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Architecture Desgin Studio Ishani Gunasekara 542396

AIR Design


Case For Innovation A: Introduction

Case for Innovation Architecture, when created with purpose and awareness has much to offer, and is an ever-changing concept which explores new possibilities of experience, tectonics and the possibilities for the future. In order to advance with the 21st century computers have been rapidly integrated into the design and production processes of architecture and allows us to envision an innovative future for the built world. Just in the relatively new field of parametric modelling, our concepts of structure and the spaces we inhabit have great potential to evolve.

Case For Innovation A: Introduction

Ishani Gunasekara Currently completing my third year in a Bachelor of Environments and majoring in architecture, I am looking forward to engage in the new ideas and design potential studio air will present. Apart from the architectural subjects at the University of Melbourne, I am also undertaking subjects in landscape design and philosophy, as I have always been fascinated in the way humanity perceives, interprets and shapes the world around us. I’m interested in architecture that taps in to the sub-conscience of past and present users by seamlessly adapting to its surrounding context fulfilling purpose, while being memorable spaces that are remembered through the experiences within the spaces.

Through both architecture and landscape architecture design studios, I have tried several different computer design programmes to assist me with the design process. I have a brief knowledge of Google SketchUp, AutoCad and AutoCad Architecture as well as being introduced to Rhino in the first year subject; Virtual Environments. Programmes such as InDesign, Illustrator and a little exposure to Photoshop have helped me to enhance my presentation skills and communication of design. While I haven’t attempted the Grasshopper plugin before, I’m excited to experience the potential for design the program seems to promise and experiment with form and new design ideas.

Case For Innovation A: Introduction

Architecture as a Discourse

From its ancient origins, architecture has always been a form of communication and expression. From the establishment of canonical rules in the Classical Order, to the expressionists and modernists of recent decades, architecture has represented ideas, beliefs and social and political values and continues to communicate with people millennia after their construction. This language of communication is not one of words, but a meta-language of proportion, material, light and other formal qualities in connection to various sources. The concept of architecture has been described as an autopoietic system, as recently considerd by architect Patrick Schumarker1, engendered by its own means and fuelled by communication within the study of architecture. However, many would agree that it extends far beyond the boundaries of theory and the design process. Architecture is a far more ambiguous idea as described in Jonathan Hill’s Drawing Froth Immaterial Architecture2 and in many cases achieves success through this sense of ambiguity, as something which may only be partially recognised and understood3. Perhaps this is the reason for its seeming immortality; its lack of lucidity allows architecture to be perceived

and interpreted differently by those that encounter it and “the observer becomes more and more the user who gives meaning to the object…”4 Being formed on the basis of shelter, a basic human need, architecture naturally extends itself to all people. As Jonothan Hill describes “The architect, user, site and weather may each be the agent of an object’s ambiguity, but the user is its author.5” The users and occupiers of architectural spaces are ultimately what interact with the architecture, giving great importance to the experience of its spaces. As architect Thomas Mayne suggests, the relationship and dynamics between the systems is what has the power to transform and produce architecture that is more than mere structure6. The way humans interact and function in spaces is a key element that needs to be focussed on in the discourse of architecture. Significant architecture may not always be bold and built at a large scale however it will always impact those that encounter it. A positive experience of architecture makes users aware of themselves and the space they inhabit and often subliminally or literally influence the way spaces are used and remembered. The Wyndham City Gateway Project seeks an installation

Jewish Museum, Berlin Source: http://mafana.files. guggenheim-bilbao-catia. jpg

Right: Natinoal Stadium, Berlin Source: http://www.

Case For Innovation A: Introduction

which will have “longevity in its appeal, encouraging ongoing interest … and further reflection about the installation beyond a first glance”; qualities which yearn to be expressed in all architecture. To achieve this, the encounter of the design must be memorable and intriguing as well as alluring in its ambiguity. Although the primary audience will be travelling at high speeds, being afforded only a brief glance at the site, the formal qualities behind the philosophy of architectural design has the potential to leave a lasting and significant impact. The work of architect Daniel Libeskind, strongly associated with the Deconstructivist movement strives to achieve this through the notion of visceral architecture7, evoking an emotive response rather

than an informed interest towards the structure. As expressed in Architecture and Visual Culture, architecture is often described through a background of the history of design, and a didactic outlook about the designer’s intentions however, as a societal construct, it should be held “open to interpretation, not only by those with a professional interest, but by anyone”. (Roland Barthes, (1915-80)8. This egalitarian approach towards architecture ensures that it is accessible to the braider public and can be a valuable and successful cultural icon. As an expression of the world around it, architecture has always been contextually driven by factors of its site, the socio-political environment

and the technological advancement of its time. With computer technology being the driver for much advancement in the modern age, architecture embraces the possibilities of the digital world in order to continue as a symbol of the twenty-first century. Already, renowned architectural firms have adopted computation into their practices and have produced forms radically different to any architecture of the past. As drivers of the future, architecture must constantly dare to materialise concepts of the possibilities of the future. A phenomenon that expresses an enthusiasm for the future with a celebration of modern technology, would serve as an inspirational installation for the Wyndham City Gateway Project.

Case For Innovation A: Introduction

Daniel Libeskind Jewish Museum, Berlin Year: 2001

Top Left: Jewish Museum, Berlin Source: http://www. contemporaryjewishmuseum/ pool/interesting/ Bottom Left: Jewish Museum, Berlin Source: building/read/2680/JewishMuseum/201/

Architect Daniel Libeskind is a master of creating distinctive and provocative spaces, disconnected from reality, evoking a new atmospheres. The Jewish museum in Berlin is a culturally and architecturally renowned building for its bold representation of the Holocaust in Berlin and the rest of Germany throughout and after the adversity of WWII. Libeskind’s focus on creating a sense of wonder through architecture gives his buildings an ambiguous and inexplicable character, contrasted with a strong definition of spaces. He focuses on the visceral impact of spaces, giving great importance to the user’s experience of the building, from the approach to the structure, to the lasting effects of memorable spaces within tithe building9. The Jewish Museum hosts a series of sombre, unadorned space, with sharp, controlled blades of light guiding visitors through the building. Acutely angled walls and dark, overpowering spaces have a daunting effect on the visitors, strengthening the poignancy and chaos behind the exhibited artefacts. For Libeskind, architecture is an expressive field. It brings about a vitality to the city and spaces within it, communicating the essence of culture in different places and times. However, what it expresses

may not be new, in fact, like the Jewish Museum, it may disturb us, the idea and the memorability of the experience of architecture is what completes it10. While the items on display are a key element in the building’s design, the lack or ‘void’ of certain artefacts was also an important factor in the concept for the Jewish Museum. High ceilinged, dimly lit space like the Holocaust void represents this lack of physical memory and the invisibility of the Jewish culture and the ‘voiding’ of the Jewish people from a place that was once their homes. The Jewish Museum is unexpected in form and raw in its expression of meaning, possessing a complexity of thought and layers of meaning. The historical and political context of the site is an integral part of the building, giving it a cultural significance and ensuring its significance in the future. With the realisation that many who visit the Jewish Museum will not have a firsthand experience of wartime, stirring a personal reaction was important for Libeskind, to provoke and individual response, and to perhaps leave the visitor with a lasting impression of the chaos and adversity faced by the individuals who suffered11. While the museum itself is a place for lamentation, Libeskind’s outlook on architecture is that it is a field for ‘optimism’, and that architecture must believe in the future, if it is to thrive12. It ‘asks questions’ instead of just giving answers. In order to do so, designers must embrace new technologies and new ways of designing to ensure longevity of the structure and the ideas it expresses.

Case For Innovation A: Introduction

Herzog De Meuron

Beijing National Stadium, Beijing Year: 2008

Top: National Stadium, Berlin Source: http://mafana.files. guggenheim-bilbao-catia.jpg Bottom: National Stadium, Berlin Source: http://mafana.files. guggenheim-bilbao-catia.jpg

For the Olympics held in Beijing, in 2008, the Chinese government sought to commission a new stadium, which would serve as an iconic representation of Beijing at the time and be a radically new and futuristic architectural form. The design proposed by Herzog and De Meuron gained favour amongst the people even before it was built, being dubbed the ‘birds nest’ for it oval form and winding structural skin13. The structure was intended for use beyond the Olympic Games period, and was to be a cultural icon to draw people into its urban precinct, creating space for diverse activities and linking the outside with the inner spaces of the building. They was renowned for its innovative approach to the building’s performance, with the skin acting not only as an visually appealing beacon, but also utilizing modern technology and materials, bringing Beijing architecture into the future. The grid-like structure is a multifunctional, self-supporting system, acting as the faced, and roof and consisting of stairs and walls in an integrated system14. The building itself incorporates sustainable innovation, with rainwater collection systems and a translucent roof which provides sunlight, while the exterior structure allows for passive ventilation

. Inflatable cushion-structures on the roof tops, also add insulation toand regulates wind and harsh sunlight. Like many of their buildings, Herzog and De Meuron architects adopt and integrated approach of traditional techniques of design with advanced digital architecture. The architects design through the use of sketches and hand-made models, and refine their ideas on 3D modelling software, in collaboration with a computation team16. The firm believes that computers should not and cannot take over architecture, as the input of human creativity and problem solving must have a strong presence in the design process17. Therefore, computers are used primarily as a means for feasibility of the built structure and to produce 3D models with accuracy and ease. Drawing in visitors was a key goal for the building, as according to Herzog and De Meuron, “the human crowd forms the architecture”.18 The innovative stadium structure is a prominent example of experiential architecture, drawing users in from afar, providing a mesmerising space inside, with sustainable solutions achieved through modern technology and materials. 15

Case For Innovation A: Introduction

Computational Architecture

The use of computers in most cases can be applied throughout the design process. The intertwined phases of design, as outlined in Principles, Theories and Methods of CAD19 can all benefit and be developed with the aid of computers. From the process of gathering information, to the final means of communication and presentation of ideas, the use of computers has been integral to modern design. Computer design programmes were initially used as tools for computerisation, where designers use a more ‘analogue’ approach to design the model and digitize their design in order to utilise the efficiency and accuracy possible through computers20. As a digital replacement for architectural drafting and technical drawing21, the computer at first served as a computerisation tool of preconceived ideas and was generally used for a communication of the idea. Frank Gehry used a similar approach with his design process for the Guggenheim Museum, to determine the eventual structure and feasibility of the elaborate form. However, in more recent years, computer

programmes have been more deeply integrated with the design process itself. In order to solve the conflicts present between designers and specialised computer programmers,22 design programs such as Rhino became more accommodating and usable for designers. The result is the process of design computation, where computers are utilised throughout the design process,including the creation of architectural form. It is describe in Computation Works that computation allows the ‘designer to extend their ability to deal with highly complex situations’,23 and allows a greater exploration of form and space, beyond the capabilities of model making and manual construction. The use of computer modelling programs is fast becoming an essential tool for the modern designer, allowing enhanced design and production possibilities as well as effectively minimising time-consuming tasks. The potential to create an algorithmic output of situation, based on physical parameters set by the designer is in particular creating new possibilities for architectural form. The integration of the design process and computers has brought forth a channel to

explore and share design ideas and conception on a mass digital scale. This has engendered a ‘building of algorithmic thought’ in which many designers are beginning to play an active role. 24 Computation in the design process has allowed for a bridging between the conceptual model and construction of its physical form through the ability to create three dimensional forms in a very precise manner. A coordination of aesthetic and physical aspects has become more readily achievable, with an awareness of construction and feasibility in very early stages of design. As well as having greater freedom for aesthetic for-finding, computer modelling programs allow a testing and experimentation of possible structure and the material behaviour under certain conditions, in a digital format, allowing for the incorporation of formal composition and constructability of design.25 Algorithmic programming, to virtually test the structural and material capabilities of elements has allowed for a greater utilisation of engineering and building technologies, and made way for more economical and innovative structural approaches.

Case For Innovation A: Introduction

Guggenheim Museum, Bilboa - CATIA digital model Source: http://mafana.files. guggenheim-bilbao-catia. jpg

Computation has allowed architects to easily branch off into non-Euclidian geometries allowed for a more free-form approach like the ‘blob’ concept describe by Gregg Lynn26. Visualisations and digital fabrication of design intentions allows designers to virtually interact and experiment with 3D models and determine a-material concepts such as spatial experience and create intricate interior spaces. While the process of design and architectural development is often segregated and feeds the technological aspect of the project, as is the case with the archtiects and the Digital Technology Group associated with Herzog & de Meuron Architects.27 The use of 3D modelling programmes such as Rhino and its plugins, are becoming increasingly intertwined with the act of finding design solutions and certainly in the evaluation and synthesis of possible design outcomes. The recent introduction of 3D printing has also created new depth for the model-making process providing an ability test new materials and quickly create models with precision even of complex forms. The material and structural performance is a necessity for the

success of any architectural structure. With the use of certain computational programs, the there is a greater opportunity to consider these factors in the design of the building. The ability to create physical evaluations based on material and structural properties engineers and architects can more accurately determine the behaviour of built structures of even the most complex designs and create solutions that are more functional and environmentally sustainable28. There is no longer a necessity for a linear approach to design; structures can even be approached from detailing concepts and can be altered with greater ease after the design has significantly progressed. Such performance-oriented design can be constantly tested for its functioning qualities and its behaviour can be evaluated under different stresses and conditions. Computation can also enhance evidence-based designs, which focus on the users and the encounter of the architectural spaces29. 3D modelling allows architects to more lucidly visualise the qualitative experiences of a space, which can be determined by many factor from the scalar proportion of the structure, to connecting details. The ease of model making allows for a more thorough exploration of spaces and can accommodate a greater range of spatial elements such as lighting, the readability of spaces and the visceral experience. The evidence-based design method allows the architect to analyse and modify a preconceived idea to achieve a stronger impact on those that encounter their designs. The ability to create 3D models of design solutions from very early stages in design has dramatically changed the concept of architectural practice and has transformed it from a process of form finding and external appeal to a discourse of greater abstraction and dependence on the incentives of the designer. It allows for

greater experimentation of form and function in the process of design and make it a more integrated process between concept and physical construction. By taking over mundane and repetitive tasks, computers can reduce the margin for human error and allow designers to focus more strongly on other aspects of the architecture, from the prevalence of the initial architectural idea, to working out details of construction and material functionality. In order to create a structure that truly utilises the technology and opportunities of the 21st century, a reliance on computers and computational media is necessary. Computation has transformed the architectural process and will continue to play a big role in its evolution.

Case For Innovation A: Introduction

Frank O’Ghery

Guggenheim Museum, Bilbao Year: 1997

Frank O’Ghery Architects are pioneers in integrating computation with the architecture. In the design of the Guggenheim in Bilbao, Spain, computers were used beyond the conventional methods for drafting and planning. Ghery’s hand-built models were computerized in order to create a feasible design for construction30. This deconstructivist architectural work brought to the urban environment a unique and unpredictable design made possible on through the utilisation of Computer Aided Design (CAD). The building asserts its position as a prominent art museum through its dynamic form and eccentric titanium plated structure. Computer Aided Three Dimensional Interactive Application (CATIA) and visualizations were used heavily in the structure’s design. The complex surfaces and structures would have been near impossible without the use of a CATIA, which allowed designers and engineers to define the complex curved titanium surfaces into equations31. Wood and plastic forms created by the architects were scanned three dimensionally into a virtual coordinate system and completed and refined using CATIA.32

The program was able to digitize the sculptural form and dimensions with speed and accuracy with the cladding material being pre-cut to precision, allowing the construction process to be economical and on schedule. CAD was also used to ensure that each piece would fit into position, giving engineers more time to focus their efforts on the process of manual construction to ensure lasting integrity of the building33. The elusive building established a lasting sense of a futuristic aesthetic and form and remains as an avant-garde and dynamic continuously moving forward in time with the modernist art it represents. The contrast of ‘fluid’ titanium clad steel infrastructure, with solid limestone masses, strewn with expanses of glazed surfaces reinforces a sense of permanence while moving forward to the possibilities of the future.

Guggenheim Musuem, Bilbao Source: buildings/guggenheimmuseum-bilbaoprofile-1314

Case For Innovation A: Introduction

Neri Oxman

Imaginary Beings: Mythologies of the Not Yet Year: 2012

The innovative research and prototypes by Neri Oxman rely on the ease of computational power and digital modelling available today. Her theories on material computation are derived from naturally occurring structural systems that can be algorithmically applied to artificial human construction34. Unlike Ghery, Oxman strives to generate organic forms, driven by the function of materials. With the ability to create diverse forms using digital modelling, Oxman argues that many designers can get lost in the seemingly freeform world of modern design and overlook the material properties and behaviour constraints and a fabrication process that is inert to them35. With the ability to express a plethora of geometries, she describes that ‘the world of architecture is becoming saturated with formal expression’, and that architectural firms continue to design in a topdown method36, with aesthetic form dominating the outcome, although the incorporations of computers has created a platform for a change of this paradigm. Oxaman’s research strives for a future in architecture where the “incorporation of material performance

is directly and explicitly united with the geometric representation” of form37. With the utility of computers, the designer perhaps has a greater responsibility to actively synthesise and modify solutions and be creative in their approach to design issues and briefs. While computers can offer a range of possible design outputs and possibilities, it is important for the designer to understand ‘real-world’ issues and apply their knowledge to decipher the best solution and strongly consider the future performance of their designs. As architect Herzog claims, “technology is very important as a tool, but technology in itself doesn’t do anything, doesn’t create anything. Computers cannot do anything without the assistance of the human brain”.38 Oxman’s exhibition, “Imaginary Beings, Mythologies of the Not Yet”, showcased possibilities through the structural research conducted about the structural formations in nature as well as the capabilities of digital printing, with different materials, to create versatile and highly effective designs.

Prototype for a Chaise Lounge 2008-2010 Beast is a 3D printed prototype for a lounge chair, created with an aggregate of both tensile and compressive material, which morphs to suit the user. Source: edu/~neri/site/projects/ beast/beast.html

Case For Innovation A: Introduction

Parametric Architecture

In the few decades that computation has been involved in the architectural design process, the way computer modelling has been applied to the design process has caused a noticeable shift of our conception of architecture. While the process of parametric modelling has been applied to architecture before the introduction of digital design, within different industries, the term parametric has been given various definitions. Most infer that entails of families of components and requisite control of data39. By curtailing aspects of a model based on given data, the constraints themselves help to construct the form and space the object inhabits. The algorithmic parameters also create a set of relationships between the elements of the design and allow the final product to change in response to the control choices. Analogue Parametric Modelling While the notion of parametric modelling is often associated with computers, it is not exclusive to a digital process. Designers such as Antonio Gaudi and Frei Otto speculated about form as a result of

algorithmic changes, experimenting with unconventional typologies guided by simple and complex patterns from natural precedents such as the form of soap bubbles40. Creating predominantly tensile structures, some of his physical models searched for an economical way to create forms, by imitating the ways that nature naturally holds structure. In a similar way, the hanging chain models of Gaudi, explores the effects of tensile force and motion inspired by the Gothic representation of load transfer through arches and defined buttresses41. The significance of the relativity of the holistic form, to all its elements is an important notion considered in parametric modelling today. Parametric computation allows designers to alter small parameters of their design that can eventuate as drivers of the overall form.

Case For Innovation A: Introduction

Zaha Hadid Architects

The Guangzhou Opera House, Guangzhou 2003 - 2010

When discussing parametric design, the work of Zaha Hadid Architects cannot go unmentioned. Having adopted the technique early in their practice, the firm has been a pioneer in using scripting methods to design their unique architecture as well as delving into research based on the applicability of parametricism to many design strategies including designing the urban landscape. They have created buildings that have only before been conceived in whimsical sketches and avant-garde notions of the future. They may have been considered inconceivable when computers were first introduced to architecture, however the inimitable architectural forms produced by Zaha Hadid speak of a spectacular and perhaps uncertain future.

form is inspired water-word boulders on the river’s edge, the architectural design of the structure is a unique and ambiguous form, with a contoured profile, contrasted with angular elements42. Zaha Hadid used multiple 3D modelling software, including Rhino for the exterior triangulated grid structure, to create the crystalline form and Maya for the sinuous curves of the auditorium’s interior43. The geometries were achieved using algorithms derived through splines, blobs, NURBS and particles organised by scripting programmes and techniques44. Designed as a ‘volume within a volume’, the building is layered with unique construction techniques and structural systems enabled by computation and parametric modelling programs45. The exterior triangulated Most of the modern designs by Zaha steel shell crates a self-supporting Hadid architecture utilise parametric lattice while framed glass to allow algorithms to conceptualise form and natural light into the interior. Intricately structure. The Guangzhou Opera but granite tiling has be fit in a House is an intriguing built product of tessellated pattern that was achieved this digitized architectural process and through Rhino. The internal geometry outwardly shows signs of parametric of the auditorium is contrastingly fluid, modelling in all of its aspects, from developed in Maya through doubly surface details, to the buildings’ visible curved NURBS surfaces and moulded structural system. While the main out of digital files46. The use of digital

Top: Guangzhou Opera Hosue guangzhou-opera-house/ Top Left: Frei Otto, Apparatus for computing minimal path systems, Institute for Lightweight Structures (ILEK), Stuttgart, 1988 Source: http://www.patrikschumacher. com/Texts/Parametricism%20-%20A%20 New%20Global%20Style%20for%20 Architecture%20and%20Urban%20Design. html Bottom Left: Inside Gaudí’s hanging model for the Colònia Güell Source:

modelling allowed the building to be conceived on a 3D scale, rather than in a planar environment, creating intriguing and unique approached from different sides of the building47. The ability to control surfaces and instantly create outputs based on certain parameters allowed the building to better reflect the architectural idea and the undulations of the surrounding environment.

Case For Innovation A: Introduction


Shellstar Pavilion Year: 2012

Case For Innovation A: Introduction

Top: Shellstar Pavilion Source: http://matsysdesign. com/2013/02/27/shellstarpavilion/ Bottom: Shellstar Pavilion Source: http://matsysdesign. com/2013/02/27/shellstarpavilion/

Experimentation with forms in tension and compression in order to discern interesting and functional forms is still being conducted, based on the classic techniques developed by Gaudi and Otto. Programs such as Rhino provide scripting tools that allows testing to be done digitally, with precision, before building models. Designers such as MATSYS have created multiple experimental forms using Rhino plugins such as Grasshopper, Kangaroo, Lunchbox, Python and Rhinoscript. The Shellstar Pavilion is a lightweight temporary structure designed using Rhino and associated programs to create a lightweight structure, which maximises spatial performance, while minimising structure and material. It is based on the idea of a purely compressive structure, considered by Gaudi and Otto48. The use of parametric modelling, made the design and construction process a speedy one, taking only 6 weeks to finalise the design, fabricate the elements of the structure and assemble the pavilion on site49. The overall form was designed using the Kangaroo physics engine on Rhino, and was crated through the use of ‘thrust surfaces’, aligned with

structural vectors, creating a digital parametric environment and allowing the form to create itself, based on the forces added to it.50 Nearly 1500 cells were used to create the physical model and were modified and justified using the Python plug-in, in order to ensure that each cell could function as an individual component in the built form and cohere to the holistic structure51. The connected peaks act as arches, transferring load through a thin metal frame, which supports the structure. Using the physics properties available in Kangaroo, the designers were able to create a structural stable form, covering a large surface area, needing very minimal structural support and material.

Case For Innovation A: Introduction

Algorithmic Challenge With the Grasshopper techniques I have learnt in the last few weeks, I was able to create some sinuous forms, similar to parts of the model I constructed in the Virtual Environments studio, in a fraction of the time. After extruding the curve along a wavy path, I was able contour the surface and create offsets of those contours to form a grid. By then extruding the grid, I was able to create a simple, but more intricate digital model than the closed curved volumes I created in my first year. With more practice, there is a large array of potentially interesting forms that could be taken out of the simple lines I initially produced.

Case For Innovation A: Introduction

The techniques and understanding I have through this brief study of parametric modelling and use of computers in architecture have certainly change my idea of the role of computers in current and future architectural practice. While I was aware that computers could ease the process of design and enhance communication of design, the real potential for computation in architecture goes far beyond digitization of preconceived ideas. While less attention needs to be given to calculations and repetitive tasks, designers are still learning to achieve coherence between designing functional and valuable structures, as opposed to merely creating forms that are aesthetically appealing and

captivating. With the application of new computational research methods and programs such as Neri Oxman’s natural computation and the Kangaroo, perhaps the time saved through computational efficiency needs to be applied into ensuring that architecture develops as a sustainable and effective solution to future urban demands.

Case For Innovation A: Introduction

References 1. Patrik Schumacher, 'Introduction : Architecture as Autopoietic System', in The Autopoiesis of Architecture (Chichester: J. Wiley, 2011), pp. 1 - 28 2. Hill, Jonathan (2006). 'Drawing Forth Immaterial Architecture', Architectural Research Quarterly, 10, 1, p53 3. Hill, Jonathan (2006). 'Drawing Forth Immaterial Architecture', Architectural Research Quarterly, 10, 1, p52 4. Hill, Jonathan (2006). 'Drawing Forth Immaterial Architecture', Architectural Research Quarterly, 10, 1, p53 5. Hill, Jonathan (2006). 'Drawing Forth Immaterial Architecture', Architectural Research Quarterly, 10, 1, p54 6. Ted Conferences ‘Thom Mayne: How architecture can connect us’ (2005) < architecture_as_connection.html> 7. Carl Fredrik and Valdemar Hellberg ‘Case Study: Jewish Museum, Berlin’ (2012) <http://visceralintricacyexperientialresearch.> 8. Richard Williams, 'Architecture and Visual Culture', in Exploring Visual Culture : Definitions, Concepts, Contexts, ed. by Matthew Rampley (Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, 2005), p109 9. Ted Conferences, ‘Daniel Libeskind: 17 words of architectural inspiration’ (2009) < libeskind_s_17_words_of_architectural_inspiration.html> 10. Ted Conferences, ‘Daniel Libeskind: 17 words of architectural inspiration’ (2009) < libeskind_s_17_words_of_architectural_inspiration.html> 11. Libeskind, Daniel. The Space of Encounter. New York: Universe Publishing, 2000. 12. Ted Conferences, ‘Daniel Libeskind: 17 words of architectural inspiration’ (2009) < libeskind_s_17_words_of_architectural_inspiration.html> 13. Herzog & de Meuron ‘The National Stadium, a new kind of public space for Beijing’ (2007) < http://www.herzogdemeuron. com/index/projects/complete-works/226-250/226-national-stadium.html> 14. Emily Pilloton ‘Beijing Olympic Stadium by Herzog & DeMeuron (2007) <> 15. Emily Pilloton ‘Beijing Olympic Stadium by Herzog & DeMeuron (2007) <> 16. Brady, Peter (2013) Computation Works: The building of algorithmic thought. Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 8 – 15 17. Brady, Peter (2013) Realising the Architectural Intent: Computation at Herzog & De Meuron. Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 56 – 61 18. Herzog & de Meuron ‘The National Stadium, a new kind of public space for Beijing’ (2007) < http://www.herzogdemeuron. com/index/projects/complete-works/226-250/226-national-stadium.html> 19. Yehuda E. Kalay, Architecture's New Media : Principles, Theories, and Methods of Computer-Aided Design (Cambridge, Mass.: MIT Press, 2004), pp. 5 - 25 20. Brady, Peter (2013) Computation Works: The building of algorithmic thought. Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 8 – 15 21. Oxman, Neri (2004) Material-based Design Computation. P99 22. Brady, Peter (2013) Computation Works: The building of algorithmic thought. Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp. 8 – 1523. 24. Brady, Peter (2013) Computation Works: The building of algorithmic thought. Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp11 25. Oxman, Neri (2004) Material-based Design Computation. P133 26. Lynn, Greg (1998) "Why Tectonics is Square and Topology is Groovy", in Fold, Bodies and Blobs: Collected Essays ed. by Greg Lynn (Bruxelles: La Lettre volée), pp. 169-182 27. Brady, Peter (2013) Realising the Architectural Intent: Computation at Herzog & De Meuron. Architectural Design, 83, 2, p 59 28. Digital Crafting ‘Sean Ahlquist: Computation and Simulation’ (2010) <> 29. Georgia Tech School of Architecure ‘PHD – Evidence Based Design’ (date: unknown) 30. Katie Cacace, Marita Nikaki and Anna Stefanidou ‘Guggenheim Museum Bilbao’(1999) topic502069.files/guggenheim 31. Gehry's Guggenheim in BilbaoAuthor(s): Martin PopsSource: Salmagundi, No. 124/125 (FALL 1999 - WINTER 2000), pp. 1749 32. Katie Cacace, Marita Nikaki and Anna Stefanidou ‘Guggenheim Museum Bilbao’(1999) topic502069.files/guggenheim 33. Katie Cacace, Marita Nikaki and Anna Stefanidou ‘Guggenheim Museum Bilbao’(1999) topic502069.files/guggenheim 34. Oxman, Neri (2004) Material-based Design Computation. P103 35. Oxman, Neri (2004) Material-based Design Computation. P99 36. Oxman, Neri (2004) Material-based Design Computation. P103

Case For Innovation A: Introduction

37. Oxman, Neri (2006) Get Real: Towards Performance-Driven Computational Geometry 38. Matt Tyrnauer (2010) ‘Architecture in the Age of Gehry’ <> 39. Brady, Peter (2013) Computation Works: The building of algorithmic thought. Architectural Design, 83, 2, pp12 40. Patrik Schumacher (2008) ‘Parametricism - A New Global Style for Architecture and Urban Design’ < http://www. Urban%20Design.html> 41. Daniel Davis (2013) ‘A History of Parametric’ <> 42. Zaha Hadid Architect ‘Guangzhou Opera House’ <> 43. Architect Magazine ‘Guangzhou Opera House’ (2011) <> 44. Architect Magazine ‘Guangzhou Opera House’ (2011) <> 45. Architect Magazine ‘Guangzhou Opera House’ (2011) <> 46. Architect Magazine ‘Guangzhou Opera House’ (2011) <> 47.China Urban Development Blog ‘The Guangzhou Opera House: An Architectural Review’ (2011) < http://www.> 48. MATSYS ‘Shellstar Pavillion’ (2012) <> 49. MATSYS ‘Shellstar Pavillion’ (2012) < 50. MATSYS ‘Shellstar Pavillion’ (2012) < 51. MATSYS ‘Shellstar Pavillion’ (2012) <

Part B Expression of Interest II:

Design Approach The design process for the Wyndham City Gateway proposal is one which should associate closely with the siteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s context as well as creating an intriguing form which generates a lasting impression through a novel spatial experience.

As a viable project for Wyndham City Council to pursue, the installation is projected to be commissioned by the Caltex petrol station on the site, and will be design as a subtle form of advertisement, while also expressing broader social and cultural events faced by the The implementation of a tensile growing municipality. form as a basic structural principle will help to develop an expansive Through the integration of form, achieving a significant impact digital modelling and fabrication on commuters. The collaboration techniques and experimentation of a tensile structure with a in material prototypes, we minimal and relaxed surface as hope to create an elusive a design basis will lend itself to form, which generates interest an open form finding process, and conversation beyond the driven by parametrically designed physical experience of the digital models. Using Rhino 3D as design and contribute to the the basic modelling program, the broader architectural discourse design will be developed through by utilising modern form-finding the algorithmic modelling plug- techniques and developing a in, Grasshopper and incorporate unique structural system. the physics simulation component Kangaroo to derive form, while the Weaverbird plug-in is used to enhance tessellation techniques.


Part B Expression of Interest II: Design Approach

B.1. Design Focus TENSILE STRUCTURES In embracing a parametric modelling environment to enable more variable form-finding process we have adapted a tensile module as a basis of design. It follows an increasingly popular tendency of architecture design with a greater awareness of the context and produce solutions which respond to the need of the site. The application of a tensile structural system is possible through various materials, ranging from membranes to metals creating more possibilities for aesthetic and construction solutions and opportunity to test various material properties to determine suitability for architectural application. A sculptural approach to freeform geometry is facilitated through the plasticity of tensile form [*geometry working beyond effect cover] which


provides a developable surface which has an immense capability for formgeneration, especially in 3D digital environment.

experimentation developed by Ottoâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s Institute of Lightweight Structure in Stuttgart [2].

The Minimal Surfaces design develops by Vlad Tenu portrays a lightweight, delicate MINIMAL AND RELAXED SURFACES structure, with an ambiguous sense In an attempt to continue the formof structure. It gives the illusion of an finding goals set from the onset of object that is floating and in a state of parametric design, incited by the previously mentioned design experiments flux, achieved through the lightweight structural skin. The undulating form by Gaudi and Otto, we seek to intrigues through its minimal use of incorporate a surface system with structural support, which has been relaxed and minimal properties, which realised through a digitally developed will be guided by extrinsic forces such as tensile properties and chosen control tessellation pattern. points [1]. Using digitally induced dynamic relaxation of form and parametrically defined geometries, the design process is inspired by the desire for a lightweight structure and by form-finding tensile


Part B Expression of Interest II: Design Approach

BUCKMINISTER FULLER U.U. PAVILION [4] TESSELLATION There are many benefits associated to a design that incorporates tessellation, especially regarding the fabrication process. Tessellation is applicable to almost any surface and with the use of digital printing, can make the physical construction of complex curves and geometry more feasible. By integrating tessellation into the design, we are simultaneously considering the eventual construction of the project. Smaller elements which connect in a specific way to create the broader design, allows for minor errors in fabrication of the pieces and often relieves the need to perfect the process of cutting out material. While a tessellated structure may require more effort to construct, modern computerisation enables us to for templates of digital models to be digitally fabricated with relative ease.

to spherical forms. It incorporates a rigid, triangulated tessellation structure, applied to a curved base surface to produce a structural skin [5]. While making the structure lightweight, it also creates a visual effect of a weightless and delicate structure. The inclusion of tessellation can also add cultural and contextual values, and could be considered to “communicate a sense of community” as suggested by postmodern architect Robert Venturi [6]. The use of materiality and form can help to construct a deeper meaning and story behind the structure, and express the labour of the construction process which is not always evident in single surfaces forms.

Tessellation can also add layers of aesthetic interest, suggesting texture and material, while also being able to provide an exterior structural purpose. Buckminister Fuller’s geodesic dome design for the U.S. Pavilion is a project derived from his experimentation with adopting a variety of tessellated patterns 5

Part B Expression of Interest II: Design Approach

B.2. Case Study 1.0 -


Species 1

These iterations have mostly been changes by increasing and decreasing the thickness of the longer part of the mesh at the centre, which connects the branches. By referencing each curve onto Grasshopper individually, I was able to have greater control over the form, by scaling and moving the internal curves.

Species 3

By manipulating the controls of the Exoskeleton component, I was able to slight change the overall look of the form. Altering the number of sides, thickness, node value, spacing between mesh lines and the knuckle width of the exoskeleton, multiple variations of the original geometry was created.

Species 4

The base geometry of Species 1 and 2 have been created by linking a series of curves into Grasshopper, and producing lofted surface through these curves while Species 3 and 4 have be created throught a connection of curves creating a skeletal bas fro the form, while the Exoskeleton conponentcreates a knin around it. Then, using the Kangaroo Physisc simulation, the surfaces have been put through a dynamic relaxation process, which produces the tensile geometry.

I have referenced a different curve to the original design. The iterations created are outcomes of altering the base curves, by translating their position in space and modulating their scale. The final outputs are fairly similar to the original, however there are differences in the fluid aesthetic of the structure, it now looks more structural

This time, I manipulated the original curves around which the exoskeleton was formed. By activating control point of Rhino, I was able to shorten and lengthen the base curves as well as adding in new curve to change the base geometry.


Using the Grasshopper digital parametric modelling tool, the seemingly elusive Green Void installation by LAVA can constructed on Rhino in a 3D modelling environment. Through the physics simulation plugin, Kangaroo, the geometry can be evaluated under different physical properties and morphed by simulating a relaxation of its surface and setting control points to mould the form. The iteration matrix has been created by various methods, to produce the desired geometry, which can be further modified based on restrictions on the base form and physical simulations.

Species 2


I was able to derive particularly interesting forms from the base geometry by making minor and major changes through Grasshopper and Rhino

By transl in a 3D e able to e the form areas. Be the curve any shape possible.

lating the base curves environment, I was extend the surface of m and allow it to larger ecause the form follows es, creating almost e with lofted curves is .

Part B Expression of Interest II: Design Approach

Increasing the size of the knuckles allows the form to vary consideraby comapared tot he original geometry. The form also seems more structurally self-supportive here.

Ading an extra node expands the dimensions fo the geometry and creates a more comlplex relation of the relaxed surfaces.

Chanigng the central curves, as opposed to the exterior curves deformed the base form more and seems to give the geometry a different structural basis.


Part B Expression of Interest II: Design Approach

B.3. Case Study 2.0 SYNTHESIS DESIGN + ARCHITECTURE ARTICULATED TENSIONS @ UNIV. OF CALGARY, 2013 The Articulated Tensions prototype developed by SDA students was processed under the InformedForm research initiative[6]. This program strives to develop structure, based on form (geometry), force (performance), matter (organization), and craft (fabrication) [7]. We used a similar approach in evaluating a reverse engineered algorithm to try and emulate features of this design. The underlying geometry is based on a Klein surface, which manipulates a single, continuous surface which is inverted to create a sort of surface loop, allowing the exterior and interior surfaces to be one. This surface could have then been adapted to a digital physical simulation program such as Kangaroo, where control points and dynamic mesh relaxation generated a parametric form. The surface


would then have been divided into a tessellation pattern, which was detailed enough to create the overall undulating form, while adding a level of texture and surface manipulation. The tessellation would also make the construction process more feasible, by having smaller, connectable components, which would leave room for fabrication errors.

Part B Expression of Interest II: Design Approach

The base geometry of the shape is derived from a Klein surface, and this can be created on Grasshopper by reversing element of a surface and connecting it to the original. We were able to find an algorithm for a basic Klein surface and manipulated it by increasing it thickness and adding more control points.

In adopting a dynamic surface relaxation to the form, the model needed to be converted into a mesh in order to input its surfaces and control points (through the form of Naked Vertices) into the Kangaroo component.

By making each mesh face into a polyline through Weaverbird, we were able to extract certain points form each face and incorporate a tessellation design which was created using point parameters. The design was then applied to the whole mesh.

After further reflection, we realised the the tessellaiton pattern we developed was nto the same as in Articulated Tensions, and it didnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t have curves edges which enables the peices to be connected. By using a framework with more control points, it is possible to recreate a similar geometry. The drawing on the opposite page shows how the tessellation pieces would still be connected by addinganother conenctionto the deisgn.

Starting off with a basic square grid, we were able to use the Weaverbird Inner Polygons Subdivision component, transfer the square mesh, into one which was complied with diamond within each square. Then, using the Weaverbird Pictureframe application, were able to create holes within the mesh faces, to produce a similar design the to the precedent. By extracting point from each mesh face, a more interesting tessellation, using nurbs curves to create arc between the points.

Then, finiding the centre of each polygon, we were able to create circles in the centre, with a radius dependant on the dimaondâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;s legnth. The by lofting thises curves together, we created surfaces. 9

Species 5- Shrinkwrap and Kangaroo

Species 4 - Shrinkwrap

Species 3 - Weaverbird Stellate

Species 2 - 3D tessellation

Species 1 - Square-based tessellation Part B Expression of Interest II: Design Approach

B.4. Technique Development

Further Iterations


Part B Expression of Interest II: Design Approach

Starting with a similar geometry to the tessellation in articulated tensions, we tried produce various iterations of the squarebased shape, and applied it to grid-based surfaces. To add to the effect of the tessellation, we transformed the basic tessellation into a trianugalted pyramid, conencted to a triangulated mesh. Then, by using control points and attrator points, developed interseting surfaces. Using the Weaverbird Stellate component, we were able to easily control the hight of the 3d tessellation, however founf that the creating our own algorithms for the tessellation gave us more control over the effects. Using other applications in Kangaroo, we used the Shrinkwrap component to create unusula forms based around simple geometry. This could then be controled by changing the accuracy of the shrinkwrap and size of mesh faces. By changing the shrinkwrapped meshes in the Kangaroo Springs form Lines component, we were able to create interesting and unexpected geometrical forms. 11

Part B Expression of Interest II: Design Approach

B.4. Technique Development A dynamic and textural form can be created by incorporating tessellation into large, expansive surfaces. It would be interesting to generate self-supporting tessellated structure as a basis for the design, as it provides layers of considered design decisions. First, it allows a play in form and experimentation in he form finding process. Second, the designing the tesselation itself adds to the aesthetic and structural success of the design. Finally, the way the we connect the tessellation elements could have interesting design outcomes. Such an approach provides many opportunities to apply algorithmic modelling.

A large, undulating surface has potential to create a point of interest at any site and would be an interesting application to the freeway site as it provids a breat from the straigh roads and relatively flat landscape. The ripple effect creted here is further accentuated by changes in the size and shape of the tessellation pieces.

The 3D tessellation iterations were particularly intersting, as they can add a greater depth the form-findint process and mey be strucutral entities in themself. The triangulated strucutres may make the larger project moreself-supportive.


Part B Expression of Interest II: Design Approach

A shrinkwrapping approach tot the design could allow the installation to be more responsive tot he exsiting site and its strucutre. While this iteration may be difficult to combine with tesselllation, incorporating a larger number of meshes and a more accurate shrinkwrap produces more intersiting forms.

Dynamic relaxation is a useful tool to help desciern the possible forms oru design may take throughwith construction (depending on materiality). Thegeneration of undulating curves and seemingly free-formed geometry creates a sense of ambiguity and interst int eh form. Through the iterastion, we discovered that the more gaps in the mesh, the more controllable the form will be, as holes int he mesh provide controle points.


Part B Expression of Interest II: Design Approach

B.5. Technique Prototypes Fabricatied Prototypes

This model has been produced by laser-cutting Perspex allows the overall form to curve with the placement of notches. pieces, based on the digital model. The tessellation pieces are connected by circular connectors and both have notches allowing each piece to slot into the other. The curvature has been maintained by evaluating a digital model, and creating notches at specific points on the circles, which control the connection of the tessellation pieces. This controlled placement of notches

An overall curve for has been developed out of the thin plastic tessellation pieces by fixing each piece in slight tension and certain points. The result is a fairly malleable structure, which can be deformed and then bounces back to its original shape. It bears resemblance to the coral like formations of the Vlad Tenu design, and is a form that can be continually built up.


The connections here have been made by creating loops of wire, which allow the joints to be flexible to a degree and malleable. The plasticity of the material allows the overall form to curve considerably, which can create the notion of fluidity and movement. The vortex form enhanced by the protruding edges adds to this sense of movement.

The tessellation created here is more closely connected to that derived from the Articulated Tensions project. The round ends overlap each other creating the joints. The connection pictured here however, where the elements are overlapped along the edges, creates a more solid surface, and a more rigid structure, which doesnâ&#x20AC;&#x2122;t bend as easily as the rest.

Part B Expression of Interest II: Design Approach

Continuing with this pyramidal surface structure, we used other materials to recreate different concepts of the same form. We were interested in the idea of inflations and the performance of materials in tension. Using chip-bags as a prototyping material was unconventional, but resulted in an interesting surface, one that looked metallic, but was in fact extremely

This is one of the more successful prototypes, made out of the thin plastic. Rather than utilising its tensile properties, the model is more self-supporting, requiring no other fixtures than the connection of its edges through notches. The form was developed in Grasshopper and â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;unrolledâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; before being digitally printed. While it holds its general shape, the surface could not be easily developed because the stiffness of the plastic made

creating folds difficult. However, the triangulated tessellation is fairly rigid and self-supporting, while lending itself to various forms. the form is also aesthetic when back-lit, diffusing and reflecting light with its many surfaces.

light and delicate. By melting the edges to create a sealed pyramid, we were able to inflate the forms individually, however, this was not overly successful because the sealed edges were imperfect and left small holes. However, the prototypes were able to stand and gave the impression of bloated metallic tessellation. The reflection of light, off the crinkled surfaces created

interesting patterns unlike the smooth surface of the other plastics.


Part B Expression of Interest II: Design Approach

B.6. Technique Proposal Materiality Developing further from the chip bag models, theses prototypes have been constructed using the printed templates of unrolled plastic model pieces. It again explores the possibilities of unconventional materiality and is made out of aluminium drink cans. Our attempt to solder the edges of the form was unsuccessful because of the nature of aluminium, and would require aluminium soldering, rather than the conventional tinlead solder. However these models have been connected with duct tape to create a fairly structural surface. The flexibility of the duct tape actually allows the structure to take various self-supporting forms, making it an ideal prototype for form-finding. The reasons for using materials such as chip bags and aluminium are both structurally and contextually derived. Structurally, these materials are fairly malleable and allow for a wide range of form explorations and structural experimentation. We are also interested in creating and unconventional design, perhaps by giving illusions of materiality, which can only be revealed on closer inspection and a more tangible experience. The


aluminium cans seem to successfully create this illusion of being a metal structure, while the printed surface is still evident under the structure. The materiality is also responsive to the societal and environmental positions of Wyndham. The use of cans, which we would generally consider as rubbish or a material that is no longer useful in its current form is suggestive of the consumerist culture which generally follows urban expansion and the industrial growth. However, in reshaping this â&#x20AC;&#x2DC;wasteâ&#x20AC;&#x2122; material into an architectural surface, simply by playing with form and structure, the prototype reveals the need to explore beyond conventional development and adopt more sustainable measures to meet the needs of the city. The abundance of aluminium cans in our daily lives and our constant interaction with it, make this material very familiar to touch and is relatable to everyone in this aspect. The feel of the cool metal or the act crushing and creating creases in the cans is a familiar concept to everyone and thus will enable users to have

a sensory connection to the structure, before physically experiencing the space. Although the connections of these elements need to be further considered, aluminium is generally not prone to corrosion and is therefore long-lasting. Unlike the plastic and chip bags, aluminium holds its shape well and adheres to folds and creases, which makes the fabrication process easier. This also allows the form to be more self-supportive and adhere to the digitally designed model in a more accurate way. It also has an interesting relationship with light. The metallic surface allows good reflectivity, while its unevenness and the varying angles of the form allows for an interplay of reflecitons.

Part B Expression of Interest II: Design Approach


Part B Expression of Interest II: Design Approach

GS CALTEX PAVILION FOR THE 2012 KOREA EXPO IN YEOSU, SOUTH KOREA. [9] There are many examples of successful collaborations of commercial advertising and public art. The adaptation of the freeway project as a subtle advertisement for the Caltex petrol staion as well as a unique architectural pavilion will generate a certain hype that often follows such unconventional installations. While the design itself is an intriguing and unique display, the globalised popularity of the Caltex brand will be able to further push such an installation into the public eye, transforming it into a notable place-marker. The application of design interventions as marketing straterigies is not a new idea, and has already been realised through the GS Caltex Pavilion for the 2012 Korea Expo in Yeosu, South Korea. This installation, design around a star-shaped base relates to its surrounding environment, in representing large rice fields [10]. With interactive features and responsiveness to the surrounding wind, this installation has a strong presence and draws the public into the site.


This striking pavilion structure gained praise for its innovative appeal to public interaction and a collaboration of architecture and technology. The lit EFTE panels creates a dynamic structure which draws people in to experience the design more closely, however, it is the individual contact facilitated by the touch-sensitive panels that makes this installation unique. The whole structure is designed to produce musical beats when activated by sensors, thus creating a beatbox rhythm based the way people touch the panels. This personal affiliation allows people to contribute to the final design, and generates a sense of community and certainly a novel experience of architecture[12]. The commercial aspect of this piece is certainly subtle, but drives its popularity through the Coca-Cola name and generates a unique and positive statement about the brand.

Part B Expression of Interest II: Design Approach

COCA-COLA BEATBOX, 2012, A PAVILION IN LONDON, OLYMPIC PARK [11] WYNDHAM CITY The installation would be a commercially viable project, attracting potential users into the petrol station and subtly advertising the Caltex brand through a tessellation design which has been abstracted from the Caltex logo. Additionally, the design would be an aesthetically intriguing structure and provide a new outlook on how typically mundane structures such as the petrol station could be enhanced and endorses an artistic application the everyday world.

In its association through the globalised brand, the project will gain public attention and a a result become a notable landmark in the Wyndham district. The project could be developed out of cans collected within the community the material lends itself to fairly easy fabrication will stimulate a visceral experience, which will be more memorable and real interaction, as an architectural space to discover.

The use of aluminium cans as an unconventional material will create a point of discussion displaying a provocative response to the issue of consumerism and waste often instigated by urban expansion. While proposed material need careful consideration in construction, it would help to engender as understanding about a new, sustainable discourse of Wyndham City.


Part B Expression of Interest II: Design Approach

The new installation on the Princes Freeway will be an intriguing project to commuters travelling to and from the Wyndham City District. As the council has proposed, it is important that the installation create a significant impact on the viewer in order to establish a memorable and identifiable landmark. In a rapidly developing city such as Wyndham, its connection to the CBD and commercial Melbourne is an integral source of revenue for the developmental needs of the area. The Wyndham City Council has proposed greater development of infrastructure, investing over $40m to upgrade interchanges and get people onto the freeway to increase access to encourage commercial activity to accommodate the changing needs of this growing urban precinct. Our proposal tries to capture the rapid development and growth of the


The prposed site hold a key position in the Gateway site. A new installation will transform this space from a mundane feature with only a functional purpose, to a landmark location.

Wyndham district, through architectural application of form and materiality. As the city develops, it is important to establish a sense of community and civic pride and ownership. The gateway proposal is an excellent opportunity to establish an identifiable visual beacon, which captures the communal spirit of the district. The installation of a new Wyndham City Gateway is a challenge that should adopt the current profile of Wyndham as well as embracing the future development of the city. The structure would be a statement of commercial architecture, and is directed towards advertising and being commissioned by the Caltex Petrol Station at the Gateway. The petrol station, along with the Lounge and Starmart are set in a key position, nestled between the two main commuter routes. We aim to make use of its strategic position for

a project in commercial architecture. The proposed design goes beyond being a conventional roadside installation and seeks to actively engage users through a spatial experience.

Part B Expression of Interest II: Design Approach

The form will be parametrically designed in a digital environment, using modern computational design programs such Rhino and additional plug-ins and fabricated using digital outputs. This design process is a shift in the convention methods of architectural design and will impact the outcome of the installation. Digital modelling will be used as a form-fining too to compute and generate geometry based on certain controls. It provides the advantage of having greater control over the geometry and of every stage of design and allows a simultaneous consideration of the form and final construction processes. The use of physics digital physics simulation programs such as Kangaroo can inform a more complex design, and produce multiple iterations of forms as well as an understanding of possible changes of the structure over time.

Using digital parametric tools, we have been able to abstract the Caltex logo star to make the design more viable as a commercial project, and to iterate a subtle form of advertisement. The forms of these structures are dependent on the underlying geometry which has been generated by wrapping the existing petrol station with a surface in a digital environment. This has allowed for a closer association to the site and its context. This form has then been relaxed using digital modelling programs to generate an undulating and interesting surface.

platform from which further architectural and structural innovations may be launched.

In embracing parametric design as a design basis, a product that is more attuned to the intentions of the designer and original concept may be developed. The showcasing of such design strategies will establish Wyndham City as a



Part B Expression of Interest II: Design Approach

B.7. Algorithmic Sketches The base geometry is derived from teh exsiting structure of teh petrol statino and eating longe in the site. To make tho form a little more complex, further iterations of the abstrasctied caltext tessellation were combined with the original geometry to create a brep around which the design will be genrated.

Shrinkewrapping the base geometry through Kangaroo created a continous surface from which to work with. To make the forms more intersting, thebase geometry were moved around and scaled and well as increasing and decireasing the accuracy level of the shrinwrap form.

The surface was then adopted into Kangaroo Spring tool to create a realxed from, and a more interesting geometry, based onthe idea of a tensileand strucute. By creating more openings in the mesh (deleting mesh faces) were are able to control the relaxed geometr to a greater extent. The triangulated tessellation was tehn added tot he surface.


Part B Expression of Interest II: Design Approach


Part B Expression of Interest II: Design Approach

B.8. Learning Objectives and Outcomes Further Development By adopting parametric form-finding technique, we have been able to design a project that is both responsive to the site and proposes ideas for the discourse of a sustainable the future for Wyndham City and the growing urban environment. The use of digital algorithmic modelling created a platform for form-finding and form making based on the existing construction on the site and an abstracted commercial projection through tessellation. The reverse engineering project, developed from Articulated Tensions strived to remake preconceived notions of form and structure, while derivations from original geometries such as Green Void, enabled a morphing process of form-finding. Through the Kangaroo physics simulation components and Weaverbird mesh plug-in, we were able to produce multiple iteration of design by altering design parameters and replicating physical parameters in a digital environment. Using modern design precedents as a base geometry, various techniques for collaborating form and surface as a cohesive structure were developed. Exploring different possibilities


within the plug-ins such as the Shrinkwrap component reconfigured my ideas of the possibilities of digital design and uncovers it as a tool to strengthen, not weaken the connection of design outcomes to the existing site and context. The use of digital modelling tools through the collaboration between the algorithmic space of Grasshopper and 3D modelling space in Rhino facilitated an expansive working environment, while still providing parametrically driven direction and cohesion to the design. The wide range of design opportunities enabled us to provide a multiple design possibilities, taking different approaches to the brief. After reconsidering the brief and designating the Caltex petrol station a successful site for the design, we were able to prioritise our design intension to create a more personal architectural experience, which allows commuters to better interact with the installation and spaces it provides. Through the efficiency of digital modelling, we were also able to focus our attention on materiality and the final fabrication of the design.

Fabricating prototype models was integral to the form-finding process as physical properties; especially materiality considerably affected the restrictions and possibilities of design outcomes. Using digital fabrication processes, we were able to print templates and reconstruct portions of the digital model using various materials. The effects of light as well as structural properties of the prototype models influenced the potential feasibility of our design, producing challenges in connectivity of the parts as well as the possibilities for scale of the model on site. However, the physical models (especially the aluminium can prototype) portrayed an unexpected aesthetic appeal and a structural integrity with the ability to hold a certain form. While design and constructability of the final design proposal has yet to be determined, we that the complexity of the form and tessellation ironically combined with the use of an unexpectedly simplistic material will spark discussion and intrigue, contributing to the philosophy of sustainable architecrue.

Part B Expression of Interest II: Design Approach


Part B Expression of Interest II: Design Approach


1. Michael, Hensel (2008) Membrane Spaces. Architectural Design, 78, 2, pp. 75 2. Michael, Hensel (2008) Membrane Spaces. Architectural Design, 78, 2, pp. 75 3. 4. 5. Iwamoto, Lisa (2009) Digital Fabrications: Architectural and Material Techniques (Architecture Briefs). Princeton Architectural Press, New York. Available at < http://> 6. Robert Venturi 7. SDA (2013), Articulated Tensions at Univ. of Calgary. Available at < ARTICULATED TENSIONS @ UNIV. OF CALGARY> 8. 9. 10. GROZDANIC, LIDIJA ( 2012) GS Caltex Pavilion for the 2012 Korea Expo / Atelier Br端ckner. eVolo Magazine. Available at <> 11. 12. Dezeen Magazine (2012) Coca-Cola Beatbox by Asif Khan and Pernilla Ohrstedt Available at <>


Part B Expression of Interest II: Design Approach


Eoi ii [parts 1 and 2] 542396 ishani gunasekara  
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