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SARANJEET RAJESH SONI* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No. 7, Issue No. 2, 347 - 354

Disposal of solid waste for black cotton soil Stabilization SARANJEET RAJESH SONI

Student, M-Tech. (Environmental Engineering) G.H. Raisoni College of Engineering, Nagpur Department of civil engineering, Rashtrasant Tukdoji Maharaj Nagpur University 46, Vaishali Nagar, Near N.I.T. Office, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India Email- os.saran@gmail.com

P. P. DAHALE

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R. M. DOBALE

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Asstt. Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, G.H. Raisoni College of Engineering, Nagpur Rashtrasant Tukdoji Maharaj, Nagpur University 202, Rudrashakti Enclave, Manish Nagar, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India Email - dahaleprasad@rediffmail.com Asstt. Professor, Department of Civil Engineering, G.H. Raisoni College of Engineering, Nagpur Rashtrasant Tukdoji Maharaj, Nagpur University 202, Rudrashakti Enclave, Manish Nagar, Nagpur, Maharashtra, India Email - rmdhoble@rediffmail.com

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ABSTRACT The paper presents the solid waste disposal as an economical and effective way to achieve Improvement in engineering performs of black cotton soils (B. C. soil). Attempts were made to increase the stability of soil using fly ash (FA) and rice husk powder (RHP). Atterberg’s limit and unconfined compressive strength (UCS) tests were conducted according to the IS 2720. The UCS of natural soil is 198 Kpa which is increased after the addition of FA and RHP at 15% for the period of 28 days curing to 253 kpa. Results shows that after the addition of 12.5% by weight addition of fly ash and rice husk powder into the soil, do not contribute to increase in strength properties of soil respectively. However, the combination of fly ash and rice husk shows progressive strength development with longer curing period from the observations of the 1, 7, 14, 21, 28 days cured. Keywords – Solid Waste Disposal; fly ash; Rice Husk Powder; Black cotton soil

1. Introduction Application of solid waste (fly ash and rice husk) disposal for soil stabilization is significant project which serves various benefits to the environment. The term solid waste includes all those solid and semi solid materials that discarded by the community. Improper management of solid waste causes adverse effects on ecology which may lead to cause possible outbreaks of diseases and epidemics (1). FA is a waste product from thermal power plants and is available in form of fine dust. FA contains trace amounts of toxic metals (U, Th, Cr, Pb, Hg, Cd etc.), which may have negative effect on human health and on plants. In Vidarbha region there are four major thermal power plants namely Chandrapur Thermal Power Plant (CTPS), Koradi Thermal Power Plant (KTPS), Khaperkheda Thermal Power Plant and Power Thermal Power Station which are

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SARANJEET RAJESH SONI* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No. 7, Issue No. 2, 347 - 354

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producing approximately 6 million tons / year flyash (FA).(25) Part of generation is being utilized in cement industries, land development, building constructions and others, but still problem of FA disposal in a scientific way is a big issue. Groundnut shell is an agricultural waste obtained from milling of groundnut. In India production of groundnut is 5.3 million tons / year and Maharashtra contributes 10.09 % share. In Maharashtra state, major production of groundnut is in Vidarbha region and some part of Marathwada.(25) In this work, an exercise is done to utilize FA and RHP in the soil for improving its engineering performance which may be an economical solution of soil stabilization, as these materials are available everywhere. FA and RHP are added in to the soil on (weight) percentage basis varying from 1% to 15% and curing is done for 28 days. Effect on consistency limits, UCS are tabulated below. Stabilization is the process of blending and mixing materials with a soil to improve engineering properties of the soil.(2) The process may include the blending of soils to achieve a desired gradation or the additives that may alter the gradation, texture or plasticity, or act as a binder for cementation of the soil.(3) Soils containing significant amounts of organic material or sulfates may require additional lime and /or special construction procedures. Flyash was successfully used for stabilizing B.C. soil. (17)

Table 1. Properties of Soil

Particulars

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Sr. No.

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2. Materials and methods 2.1 Black cotton soil Soil is collected from the Dighori, Nagpur in M.S. In India the typical examples of expansive soil are black cotton soil of Central India, Bentonites of Rajasthan and Kashmir and mar and kabar of bundelkhand (U.P.). It is common in Maharashtra, western parts of Madhya Pradesh, parts of Andhra Pradesh, parts of Gujarat, and some parts of Tamil Nadu. Properties of the soil sample collected from the site tabulated below;

1

Specific gravity

2

Soil Classification

MH-OH

3

Liquid limit (WL)

56.49 %

4

Plastic limit (WP)

31.86 %

5

Plasticity index (IP)

24.63 %

6

Shrinkage limit (WS)

16.71 %

7

Optimum moisture Content (%) Maximum dry density (KN/m3) Unconfined Compressive Strength (Kpa)

19.86 %

8 9

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Observation 2.6

15.9 % 198

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SARANJEET RAJESH SONI* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No. 7, Issue No. 2, 347 - 354

Table: 2. W-DAX test observations of chemical constituents of Soil (Approximate % of constituents)

Constituents O Si Al Fe Ca Mg K Ti Na Mn P Zr S Sr Rb LOI 43.35 27 8 6.09 2 1.59 1.3 0.75 0.29 0.18 0.03 0.02 0.02 0.01 0.01 9.35

%

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2.2 Rice husk powder Rice husk powder for the project work is brought from the Pardi, Nagpur. The rice is generated in very high to the nearby area of Nagpur for e.g. Gondia, Bhandra, Chandrpur, Wardha, etc. Rice is cultivated in 32 districts of Maharashtra and its generation is 2.13 lakh tonnes per year. (21) Out of 100% production of rice, 22 % of the weight of paddy is received as husk. Global production of rice, the majority of which is grown in Asia, is approximately 550 million tonnes/year. This is generated at a rate of about 20% of the weight of the product rice, or some 110 million tonnes per year globally. India is a million tones of RH is produced annually. This RH is a great environment threat causing damage to the land and the surrounding area in which it is dumped. Lots of ways are being thought of for disposing them by making commercial use of this RH. Rice husk has the potential to generate 16.5 to 22 million tons of ash containing over 90% amorphous silica that could be used as a substitute for silica fume. (21) Table 3. W-DAX test observation of chemical constituents of RHP. (Approximate % of constituents)

Constituents

O Si Al Fe Ca Mg K Na Mn P Ei S Sr 16.25 11.59 1.13 1.02 0.98 0.71 0.75 0.1 0.05 0.15 0.12 0.18 -

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%

Rb -

2.3 Fly ash Fly ash is collected from Koradi Thermal Power Plant, Nagpur 18 km away from the site. WDAX test was conducted at the Indian Beauro of Mines, Nagpur and results are tabulated in the table given below.

constituents O %

Table: 4 W-DAX test observations of chemical constituents of FA. (Approximate % of constituents)

Si

Al

Fe Ca Mg K

Ti Na Mn P

48.8 27.08 16.36 2.92 0.92 0.41 0.86 1.15 0.21 -

Zr S

Sr Rb LOI

0.27 0.03 0.09 0.02 -

0.88

3. Methodology In soil, FA and RHP is mixed (weight) on percentage basis i.e. 1%, 2.5%, 5%, 7.5%, 10%, 12.5% and 15%. Curing is done for 28 days and sampling is done after 1day, 7 days, 14days, 21days and 28 days curing. The wetted soil sample is then dried in oven for 24 hours, after the

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drying, crushing is done. Following tests were conducted confirming to IS 2720 on the soil samples mixed at different percentage of FA and RHP.

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Picture1. Showing the mixing of waste materials 4. Result and discussion Tests results of WL and WP on soil treated with FA & RHP are shown below; it’s observed that as the percentage of admixture increases, there is a marked reduction in W L and WP of soil.

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4.1 Liquid limit (WL) It is the minimum water content at which soil changes its state from liquid state to plastic state. The WL of soil was 56.49%. From the fig.1 we observed that, after addition of 10% FA, W L is reduced to 40.23%. After the addition of 10% RHP, WL is reduces to 49.50%. After the addition of 10% lime WL is reduces to 47.05%. After the addition of FA and RHP with 10% lime, WL is reduced to 35.85% respectively at the end of 28 days curing. LIQUID LIMIT

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55 52 49 WL (%) 46 43 40 37 34

0

7

SOIL & RHP SOIL & LIME SOIL AND FA

14 DAYS

21

28

SOIL, FA, RHP AND LIME

Fig 1. Variation of liquid limit

4.2 Plastic limit

The plastic limit (WP) is the water content where soil transitions between brittle and plastic behavior. A thread of soil is at its plastic limit when it begins to crumble when rolled to a diameter of 3 mm.(24) The WP of soil was 31.86%. From the fig.2 we observed that, after addition of 10% FA, WP is reduced to 25.75%. After the addition of 10% RHP, WP is reduces to 28.75%. After the addition of 10% lime WP is reduces to 26.42%. After the addition of FA and RHP fixed at 10% lime, WP is reduced to 28.04% respectively at the end of 28 days curing.

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SARANJEET RAJESH SONI* et al. / (IJAEST) INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF ADVANCED ENGINEERING SCIENCES AND TECHNOLOGIES Vol No. 7, Issue No. 2, 347 - 354

PLASTIC LIMIT

WP (%)

30

SOIL AND RHP

25

SOIL AND LIME

20

SOIL AND FA

0

7

14

DAYS

21

28

Fig 2. Variation of plastic limit

4.3. Plasticity index

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It is the numerical difference between WL and WP (25). The IP of soil was 24.39%. From the fig.3 we observed that, after addition of 10% FA, I P is reduced to 14.48%. After the addition of 10% RHP, IP is reduces to 20.75%. After the addition of 10% lime IP is reduces to 20.93%. After the addition of FA and RHP fixed at 10% lime, I P is reduced to 22.01% respectively at the end of 28 days curing. PLASTICITY INDEX

24 22 20 IP (%) 18 16 14 12

SOIL & RHP SOIL AND LIME

7

14

21

28

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0

SOIL AND FA

DAYS

Fig 3. Variation of plasticity index

4.4. Unconfined compressive strength The unconfined Compressive strength is defined as the maximum unit stress obtained within the first 20% strain. The unconfined compression test is used to measure the shearing resistance of cohesive soils which may be undisturbed or remolded specimens. An axial load is applied using either strain-control or stress-control condition.(4) Test result shows that UCS of soil at the end of 28 days curing for 10 % FA, 10% RHP. 10% Lime and at 10% FA, RHP and lime is 248.37Kpa, 231.08Kpa, 245.10 Kpa and 252.15 KPa respectively against the UCS of soil 198.23 Kpa as observed in the fig. 4

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UCS

255

SOIL AND RHP

250 245

SOIL AND LIME

240 UCS (KPA) 235

SOIL AND FA

230 225 220

7

14

21

DAYS

28

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0

SOIL, FA, RHP AND LIME

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Fig 4. Variation of UCS

5. Conclusion Soil stabilization using FA and RHP is an effective mean for enhancing the engineering performance of B.C. soil. Following are the observations while using fly ash as a stabilizer in black cotton soil of Nagpur region 1. The primary benefits of using these additives for soil stabilization are i. Cost savings, because fly ash is typically cheaper than cement and lime; and ii. Availability, because fly ash sources are distributed geographically across the state.

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2. Waste management can be done economically.

3. Use of FA and RHP as an admixture for improving engineering properties of the soils is an economical solution for Vidarbha region of Maharashtra as it is available in large quantity. 4. It is observed from fig. 4 that combination of FA and RHP with lime increases more stability of soil as compared to the FA, RHP and Lime alone. 5. Plasticity Index (IP) of soils reduces by 17.84% and 20.80%, 20.75% and 15.74% under FA, Lime, RHP and combination of FA and RHP with lime application respectively. This shows that combination of FA and RHP with lime at 10% is the best combination as compared to rest of the other combinations. 6. This is an economical waste management solution. 6. References 1. Aroroa, K .R. P (2008). Soil mechanics and foundation engineering, 7 edn, p.p. 875880,809-811

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2. Barman, S.C., G.C. Kisku and S.K. Bhargava. P (1999). Accumulation of heavy metals in 3. Garg, S. K.; P (2009). Sewage disposal and air pollution engineering, 22 edn, p p.490550 4. Nasir, M.N. and Qureshi, M.A. P (1999). Response of sugarcane to bio-compost prepared from filter cake and stillage. Pak. J. Soil Sci.p.p. 75-80,73-78. 5. Punmia, B. C.; Jain Ashok,; Jain Anil,; P(2005). Soil mechanics and foundation, 16 edn, p.p. 1-3, 37-87, 849-855.

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6. Sharma, S.K., Kerala, N., Singh, G.R. and Kalra, N. P (2001). Fly ash incorporation effect on the soil health and yield of maize and rice. p.p. 580-585.

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7. Singh, Alam; P (2002). Soil engineering in theory and practice. 4 edn, p.p. 743-771 8.

Singh, L.P. and Siddigui, Z.A. P (2003). Effects of fly ash and Helminthosporium oryzae on growth and yield of three cultivars

9.

Upadhayay, N.C., Sharma, R.C., Chaubey, I.P., Singh, D.B. and Singh, O.P. P(2001). Impact of addition of sugarcane factory waste (maili) on crops productivity and soil fertility. J. Ind. Potato Assoc. p.p. 36-37.

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10. vegetables, pulse and wheat grown in fly ash amended soil. J. Environ. Bio. Mittra, B.N., Kramkar, S., Swain, D.K. and Gosh, B.C. Fly ash: A potential source of soil amendment and a component of integrated 11. http://www.edocfind.com/en/ebookstabilization%20of%20black%20cotton%20soil%20u sing%20lime%20journals-1.html 12. http://www.uic.edu/classes/cemm/cemmlab/Experiment%2013Unconfined%20Compress ion.pdf 13. http://140.194.76.129/publications/eng-manuals/em1110-2-1906/a-XI.pdf 14. http://www.ejge.com/2010/Ppr10.036/Ppr10.036.pdf 15. http://ecommons.cornell.edu/handle/1813/10509 16. http://dacnet.nic.in/rice/PA-Table-13-Maharashtra.htm

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17. http://www.knowledgebank.irri.org/rkb/index.php/ricemilling/byproducts-andtheirutilization/rice-husk 18. http://www.belash.in/pdf/Fly%20Ash%20Utilization%20by%20MahaGenCo%20TPS.pd f 19. http://www.dot.ca.gov/hq/esc/ctms/pdf/CT_221.pdf 20. http://ftp.dot.state.tx.us/pub/txdotinfo/cst/TMS/100-E_series/pdfs/soi106.pdf

22. http://www.afcindia.org.in/sep_2010/32-36.pdf

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21. www.hvfacprojectindia.com/Summary_Report.pdf

23. http://ftp.dot.state.tx.us/pub/txdotinfo/cst/TMS/100-E_series/pdfs/soi106.pdf

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24. www.hvfacprojectindia.com/Summary_Report.pdf

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25. http://www.afcindia.org.in/sep_2010/32-36.pdf

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