Team Draxonic -Design Portfolio
Design Brief Sponsors
We are the Chinese Formula One in Schools Team commissioned to design, construct, and race the fastest Formula One Car of the Future, powered by compact CO2 power plants. To enter the championships, we must work in a team of 3-6 people, allocating job roles to the members of your group. Along with the car our team should also come up with a business plan, forge business links, as well as creating a team identity.
About Us Sponsors
Team Draxonic consists of five High School sophomore students and one student who recently graduated from the International School of Beijing. The age of team members range from 15-18, coming from different nationalities representing various countries around the globe.
Designer Engineer: John Wong (Left 1) I decided to join F1 in Schools because of my interest in technological engineering and computer science. This activity seemed like a perfect opportunity to work together in a team with friends of similar interests.
I really enjoy motor sports, especially Formula One. I once wanted to be a racer but my environment did not allow me to pursue my dreams, and soon my dreams was turned into designing cars. I am planning to be a mechanical engineer in university and I see this as a good way to prepare for it. Moreover, F1 in Schools help me continue to pursue my interest in auto racing.
Resource Manager: Alan Chen (Left 2)
Graphics Designer: Alex Lui (Left 3)
I joined because not many other schools can offer this F1 in schools program where you get in touch with real technology, real science, and real business. I am interested in things that involves ICT, so F1 in Schools would be the best place to apply my skills. I also wish F1 in schools will remain to be one of the best memories in my school life.
I've always been interested in art, and always seeking a good challenge once in awhile. F1 in schools was the perfect opportunity, and every aspect, from designing the team logo to booths, allowed me to further develop my artistic skills. The result of all this hard work is something that I am extremely proud of, and F1 in schools has provided an unforgettable experience.
Manufacturing Engineer: Alex Huang (Front Left) I joined F1 because it came to me not only as a new way to make friends in my new school but also a new experience and learning opportunity. It sounded really awesome when I first heard about it, I mean who doesn't want to go the U.K.? Plus, it was the first time this ASA has been at ISB and I wanted to be a pioneer and be the first to try it out.
Designer Engineer: Tim Lok (Left 4)
Team Manager: Fred Chang (front right) I saw F1 in Schools as a place where I can fully exhibit my technological craze and a place where I can learn team skills. I also joined because I saw this as the perfect opportunity for me to meet people all over the globe with similar interests. When I joined I was prepared to endure many hardships, especially leading a team with no prior experience. experience. I am truly passionate about this program and I believe if I enjoy doing something, then no matter how much time you spend doing, youâ€™ll always find it worthy and enjoyable.
Regional Finals After many redesigns, the model that raced in the regional championships proved to be average in appearance and speed by most standards, although it exemplified a solid step towards the deepening of our experience. In contrast to our later designs, this version was too heavy due to the thickness of its main body and side-pods. Simple Pitsco wheels revolving around a heavy axis was deemed sufficient for the competition. In spite of its disadvantages in performance, our team was able to claim two awards for the most progressive design portfolio and most competent verbal presentation. The regional finals has taught us a lot, we believe this was an experience that will help us succeed at the World Championships.
(Below) High Quality Render of our Regional Car
(Above) Back View of our Regional car design (RIght) Media Coverage by Local Press and School Bulletin
(Left) DraXonic winning two awards
(Above) Our car at the Regional Finals
(Above) Regional Finals...the moment of truth
(Above) Our cars before race day
Team Identity Sponsors
The Concept One of the most important aspects of creating a first class team identity is the team name and logo. Our team name and logo has to incorporate aspects of the team, the school and the country it represents. Its design is to be complicated enough to show depth, yet simple enough to leave a lasting impression.
Team Name A portmanteau of the words “Dragon” and “Sonic,” our team name epitomizes two basic concepts. Long associated with China, the dragon is not only a symbol of the country we represent, but also our school, the International School of Beijing. The word “Sonic” is associated with the sonic boom that occurs when the sound barrier is broken.
Team Logo Team DraXonic’s logo is composed of two ‘elements’ : The dragon [龍], and the racing wheel.
STAGE 1 (Initial Designs)
The dragon has been a symbol of China for more than 2000 years, representing virtue, spirit and other superior qualities. As a part of a team based in China, the dragon is included, for it is an important part of Chinese cultural heritage, such as the nationally celebrated Dragon Boat Festival. Chinese people also refer to themselves as the ‘descendants of the dragon’ ( 龍的傳人）. The wheel is incorporated to represent speed, furthermore associating it with Formula One racing. Along with that, the wheel also represents our innovative wheel design. There is also a certain degree of abstractness to the wheel, and this is to re-enforce the concept of speed without further complicating the designs.
STAGE 2 (Modifying Design)
With these two elements combined, the team logo represents the team of China and the qualities of the dragon which each and every one of its members possesses; the wheel represents the speed of the team’s F1 car design. However, the designing of the logo took months to perfect, starting from a simple sketch, then evolving to the design used for the National Chinese Finals. Shortly after the championship, the design underwent another ‘polishing’, this time sporting a ‘wheel’. The final High-Quality Logo Correction was made possible when Firstell Communications, a Chinese advertising agency offered to aid us with the logo design.
STAGE 3 (Finalizing Design)
DRAGON + SONIC =
Team Identity Team Uniform Team DraXonic is a team that always strives for excellence, and to further reinforce a first class team image, team uniforms were greatly customized. When designing the team uniforms, many specifications had to be kept in mind. The uniform had to feature our team colors and possess a sense of school identity, but it also had to retain the sophistication and style of Formula One clothing
(Right) Final Uniform Design
The uniform design is composed of mainly three colors, black, white and dark blue, all three of them are team colors. Of all the uniform designs, the jacket design took the most time and effort. Many color variations were tested, along with many patterns and designs. The first ever developed had twin stripes running down both sleeves with two dragons next to the Initial Designs / Sketches zipper. However, because it was difficult for the manufacturers to make a jacket to that kind of detail, the design had to undergo a few phases of re-design. The second redesign phase introduced a new, less cluttered uniform design, and soon after a few extra refinements became the final uniform version. It was finally decided to make the whole uniform complete, everyone would be required to wear jeans. The T-shirt design was fairly straightforward. It consists of a white T-shirt with blue collars, team members name and their respective roles in the front and the team name and logo on the back. The design of our Formal wear, originally consisted of a blue shirt and black formal pants. We later changed to a Polo Shirt accompanied by blue jeans. The change was made to reflect the personality of our Team. Black shoes will accompany our team uniform. Designing the Team Uniform proved to be a challenge because there were many restrictions on the actual production of the uniform.
Pit Design For the booth design, two main elements had to be kept in mind. Firstly, there is the overall â€˜conceptâ€™ of the booth design. The booth design is meant to represent the team as a whole, and to achieve its purpose the team colors were utilized to produce a attention grabbing yet simple booth design. The second element is the contents of the booth, which consists of various components such as, the team name, team logo, car design, sponsor logos, and a multimedia display.
(Left) Original Design Sketch
Pit Design (Left, Center, Right Panels)
Team Organization Sponsors
Budget List Shown here is a table listing all the areas in which our sponsor money was spent. This helped our business manager better organize where our funds were directed to.
Timeline of Events This timeline displays the significant events of our team in concordance to the period and duration in which the process was complete.
Task Name General Events Team Name Website Keynote Design Portfolio
Price in RMB
Spinning Display Table Final Wheels Awl Pin Vice Drill Bits Set Big Tweezer Small Tweezer Superglues Axles (4/Pack) 5mm Bearings (4/Pack) Paint Job Uniforms Booth Panels Velcro Printing Job Gifts Virtual Wind Tunnel Testing Wheels Blocks Air Fare, Hotel Fee, Participation Fee
143.9 30.8 12 55.6 133.2 20 14.1 15.4 13.9 24.9 1000 2840 376 20 250 20 2849.4 --13200
Price in £
12.8 2.7 1.1 4.9 11.9 1.8 1.3 1.4 1.2 2.2 89 252.8 33.5 1.8 22.3 1.8 253.6 --1174.8
Total Amount (RMB) 1 13 1 1 1 1 1 8 6 6 1 1 3 1 4 31 1 12 6 6
Mon, Mar Mon, Apr Mon, Aug Mon, Aug
16, 20, 31, 24,
2009 Mon, Mar 23, 2009 7 days 2009 Fri, Aug 28, 2009 130 days 2009 Sun, Sep 6, 2009 6 days 2009 Sun, Sep 6, 2009 13 days
March April 14 17 20 23 26 29 1 4
7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28
May 2 5
8 11 14 17 20 23 26 29
June 1 4
Total Amount (£)
143.9 400.4 12 55.6 133.2 20 14.1 123.2 83.4 149.4 1000 2840 1128 20 1000 620 2849.4 0 0 79200
12.8 35.1 1.1 4.9 11.9 1.8 1.3 11.2 7.2 13.2 89 252.8 100.5 1.8 89.2 55.8 253.6 0 0 7048.8
7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28
July 1 4
7 10 13 16 19 22 25 28 31
Paid By Jet Century Jet Century Jet Century Jet Century Jet Century Jet Century Jet Century Jet Century Jet Century Jet Century Jet Century ISB PTA ISB Communications Department ISB Communications Department ISB Communications Department ISB Communications Department ISB ICT Department Lanxum Western Academy of Beijing Personal Expense
August September 3 6 9 12 15 18 21 24 27 30 2 5 8 11 14
7 days 130 days 6 days 13 days
Business! Acquire Acquire Acquire Acquire Others
Jet Century as Sponsor Lanxum as Sponsor PTA as Sponsor ISB Comm. Dept. as Sponsor
Mon, Apr 13, Mon, Apr 13, Mon, Apr 20, Sun, Aug 16, Fri, Apr 3,
2009 Mon, Apr 20, 2009 2009 Tue, Apr 21, 2009 2009 Sun, May 10, 2009 2009 Wed, Aug 19, 2009 2009 Fri, Jun 5, 2009
7 8 20 3 63
Mon, Mar Wed, Apr Thu, Apr Tue, Aug Sun, Aug Sun, Aug
2009 Tue, Apr 14, 2009 29 days 2009 Fri, May 15, 2009 30 days 2009 Wed, Aug 26, 2009 125 days 2009 Fri, Aug 28, 2009 3 days 2009 Thu, Sep 3, 2009 18 days 2009 Sun, Sep 6, 2009 21 days
7 days 8 days
days days days days days
20 days 3 days 63 days
Design / Manufacture! Car Designing and Virtual Testing Wheel Design and Testing Manufacturing and Testing Sand, Apply Glue on Car Paint Car Rendering
16, 15, 23, 25, 16, 16,
29 days 30 days 125 days 3 days 18 days 21 days
Team Identity! Uniform Design Sketch Logo Finalize Logo Booth Design
Sun, Mar 22, Wed, Apr 1, Thu, Jun 4, Mon, Aug 24,
2009 Thu, Aug 27, 2009 Wed, Jun 3, 2009 Tue, Jun 9, 2009 Tue, Sep 1,
2009 158 days 2009 63 days 2009 5 days 2009 8 days
158 days 63 days 5 days 8 days
By acquiring sponsorship, not only it can enrich our team resources, it can also expand the possibilities in the team’s development and connect us to the real world of business.
Solidworks Free 3D Designing Software: Solidworks 2009.
Firstell Communications Graphic Assistance (Team logo refinements).
Our process of acquiring sponsors started simply by contacting organizations and people that are familiar to us. As a result, we were able to gain sponsorship from Jet Century, where the parents of one of our team members work at. Our school, the International School of Beijing has sponsored us in many aspects, such as providing the Virtual Wind Tunnel software, printing costs (for more information please see description below), items for the gift exchange, and team kits including the uniforms and jackets. Firstell Communications aided us in the refining of our logo, and Lanxum provided us with testing wheels for free. We tried to extend our source of sponsorships to outer companies, but unfortunately failed as a result of many difficulties (please read “Evaluation” page for more information). However, we feel that we have obtained enough resources for “team necessity.” We will strive to focus more on financial resources next year, as we only got Jet Century to sponsor us financially.
International School of Beijing F1 in Schools Team
No. 10, An Hua Street Shunyi District, Beijing 101318
Dear [Company Name], We are a group of high school students from the International School of Beijing, and we would like to help you build up your brand name by advertising your logo, products and/or services through our participation in the F1 in Schools program. What is F1 in Schools? F1 in Schools is a popular, internationally recognized competition aiming for students to become more actively involved in technology, science and business. This competition is sponsored by Bernie Ecclestone; a billionaire entrepreneur referred as the “F1 Supremo” from his great accomplishment he made towards Formula One Racing. Students must design, test, and manufacture their own miniature Formula One scale car models out of a single piece of Balsa wood powered by CO2 canisters and race it along a 20m track. Students must also give verbal presentations to judges and create design portfolios, a small booklet that introduces our team and our experiences throughout the process. As a team participating in an international competition, we bring publicity to you, our sponsors, who only need to support our team by generously providing money for the equipment required in the competition. Naturally, the larger our teamʼs budget is, the more resources we will have, which will contribute heavily to our success in the competition, bringing fame and international exposure to the companies that sponsor the winning teams. How can we help each other? The ways in which we can help your company gain publicity and subsequent success are quite varied. Your company logo will be displayed in various locations, such as our team uniforms, the F1 car itself, and our display at the event, and media coverage such as the ITV, the biggest commercial television network in UK. The competition will be seen by millions of people all over the world, not to mention over 9 million students from 30 countries. Since our team has already qualified to enter this yearʼs championships in London, we believe that your sponsorship will be able to greatly help your company meets its goals, as it will help your company gain publicity and brand recognition, while possibly even advertising your products and/or services.
Lanxum 3D printing (Wheels). International School of Beijing (ISB) ISB ICT Department: Virtual Wind Tunnel Software. ISB Communications Department: All the printing fees including the booth, design portfolio, team information pamphlet and the business cards. They also covered the entire cost of the Gift Exchange. Jet Century
An actual copy of the sponsor letter that was sent to companies. (also translated into Chinese and Japanese)
ISB PTA & Booster Club: Team kits including the uniforms and jackets.
Further inquiries If you are interested in our offer, we are more than willing to provide more information on the team and competition. We have provided a link to the official F1 in Schools website as further reference material. We also have photos of past competitions and we can update you on our teamʼs progress, both available on request. Further negotiations can be conducted through email, though it would be our pleasure to meet with representatives of your company in person. We are very excited about this and look forward to hearing from you soon. Sincerely yours,
10,000 RMB (£900).
Material Research yinxiang
Understanding the proper/es of diﬀerent materials can help us be7er determine the appropriate resources in which we may u/lize in the construc/on of our ﬁnal product.
Understanding Balsa Wood Typical Density: 0.16 g/cm3
Understanding Wheel Materials
The downside to Balsa wood is its unequal density throughout the block. By taking this into account even if we put 2 blocks of the same mass into the CNC machine it may most likely end up to be different weights. The unequal density also makes it a challenge to manufacture thin, fragile parts such as the rear wings.
Bibliography "Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene." Wikipedia. Wikimedia, 25 May 2003. Web. 24 May 2009. <http:// en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Acrylonitrile_butadiene_styrene>. "Airplane Kit Finishing." RC Airplane Advisor - How to Choose, Build, and Fly an RC Airplane. Rc-airplaneadvisor.com. Web. 09 May 2009. <http://www.rc-airplane-advisor.com/airplane-kitfinishing.html>. "Axle." Wikipedia. Wikimedia, 22 Dec. 2002. Web. 21 May 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Axle>. "Ball Bearings." Wikimedia. Wikipedia, 18 Mar. 2003. Web. 15 May 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ball_bearing#Ceramic_hybrid_ball_bearings_using_ceramic_balls>. "Bearing (Mechanical)." Wikipedia. Wikimedia, 4 May 2003. Web. 12 May 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Bearing_%28mechanical%29>. Bridgestone Potenza Formula One Tire. Digital image. Wikipedia. Wikimedia, 21 June 2007. Web. 11 May 2009. <http://commons.wikimedia.org/wiki/File:Bridgestone_Potenza_Formula_One_Tire.jpg>. "Ceramic Bearings - Engineers Edge." Engineers Edge - Design, Engineering and Manufacturing Solutions. Engineers Edge. Web. 22 May 2009. <http://www.engineersedge.com/bearing/ ceramic_bearings.htm>. "Comparison Table for Plastics." Machinist Materials: Home Page. Machinist Materials. Web. 26 May 2009. <http://www.machinist-materials.com/comparison_table_for_plastics.htm>. "Densities of Various Solids." Engineering ToolBox. Web. 09 May 2009. <http://www.engineeringtoolbox.com/ density-solids-d_1265.html>. "Density of Steel." Hypertextbook.com. Ed. Glenn Elert. The Physics Factbook. Web. 21 May 2009. <http:// hypertextbook.com/facts/2004/KarenSutherland.shtml>. "Ferrari F60 aero-mech development in 2009 - F1technical.net." Formula One uncovered! - F1technical.net. 13 July 2009. Web. 04 May 2009. <http://www.f1technical.net/forum/viewtopic.php? f=6&t=6608&start=60>. "Ochroma pyramidale." Wikipedia. Wikimedia, 3 Feb. 2003. Web. 18 May 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Ochroma_pyramidale>. "Poly(methyl methacrylate)." Wikipedia. Wikimedia, 23 Jan. 2003. Web. 11 May 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/ wiki/Poly%28methyl_methacrylate%29>. "Polyvinyl chloride." Wikipedia. Wikimedia, 7 Feb. 2002. Web. 12 May 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/ Polyvinyl_chloride>.
• Polyvinyl chloride (PVC) is the 3rd most commonly used thermoplastic polymer • Relatively cheap (0.5-1.25 €/kg) • Durable • Side effect: additives in PVC can lead to human/environmental health issues
Balsa wood is the official material used for the car body of our miniature Formula One Car. It has an excellent balance between strength & lightness, making it the ideal material for this competition. With a lighter body, the car maybe be able to accelerate more with a set amount of speed and thus travel the 20m track in a shorter time than their denser counterparts.
Typical Density: 1.39 g/cm3
• Usually constructed wit steel inner and outer rings but with ceramic balls • Higher speed (20%-40% faster) • Higher spin rate • Better acceleration and low friction • Increased stiffness/hardness • Lighter (up to 40 less than steel) • Smoother surface finishes • Uses less energy to maintain speed • Lower heat generation
Typical Density: 1.19 g/cm3 Thermoplastic alternative to glass Easy to handle & process Low cost Higher impact strength than glass or polystyrene • Less dense than PVC • • • •
Typical Density: 1.02 g/cm3
• Acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) is a common thermoplastic used to make light, rigid, and molded products • Can be recycled • Tough, can have gloss, good hardness • Side effect: Cost of production 2x that of polystyrene
Typical Density: 1.4 g/cm3
Celluloid • • • •
Easily molded and shaped Not commonly used anymore Can be made very thin Side effects • Highly flammable • Not as strong as other plastics
Typical Density: 2 g/cm3
Typical Density: 0.16 g/cm3 • A type of rolling element bearing which uses rolling balls to separate the movements of two surfaces to minimize friction • Friction coefficient of around 0.005 • Capable of high speed rotation • Easily support the weight of the car
Conclusion Other types of bearings are not applicable due to need of energy (magnetic bearings), fluids (fluid bearings) and high cost or complexity. We will use bearings to reduce friction, if bearings were not used then the axle would need to be spinning, thus creating more friction due to the high contact between axle and body. A bearing could be fitted for the axle and not at the wheel but this would also mean a larger bearing and higher surface area, which still equates to higher cost and excess friction.
Understanding Axles Steel is our main choice as an axle because it is strong and if it has a clean surface it has a relatively low friction coefficient with a lot of materials, especially plastic, steel itself, and wood. However, one major disadvantage of steel is its relatively high density, around 7.715 g/ cm3. The axle amounts to most of the car’s weight, but it is with this weight that the car is able to be over the minimum weight threshold. Also, being relatively heavy it is able to help with the weight distribution of the car thus also able to help with maximizing the acceleration by adjusting the weight distribution. Plastics may be another choice for the axle, but being relatively light the car’s weight would need other materials to be heavier to have it over the minimum weight threshold.
Our type of axle is a straight axle, where the wheels connected will rotate in unison. This is useful because it keeps the wheel positions steady. Since the competition does not require the car to turn, a split-axle design is thus unnecessary as no independent suspension unit is needed. A straight axle is also simpler to use and thus it is used in our car. Our axle is not the spinning component of the car, rather there is a wheel bearing. The surface area between the axle and the body is relatively large compared to that of the wheel bearing surfaces. Thus, this would create more friction, slowing down the car. Also, the inner of the car body may not be very smooth and thus this would amount to more force in the slowing down the wheel spinning and having an effect on the car’s speed. Our axle’s main purpose is to hold the wheels together and to create some weight for the car.
Research Formula One
Formula One is the highest class of auto racing sanctioned by the FIA. It has a formula which all participants must comply to and all the cars are single seaters. Races are held all around the world, with Europe being the traditional center. A Formula One car can reach speeds of up to 360 km/h in a race, with engines revving up to a limited 18,000 RPM. During cornering it is possible of pulling in excess of 5 g-forces. The first world championship race is dated back to 1950, but it has its roots in the European Grand Prix Motor Racing dating back to the 1920s. There are currently two annual World Championships, one for the drivers and one for the constructors. For the 2009 season there are 20 drivers and 10 teams. The performance of the cars is highly dependent on electronics, aerodynamics, suspension, and tires. Every so often there are regulation changes to promote better racing, better safety, and better entertainment. Formula One is a big business; it is the world’s most expensive sport. It has a high merchandising environment and there is an environment for heavy investments from sponsors. However, due to the ever increasing cost and the late financial crisis, Formula One has been trying to reduce cost regularly. Due to the limit in in-season testing, rookie drivers now have less chance to get used to the cars before they race. Interesting Facts: Only Ferrari has raced in all seasons of the Formula One World Championship Michael Schumacher has 7 World Drivers Championship Rubens Barrichello has the most starts as of current (279) Jaime Alguersuari is the youngest driver to start a race (9 years, 125 days) Sebastian Vettel is the youngest driver to win a Grand Prix (21 years, 73 days) Lewis Hamilton is the youngest world drivers championship winner (23 years, 300 days)
Aerodynamics The study of aerodynamics in racing influences the way a car cuts through air. For our design our main aim is to reduce drag. Explanation of Drag Drag is the force that opposes the motion of an object moving through a fluid. Relate to the following equation: Forcenet = mass × acceleration
Speed & Friction Speed Speed is the rate of change of distance. Our car needs to travel 20 meters in about one second, so our average speed should be at around 20m/s, equating to about 72km/h. Average speed is a measure of distance traveled over a given period of time However, instantaneous speed is the speed of the object at a certain time. Therefore, the car does not maintain at 20m/s for the entire race as at the start of the track it might be faster but due to friction it slows down. Friction Friction is the force that resists the relative lateral motion of material elements in contact. There are few kinds of friction, but here we are more interested in dry friction. Dry friction resists the relative lateral motion of two solid surfaces in contact. Dry friction is usually separated into two parts, static friction and kinetic friction. Static friction is the friction between two solid objects when they are not in motion relative to each other. It would be better to have lower static friction so that a lower force is needed to put the object in motion. Kinetic friction occurs when two objects are in motion relative to each other. Once again with lower kinetic friction, after the initial propulsion the car would slow down at a slower rate. In the development of our car we have to pay attention to two specific areas which generates friction, one is where the wheel is in contact with the surface of the track and the other is the inner of the wheel. In the respective research of those parts friction had a huge emphasis because we diagnosed that one of the main characteristic of having a faster car is to have lower friction. Another type of friction is rolling resistance; it is the resistance that occurs when a round object rolls on a flat surface. The primary cause of rolling resistance is when a material flexes more and recovers to its original shape at a slower rate. Therefore it is important to use tough and rigid materials for both the wheels and wheel bearings. "Average vs. Instantaneous Speed." Web. 05 Apr. 2009. <http://www.glenbrook.k12.il.us/GBSSCI/PHYS/MMEDIA/kinema/trip.html>.
Where: Forcenet = Fpropulsion - Fdrag Therefore, with the same propulsion force and mass, as drag decreases acceleration increases. This is what we want to achieve since our goal is to have the fastest time in the race along the 20 meter track. Reducing Drag There are two main ways to reduce drag, one is to have a smoother surface so that the friction the solid molecules and the air molecules is reduced. Another method is to have a more streamlined body so that the resistance against the solid moving object is lower. Therefore when finishing the body of our car it is important to smoothen it out and use paint or coverings which would provide a smooth surface. For streamlined bodies, from looking at the data table we can see that a longer and more rounded object (teardrop) have a lower drag coefficient so when designing our car we have to keep this in mind. The Significance of the Aerofoil The Aerofoil is an important component of a racing car as it helps create down force and to help direct the flow of air. However, for this competition down force isn’t very important due to the lack of cornering so our main purpose for aerofoil is to direct the air flow around the body to decrease drag.
Down force Downward pressure is created by the aerodynamic characteristics of an object, it is dependent on the shape, surface area, and the angle of attack of the object. Down force is created by having the bottom of an object having lower air pressure than the area above the object. Since a high angle of attack is needed to create larger amount of down force, this would in turn create larger drag so it is important to find a balance of these two components. Lift Lift is a force pushing an object up through having an area of lower pressure above the object as opposed to under the object.
"Friction -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 06 Apr. 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Friction>. "Rolling resistance -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 06 Apr. 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Rolling_resistance>. "Speed -." Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. Web. 05 Apr. 2009. <http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Speed>.
"Aerodynamics in racing - F1technical.net." Formula One uncovered! - F1technical.net. Web. 28 Mar. 2009. <http://www.f1technical.net/articles/10?sid=7a246cc200f1aa645d7714be4d3e793d>.
Initial Design 1 Version #1 is design based on the 2009 World Championships Rules & Regulations as well as an experimental design with the bottom cut, hoping to direct the air as intended.
Our initial designs were a key component to understanding and improving the most effective version of our car and how its form has evolved through tests and trials. Rear Wing: Canister Holder: The canister holder was designed to be as streamlined as possible. It was designed to be as long as possible because we know that the longer an object is the lower its drag coefficient. It is also pointed at front so that it has a small cross-sectional area, and the surface of the holder is smooth and rounded to increase its streamlined nature.
The rear wing is designed to be tear drop shaped because of its low drag coefficient. In a real Formula One car, the rear wing is responsible for most of the down force generation; however, there is no need for that on our car for the race lacks cornering. To comply with the regulations a rear aerofoil must be added, but unlike the front wing it does not have the ability to help direct the airflow in any way to decrease drag. Therefore, the rear wing was made as aerodynamically as possible to decrease the drag created by it.
Body: There is the standardized flat area at the front of the body. The shape of the entire body slightly resembles a tear drop shape to increase streamlining. The back of the car converges for this specific reason.
Rear Pods: The rear pod is hollow so that the air that travels to the back of the wheel has a place of exit to the back of the car without creating drag as a solid rear pod will. A solid rear pod does not have a place of exit for the air and this would disrupt the flow of air thus creating drag and turbulence behind the wheel.
There are undercuts beneath the side pod. This is to allow the air flowing around the front wheel to have an exit area. The three undercuts also converges into one final one, and this results in a higher rate of air flow. Since the rear end of the car raises up a bit, this would create a slightly lower pressure and may slow down the car by having a small vacuum at the back. With the increase in air flow to the back of the car this should balance out the effect created by the increase in height at the back of the car.
The air flow around our front wheel needs to have an exit path. So the front of the side pod is thinner and more towards the body. There is an undercut so that the air can flow under the car as well as over the car easier. The middle to the back part of the side pod is slightly dented towards the ground to slightly help push the air over the rear wheel and thus decreasing drag. The rear end of the side pod is as wide as the rear wheel to direct it around the wheel without creating too much turbulence.
Design #1 is design based on the 2009 World Championships Rules & Regulations as well as an experimental design with the bottom cut, hoping to direct the air as intended.
The overall purpose of the front wing is to provide a smooth path for the air around the car to reduce drag. The side of the front wing was inspired by recent Formula One cars where the curve outward so that the air would flow around the wheels. The front of the front wing is designed to act like a spearhead as it is thin and would reduce unnecessary drag. The back of the wind is slightly tilted up to help direct the air flow over the wheels.
Initial Design 2 Version #1 is design based on the 2009 World Championships Rules & Regulations as well as an experimental design with the bottom cut, hoping to direct the air as intended. This version has gone through numerous redesigns and alterations due to changes in wheel diameter and the rule that there must be an absolutely flat area measuring 30 x 50 mm across the dorsal section of the model, forcing design engineers to relocate the rear aero-foils, modify the side pods, rescale the front aero-foils along with reducing the length of the power plant chamber. this car simply complies with the rules for the 2009 world championships
Phase 1 The precedent form of Design 2 was conceptualized with opposite facing front aerofoils. This was then revised because of the high surface area that comes into contact with the initial airflow which creates noticeable amounts of drag when tested in the Virtual Wind Tunnel.
Although not completely visible, the main body is based on an extremely elongated elliptical prism while the C02 power plant housing is incorporated from a generic rounded cone shape.
Wings & Side pods As exhibited in this Solidworks model, design #2 consists of rear aero-foils, side pods, and rear wings in the shape of streamlined, teardrops.
(Above) Initial Sketches and experimentation with aerodynamic shapes.
Another major correction in acknowledgement to its rather low average velocity was the reducing of its overall thickness. This is especially prominent when observing the versions at a side view. Initial Design 2 retained the previous versionâ€™s basic form, albeit with multiple minor modifications.
This car design mainly focuses on simplicity of design and highly efficient neutral buoyancy based on the most aerodynamic form possible: teardrops. Teardrops possess an astoundingly low drag coefficient ranging from 0.15 to 0.04 compared to perfect spheres which contain 5 to 10 times that amount.
Front Aerofoils The front aerofoils are designed as inverted teardrops to increase aerodynamic efficiency Design #2 is a design that mainly experiments with the shapes of the aerofoils and the sidepod. These shapes are all based on the the teardrop, which is the shape that produces the least drag
Initial Design 3 ohohhhhh
Design # 3 is based and modified from our National Finals. At first, this was to be just a small modification, though after the announcement of the new 30x50mm flat area we had to go through a complete redesign, only the original CO2 canister loft was kept. This redesign proved to be a breakthrough, creating a totally innovative design inspired by the MacBook Air. Rear Wing: Initial Sketches: These sketches were based on the concept of creating the most simplest car and thinking back to what makes a shape aerodynamic. By combining these two ideas, we were able to come up with a rough idea of how our car is going to look like.
The rear wing features a perfect teardrop, thus providing no lift or downforce. This design is part of the concept for this car to be achieve buoyancy.
Redesigns: After going through more than 7 redesigns, weâ€™ve had success and failure. After achieving great test results in the VWT for CX 10.4 (the code name for this version), we continued to explore for even bigger breakthroughs up to version CX 10.8. After running these versions through VWT, we concluded that CX 10.4 gave us the best result, with the drag coefficient equivalent to that of a bullet.
The body of this design is meant to minimize the amount of protrusion out of the simple flat tear drop shape as shown in the original sketches. The canister holderâ€™s gradual loft was shifted backwards to comply with the 2009 Rules & Regulations. When looked from the side, this design shows perfect neutral buoyancy, which allows the car to achieve equal lift and downforce.
Rear Pods: The rear pod is the end of the long tear drop that spans the length of the car. This design was later curved both from the side view and the top view after testing in the Virtual Wind Tunnel showed significant decrease in drag.
Side Pods: The side pod is a part of the long tear drop design for this car that spans the length of the car. The front of the side pod is wide to accomodate the F1 in Schools sticker that is required on all race cars. The back of the side pod curves inwards to decrease its weight and also improve the aerodynamic efficiency of the car.
Comparison of our car with the MacBook Air
Front Wing: The front wing is part of the long tear drop design that spans the length of the car. The shape of this front wing provides a strong head for the car which will decrease its chances to snapping off during the race. The wing is curved slightly upwards making the car achieve neutral buoyancy.
Testing Virtual Wind Tunnel We do not have a test track; therefore, it was crucial that we possess a form of virtual car testing. The software we use to test the physical aspects of our car is called Virtual Wind Tunnel (VWT). Elements of the car that are tested include aerodynamic efficiency, average car velocity, and drag coefficients. This software is able to put a virtual version of our car through computer simulations to give us important data we could not have obtained otherwise. Without this program, it would take weeks and even months to manufacture every single prototype that needed to be tested.
Initial Design 1
Initial Design 2 Our second design was more focused on aerodynamic efficiency to achieve the highest possible average velocity form the Virtual Wind Tunnel. We also discontinued further research in undercuts because of the restrictions our CNC machine proprietors imposed upon us. Exhibited in these images, the rear wing increases air velocity by an astounding weight, while the wheels pose minimum drag upon overall performance.
Considering the Virtual Wind Tunnel screenshots of Initial Design 1, it is apparent the form is not as aerodynamically efficient compared to the other two. The issue with its lack of streamline efficiency is mainly the fault of turbulence created by air passing through the side pods, being negatively affected by the wheel.
Initial Design 3
Drag Co-efficient for CX10.X tests
The prototype of our final design possessed a drag coefficient of 0.3178, which can be discerned as average when compared to most of our early versions. General design of the second prototype featured improvements such as a lowering of the front aerofoils, and raising of the rear pods. This enhanced the drag coefficient noticeably to a satisfactory 0.2985. Other modifications were implemented in the subsequent two models, but increased drag coefficients meant that they were not the best option. After numerous tests we decided to stick with CX10.4, which has a drag co-efficient nearly equivalent to a bullet.
Innovative Wheel Design Why is Wheel Design so important?
After racing our first car at the regional finals in March, we’ve learnt that a good wheel is a crucial part of making a fast car. After realizing this, we started doing in-depth analysis on what makes a good wheel and what components are needed to achieve that. To minimize friction, we secured our axles and allowed the bearing to be attached on the wheel, as opposed to the common bearing-in-car-body concept where both the wheels and the axles are spinning. The production of our wheel was made possible with Advanced Stereolithography Technology.
Hollow/Opened Wheel vs Closed Wheel
Design & Testing
Hollow and open wheels are lighter than closed wheels because less material would be used to create a closed surface for the wheel. However, a hollow wheel is less aerodynamic than closed wheel because the air flow may enter the wheel itself, thus disrupting the smoothness of the air flow and creating unnecessary disturbance to the wheel itself. A closed wheel would be able to create a smoother air flow as the air is allowed to travel around the surface of the entire wheel. Even in Formula One racing, teams have slowly adopted the use of a closed wheel. The first picture is of an F2007 wheel, as can be seen it is a hollow wheel with no covers. Pictures 2 and 3 are from Ferrari’s F60, picture 2 shows the front wheel with a wheel rim, and picture 3 shows the rear wheel with a wheel rim, this helps the airflow around the wheel decreasing turbulence around the wheel and a smoother flow, thus lower drag.
Pros • Stability • Smooth air flow • Strong structure
Fully Enclosed Wheel
Cons • Heavy weight • Uneven surface
Pros • Lightweight • Easy to assemble • Less turbulence
Stage 2 !
Hollow Enclosed Wheel
Cons • Uneven surface • Unstable
（Final) Hollow Enclosed Wheel
Rendered Images of our Final Wheel Design
Orthographic Drawing of our Innovative Wheel Bearing
Analysis This design takes out all the unnecessary material inside the wheel and introduces the “wheel cap”, which is to be attached to the inner facing side of the wheel to seal off any space for air to enter, reducing turbulence. A smooth fillet was designed to increase aesthetics of wheel. This wheel can spin for up to 69 seconds.
Analysis This design takes Stage 2 wheel design even Pros further by introducing a second bearing that • Stability will be attached to the wheel cap, this solves • Minimum Friction the problem of the wheel being unstable in • Maximum Efficiency high speed situations. This wheel is also • Weight Reduction made out of a much finer ABS plastic than before, thanks to more advanced stereolithography equipment. The wheel is no longer rounded on the side to increase stability
Stage 3 !
Analysis This design allows the wheel to be incredibly strong but is too heavy, which will affect our car’s performance. The bearing inside helps minimize the friction generated by the axle and the wheel. This wheel can spin for an average of 5 seconds
Final Design The culmination of intense research, engineering, and manufacturing for months; this is the final design of our car which will be racing in the F1 London 2009 World Championships.
The final assembly design consists of all the major key components that proved beneficial for maximal performance and streamlined efficiency based upon fluid dynamics, drag coefficients, and the analyzation of the design engineers.
The numerous aspects of our final design has been deliberated in entire sections of this design portfolio. Countless advantages in design deem this car to be unparalleled in speed and aesthetics; the highest optimal solution for our team.
Engineering Drawing Sponsors
As exhibited in the Engineering (Orthographic) drawing below, the final car design completely complies with all regulation stated in the official â€œF1 Rules and Regulations 2009â€? booklet. This final model is chosen for its aerodynamic efficiency and concordance with the expected specifications and criteria established for the 2009 World Championships.
Manufacture Sponsors 1. Convert Car Design into a STL Our designers must first complete the final design of the car body on SolidWorks and then convert it into a STL file so that the CNC programs can read it. After it is converted, we can load the file onto QuickCam 3D.
2. Program cut using QuickCam 3D and VR Milling After uploading the STL file into QuickCam 3D, our manufacturer programs the machine, inserting various kinds of measurements and lines of code so that the CNC machine can cut the car based on the teamâ€™s specific needs. Then VR Milling is then initiated. The teamâ€™s sub-call program is then opened, this program uses the QuickCam3D file made earlier to cut the car and automatically turn the axis of the machine to cut a mirror of the car as well.
3. CNC machine setup
4. Control the feed rate of the machine to avoid damaging machine
First to ready the CNC machine our manufacturer, Alex, must secure the block into the CNC machine clamp. A right angle instrument is used to ensure the block is normal to the base. After that, he locks and tightens all the clamps in place and starts to program the machine. Tightening the clamp is extremely important when it comes down to making a perfect car because if the axis shifts any time during the process of cutting, it will produce an asymmetrical car that will not be fit for racing.
After the machine starts to cut, the engineer must slow the feed rate of the machine in case it starts to cut into the other parts of the CNC tools because of bad measurements or glitches. This is extremely important because if the drill of the machine cuts into the metal bar holding the car it will damage it severely and delay cutting extensively. Feed rate is very crucial to the success of the cut as well because going too fast will occasionally make the balsa wood lose its structural integrity too fast and therefore causing it to snap, which could result in a chipped side pod or back wing.
Manufacture Sponsors 5. Car Sanding Process After the cutting is done, our engineer removes the car from the machine and starts to sand it off using sand paper. The machine cuts a lot of ridges so a good sanding is very important to the success of the car and being able to retain its virtual reality shape. Sanding is also a very delicate process for if an engineer sands too harshly he may break or chip a fragile part off which will result in having to use glue to glue it back on, which means more weight, which leads to a slower car.
6. Hole Drilling & PVA Glue Application After the sanding is done, we must drill holes for the axles. This process requires incredibly deep concentration as any errors in this process might require us to re-manufacture our cars. We also have to use make sure the axle holes are parallel to each other to ensure a straight--running car. PVA glue is then used to seal all the gaps in the wood and increase its structural integrity. First we apply one light coat of PVA glue and use a blow dryer to decrease the drying speed of the glue to about 3 minutes, saving much time. We repeat this three times and then the car is ready to paint.
7. Spray Painting
8. Car Assembly
During the national finals we found that spray painting the car ourselves was a ghastly experience mainly because we were unprofessional, therefore causing the car surface to be extremely bumpy with many air bubbles. For the World Championships we found a local motorcycle shop that will spray paint for us. This gives us a better quality paint job with less rough areas, therefore reducing drag.
By using a drill that is perpendicular to the car side, we are able to make perfectly straight holes through the desired areas of the car. We then stick our axles into the holes and attach our wheels, while continuously weighing all components for minimum weight. Please refer to the wheel section to understand more on how we attach our innovative wheels to the axles. Corporate logos are stuck onto the car surface and eyelids are screwed into the bottom of the car at the end of the process and now we are ready to race!
Evaluation Sponsors Our novice team encountered enormous amounts of difficulties in the extensively arduous process of being prepared to race in the London 2009 Championships. Not to mention the fact that one of our design engineers have recently graduated and is currently situated in Hong Kong, all members of team Draxonic had little or no prior experience in the realm of the international program, F1 in Schools. This lack of experience may have negatively contributed to the overall impediments that we had to confront in the path to our achievement. One of the most pervasive and problematic aspects of our steady ascension into success was simply the vast limitations in resources. It was very difficult to obtain the most basic of tools for our team. Complications were present even during the attainment of our most crucial CAD software Solidworks. As our original version unexpectedly expired, an increasing amount of time was spent waiting for the new version of Solidworks Student Design Kit to arrive along with the Virtual Wind Tunnel software, after our partial victory in the China regional championships. Another main example of our deficiency in supplies would be the location of our utilized Denford Router, which is owned by and located within another school. The fact that we did not possess our own CNC machine directly equates to a huge amount of irreclaimable time because we were highly restrained in our usage of the manufacturing equipment. One of our biggest potential sponsors, IvyMax, attempted to promote their own product instead of negotiating sponsorship with abrupt withdrawal of support. Lanxum, our sole provider of custom ABS wheels, was then attributable to the controversial circumstance in which they sold their 3D wheel printing machine to a private enterprise somewhere in Shanghai. However, after frantic research, another 3D printing company was fortunately able to promptly provide us with new custom wheels of even higher quality. The process of painting our final cars are also worthy of note. Our paint coating was intriguingly performed by a local motorcycle shop. We found out that high quality work comes at a high price. We were obliged to pay additional fees for a second paint job, as a result of the first oneâ€™s mediocre condition (they probably did this deliberately). We also learned that air travel has extra risks for F1 in Schools members; due to an incident at the Beijing airport last year involving our team manager being detained by Chinese custom officials because of their suspicion towards the F1 CO2 canisters. The two things of which we are most proud are our car design and our teamwork. Our car is not only aesthetically pleasing and aerodynamic, but also modern in design with hints of the innovation and quality associated with that of Appleâ€™s MacBook Air. It was through teamwork and perseverance that we overcame each and every obstacle in our way. We now realize that individual skills and dedication, no matter how excellent they are, are not as effective as the combined efforts of our team.