyone is different, but for the majority of people an afternoon (around 3 PM) cup of coffee will have no effect on your sleep cycle.

Coffee doesn’t speed up your metabolism. Although, consuming coffee before a workout can help improve your performance and that might result in weight loss.

In terms of caffeine, the darker your roast the less caffeine. Not by a great margin, but enough that this myth is debunked. A light roast will have just bit extra.

Caffeine is a mild diuretic but the causation of dehydration is mostly offset by the water in your coffee. Studies show drinking caffeinated drinks in moderation doesn’t dehydrate you.

While it’s unclear how this myth started, what is clear is that there’s no scientific evidence supporting the claim that drinking coffee will stunt your growth.

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decaffeination WHAT IS DECAF COFFEE? Coffee is perhaps most prized for its caffeine content. The caffeine content in a cup of coffee varies widely depending on the type of bean used and the brewing method. While most of the caffeine is removed during the decaffeination process, trace amounts may still remain. The international standard for decaffeination requires that 97 % of the caffeine be removed from decaffeinated coffee. In most cases, the residual amount is about 5.4 mg of caffeine in a 12-oz. cup of coffee. That’s in contrast to about 180 mg in a 12-oz. cup of regular coffee. Most methods of decaffeination follow the same basic principle: the beans are soaked in water, which allows the caffeine (and other chemicals responsible for flavor) to leach out of the beans. The extracted liquid is then either passed through a filter or mixed with a solvent to remove only the caffeine and leave the other beneficial compounds. The flavorrich, caffeine deficient solution is then reintroduced to the beans to allow the flavor to be reabsorbed completely.

The Swiss Water Method has gained popularity in recent years because it uses only water to remove caffeine but the process is long and laborious. Other solvents used in the decaffeinating process include carbon dioxide, ethyl acetate, or triglycerides. Each method has its own advantages and disadvantages including cost, time, labor, and effect on the final flavor. The biggest issue with decaffeinated coffee has always been flavor. While SWP is highly regarded as an environmentally friendly, natural and healthy way to decaffeinate coffee, some people complain that SWP decaf coffee tastes a little muddled and muddy. The solvent-based methods seem to favor the retention of those high, bright notes in coffee, but often seems to result in coffees with less body. It’s difficult to make a really good assessment, though, even by experts, because it’s difficult to find samples of the same coffees decaffeinated, roasted and brewed using similar methods.

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Coffee has become such an important part of our lives. But why, that’s the burning question?! Could it be that we have a physiological need for it on the basis that it helps us escape or unwind? Is it some sort of association with socializing and relaxing? Is it that, taste aside, it simply makes us feel good about ourselves? There’s no fixed answer to this question and also there’s nothing wrong in being obsessed with coffee. It doesn’t matter if you are a coffee addict or not, read this book to know more about coffee.

Here's Your Coffee  
Here's Your Coffee  
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