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Pamoja Intelectuals need society

Intellectuals Magazine

Elimu yetu

na Mustakabali wa Afrika


INSIDE Our education; not focused, not determined, poorly examined

... pg 6

Colonization of information in Tanzania TV broadcasting

... pg 23

PERUZI VITABUNI: CHINUA ACHEBE

‌ pg 26

Africa si Gizani

‌ pg38

EDITORIAL TEAM NGAI GOODLUCK ISAYA NGWIJO ABDULRAHIM MSONDE JULIUS JIMSON TEKE RAMADHANI PETER ANTHONY

Kwa mara nyingine tena, jamvi hili mahususi kwa weledi barani afrika linawakutanisha wanazuoni pamoja. Mara hii tumekutana katika wakati ambao ni muafaka mno kujadili juu ya elimu yetu na mustakabali wa bara hili. Jambo hili yafaa kujadiliwa kwa ufasaha na umakini kutokana na ukweli kwamba elimu ndiyo roho ya jamii yoyote ulimwenguni Jambo yakini kama hili linahitaji tafakuri za wanazuoni hasa ikizingatiwa kwamba katika zama hizi elimu yetu imekuwa ikikabiliwa na changamoto mbalimbali. Changamoto hizo ni kama vile uduni wa miundombinu ya elimu, ukosefu wa mitaala inayosawiri muda na mazingira halisi ya bara letu pamoja na mazingira magumu na vikwazo vinavyomkabili mwanafunzi na kumsababishia mwanafunzi kukosa maarifa ambayo ndiyo hitaji la msingi kwa mwanadamu na ustawi wa jamii. Toleo hili hili la halijakomea tu katika kujadili changamoto hizo bali pia limetoa njia mabalimbali za jinsi ya kuzitatua. Katika hili, waandishi wetu wameandika maoni na uchambuzi kwa mujibu wa takwimu na weledi walionao. Ikumbukwe kwamba uchambuzi huo na maoni hayo si misahafu bali ni fikra mahususi za kuchukoza mijadala ya weledi. Huu ni muhtasari tu wa nini kinachotakiwa kujadiliwa na wanazuoni wa Afrika kwa sasa. Hivyo basi,sisi tumefungua mjadala tu ilhali mchangiaji ni wewe msomaji Pamoja intellectuals magazine linaamini katika falsafa ya kwamba,msomi anahitaji jamii. Kwa mantiki hiyo basi huu ni wakati wa wasomi kuzitazama changamoto za jamii yetu na kuzipatia ufumbuzi. ingwa elimu ni mali ya wanajamii wote lakini usimamizi wake ni jukumu letu wanazuoni. Karibuni sana


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Proper Education is the key, but improper padlocks “Wake up and go”, “but am hungry mom!”. just go you will have your belly fed when you are back. but still it’s a long route on foot with my belly empty since last night , at school, we are given nothing. not even some porridge to leak, we seat and write on dust for the whole day learning foreign language, very dizzy with our poor teacher with torn slive shirt like ours. It has now become a common dialogue in most African countries like Tanzania where most parents are likely to be found into such conversations with their young children who attain their primary/ secondary education in difficult, complex and at mostunfavorable conditions. The education given to these children is not only in difficult, complex and unpleasing environment but also it has proven some failure to mold and formulate student’s

minds and attitudes into active, creative, innovative and determinant on oneself with its surrounding environment. Many of the students are brought up in rural villageswhere little power and priorities is directed indirect or direct on education, thus poor learning environment with little facilities and worse enough, an improper food for mind, meaning, an education which shapes one to be very dependent on the system rather than self dependant and self innovative. The former president of South Africa, Mr. Nelson Mandela had his famous quote saying “Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world”, and we all agree on that, but if the same education will be improper

" Education is the most powerful weapon which you can use to change the world"

Mandela

given or injected, meaning an education which is not in accordance to one’s existing society or nation, then that education will act hindrance in changing the society and world in general. We are all aware, through various reports from newspaper media for example; one of the daily Tanzanian news paper published reports on certain school at Monduli district in Arusha, where young secondary students most from poor families face difficulties in undertaking their studies due to lack of fees, little food to keep them attentive, learning resources with little


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experienced instructors who are also victims of the same inherited colonial education system. Although it is reported by various research scholars that, over 50 percent of Tanzanians leave under extreme poverty that makes most parents fail to meet the need for their children to school, but also the education system provided has put into effect children who are very good in cramming, little reasoning with no knowledge about their own realities. The wise say “if you think education is expensive then try ignorance,” it is true to some extent but, in most African countries like Tanzania,where the leaders had already changed the education sector to opportunity earning area thus, use the sector to have their pockets fedhence, taking no accountabilities on the problem encountered. Despite of such expensive education, as onemove from one level to the next, the system tends to filtrate those who are able financially, leaving most majority who are in extreme poverty behind. Without proper and

fair education, there will be no proper development in any society and also the ignorant will have nothing to provide to its society if the educated people who could provide them with instructions on how to do or overcome a certain tragedy will lack. The type of proper and fair education included here is that which can shape a child to fit into his or her own social-cultural norms and practice of a given society. it is a kind of education which builds a child thinking capacity,reasoning and argumentation abilities, enabling them to have a selfexpression and participations leading to well-prepared future capable leaders and citizens. There is an old common Swahili saying ‘mtoto umleavyo ndivyo akuavyo’, in English can be translated simply saying, a child grows the same way he or she is brought up, so this can likewise be in education, where by a child given improper education will simply grow lazy and incapable to coupe with its environment and society in general. It is very open today that, our continuing education system is still not much suitable in forming and shaping a Tanzanian child

to a pure patriotic and selfdeterminant to be productive and contributive to its nation for development instead, it modifies and produces more dependent, selfish and impotential mentally. The education system which is still in practice gives little opportunity to students to understand on which field he or she will expertise on, as such piles of subjects forced to carry from primary to secondary are a big load confusing students and also motivating most of them in cramming to accomplish the studies and not understanding. Tanzanian like other African countries must indeed call for new reformations on education system to make it coupe with relevance environment and favorable to African context in which will fit scholars giving them a clear understanding about themselves, their history and society in general. For one to have a better society and high standard of development in a given nation, it is very important to grant a freefavorable, proper and environmental based education which will help in bringing up people who will be able to conquer their own surrounding, challenges and exploit their own resources to the maximum for a better living within their country.


4 Mali Timbuktu

Kihistoria tulikuwa na elimu bora zaidi Ni jambo yakini kwa wanahistoria kwamba kihistoria maendeleo kati ya bara la Afrika na bara la Ulaya yalikuwa sawia mnamo karne ya 15. Maendeleo hayo ya bara la Afrika yalikuwa ni matokeo ya elimu iliyotolewa barani hapa kabla ya ujio wa wakoloni. Elimu iliyoyokuwepo wakati huo ndiyo iliyozaa tawala madhubuti kama zile za Buganda, Mwanemutapa,Oyo,Mali,Nyamwezi na Ashanti.Elimu hiyo ndiyo iliyozaa wataalamu wa kufua vyuma huko Engaruka,ndiyo iliyozaa wataalamu wa uchimbaji wa chumvi kule uvinza na ni elimu hiyohiyo ndiyo iliyosababisha kutengemaa kwa sarafu ya Kilwa ambayo inatajwa kuwa moja ya maendeleo makubwa ya kiuchumi kufikiwa na jamii za ulimwengu kwa wakati huo.Lakini kwa elimu ya sasa tuliyonayo sarafu zetu zinatoka nje ya nchi. Ilikuwa si rahisi kumkuta mwalimu anafundisha jambo lolote pasi na uzoefu nalo.Walimu waliotoa mafunzo kwa wakati huo walikuwa tayari wamebo-

bea katika kazi wanayoifundisha. Pia elimu hii ilishabihiana na mazingira ya Afika kwa wakati huo.Pale ambapo jamii ilitegemea kilimo vijana walifundishwa juu ya kilimo,na pia kwenye ufugaji,uwindaji uhunzi,ususi na ufinyazi hali kadhalika. Inaelezwa kwenye historia kwamba katika jamii ya wabemba huko Zambia mtoto wa miaka sita alikuwa na uwezo we kufahamu aina zaidi ya 60 za miti iliyokuwepo katika mazingira anamoishi na alikuwa na uwezo wa kujua na kuuelezea kila mti na kazi zake.Hii ni kwa sababu jamii hiyo ilikuwa ikitegemea sana miti kwa dawa,chakula,ujenzi na kadhalika. Elimu hii ukirejea kitabu cha profesa Innocent Onyeuwenyu elimu ya falsafa na sayansi ya uhandisi majengo iliyotolewa huko Misri ndiyo iliyopelekea kutokea kwa ujenzi we piramidi ambapo katika ulimwengu mzima ziliwahi kuwappo barani Afrika pekee na hata katika karne ya 21 sasa hakuna pengine walipoweza kuifanya sayansi hiyo. Pia ni elimu hiyohiyo iliyopelekea kugunduliwa kwa kalenda.


Kwa mifano hiyo hapo juu ni dhahiri kwamba uwiano we kimaendeleo baina ya Afrika na Ulaya uliokuwapo hapo kabla ya karne ya 15 yalikuwa ni kwa mujibu we elimu ya kiafrika iliyoktumika kabla ya ujio we wazungu katika Afrika. Na vile vile kwa kuwa pengo kati ya Ulaya na Afrika limekuja baada ya kuanzishwa kwa elimu ya kikoloni kuna kila sababu ya kurejea katika aina ya elimu iliyokuwepo awali na kuisanifu iendane na mazingira ya sasa badala ya kuendelea kutumia mfumo wa elimu uliosukwa na wakoloni kwa lengo la kuturudisha nyuma kimaendeleo Mfumo wa elimu uliokuwepo katika jamii zetu za kale zilimfanya muhitimu wa elimu ya uhunzi kuhitimu akiwa na zana alizotengeneza mwenyewe ilhali mfumo wa sasa unamfanya muhitimu wa elimu kama hiyo kuhitimu na kupata kipande cha karatasi kinachoitwa cheti.Kipande hicho kitamfanya au kumuwezesha yeye kupata ajira na sio kujiajiri. Msisitizo unaoletwa na elimu ya kikoloni upo katika cheti kuliko hata elimu yenyewe na hii husababisha kuzalisha watu wasio na ujuzi ilakwakuwa tu wanamiliki vipande vya makaratasi hivyo vinavyoitwa vyeti wanaweza kuajiriwa. Elimu ya mkoloni Kwanza kabisa ni lazima ifahamike wazi kwamba elimu hapa barani afrika haikuletwa na wakoloni.Kilicholetwa na wakoloni ni mfumo mpya wa elimu uliokuja kuchukua nafasi ya mfumo uliokuwepo awali. Malengo ya mfumo mpya huo ilikuwa ni kuandaa waafrika kwa ajili ya kutumikia wazungu katika shughuli za uzalishaji mali hapa afrika kwa manufaa ya wazungu huko ulaya.Elimu ya mkoloni ilitolewa kiubaguzi huku ikitengeneza matabaka kinzani kati ya waliosoma na wasiosoma.Watoto wa machifu ndio waliokuwa na fursa ya kwenda shule na waliandaliwa kuwa wasimamizi wa kusimamia shughuli za unyonyaji dhidi ya waafrika wenzao. Elimu ya kikoloni ilizaa matabaka,ujinga na maendeleo endelevu ya umaskini barani Afrika Afrika kwa sasa inahitaji mabadi-

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liko ya ki mfumo katika elimu Mfumo wa elimu tuliourithi kutoka kwa wakoloni una mapungufu mengi mno na unahitaji mabadiliko. Mfumo huu tuliourithi unachangia sana kuzalisha jamii ya watu wasio na uelewa juu ya mazingira yanayotuzunguka.Elimu ya sasa inayomfundisha mwanafunzi kuhusu jografia ya milima Himalaya huku ikiacha kumueleza juu ya rasilimali zinazomzunguka kama vile madini maziwa na misitu na jinsi ya kuvitumia haiwezi kuiendeleza jamii kwa vyovyote vile. Elimu ya kikoloni iliandaliwa na mabepari ambao walikuwa ni wamiliki wakubwa wa viwanda na makampuni kwa lengo la kuwaajiri na kuwatumikisha watu ndio maana uliviza sana ubunifu.Vivyo hivyo hata sasa mfumo wetu bado unaandaa watu kuajiriwa kuliko kujiajiri na hii ndiyo sababu ya kuendelea kuwa nyuma kiteknolojia na kiviwanda.Mfumo uliopo unawafanya wasomi kuamini zaidi katika kipande cha karatasi kinachoitwa cheti na kutupilia mbali maarifa ambayo ndiyo msingi na kipimo cha elimu.Kipande hichi cha karatasi ambacho ndicho kitambulisho cha msomi hakina maana nyingine zaidi ya hati ya kuombea ajira lakini kinatiliwa mkazo zaidi kuliko hata ujuzi alionao mtu juu ya taaluma yake. Kwa kuwa tuliwahi kuwa na mfumo wa elimu madhubuti na wenye kuleta maendeleo hapo kabla hata ya kuja kwa wazungu ipo haja ya kufuata mfumo wa kiafrika na kuufanya uende sanjari na mazingira pamoja na nyakati tunazoishi. Hakuna haja ya kuendelea na mfumo ambao hausawiri mazingira yetu. Kama tutaendelea hivyo tutaendelea kuyafanya maendeleo na ustawi wa jamii zetu kuwa ya wachache. Wakati tunaendelea na mchakato wa mabadiliko ya katiba hapa nchini,imetupasa pia kuanza kufikiri juu ya mabadiliko ya mfumo wa elimu.Elimu yoyote ni lazima iwe na matokeo chanya kwa jamii husika na nilazima isawiri mazingira ya jamii hiyo,kinyume na hapo hiyo haiwezi kuwa elimu.


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Our education; not focused, not determined, poorly examined

“It is the education system we have that has led many Tanzanians to know more about England and Europe at large more than how they know Tanzania and Africa at large.”

There are hundreds of reasons as to why we have to have a lot of trust in education; there are reasons why we need every one to be educated. There is education that makes someone feel really educated and there is education that makes a person to consider him/herself as educated. As time goes on, the education in Tanzania is be-

coming outdated. The syllabuses and education system at large in Tanzania are the ones that have been used since the colonial era. More than 50 years after our independence, still colonial education is the kind of education that our people in our country use and have trust in it to build a nation of intellectuals and educated personnel’s. Tracing back the his-

tory, we learn that the colonialists introduced that kind of education so that they can gain a lot of supremacy from the black natives who they were colonizing. So even after independence, still we are teaching our people in a manner that will continue giving the whites a supremacy hence we are giving them more room to come to our country and continue with


7 their exploitations since we consider them as the supreme. It is the education system we have that has led many Tanzanians to know more about England and Europe at large more than how they know Tanzania and Africa at large. This kind of education cannot be the education that will build an African who can use African knowledge and techniques to bring development for his African state. Another exploiting aim of this education is that it was set only to create employees to the colonial government. They needed to employ African to become clerks, teachers, drivers and many other simple jobs that they never saw the necessity of coming with whites to take those positions was a wastage of funds after all the Africans will be low paid comparing to the whites. Up to now, a large percentage of Tanzanian students are studying so that they can be employed in the future. It’s very often to find a student who is wishing to become a doctor, teacher or any profession that one will be employed and it is very rare to find a student who is wishing to own his company, hospital or school. This is because our education has not prepared us to be people of such thoughts. While building a house, the foundation is the most important thing for the house’s stability. That is also relevant to the educa-

tion system, the primary education that is the great foundation for anybodies education should be the best. It is where the great future of someone begins. Primary education is such an important stage of life as far as education is concerned. Unfortunately, our education has made the primary level to be seen as a stage to begin with, it has not been given the priority that it reserves to have. It is given in a manner that will build or put inspirations in one’s mind. What only is put in the students mind during primary education is to pass the std. seven exams and join secondary. This is not what this education is aimed at. There are different things that a student should be given at a small age so that he can grow up having them and them being the reason for future success. Things like creativity, entrepreneurship (though at a low level), reading habit and patriotism for the nation are the great things that one has to come out with from primary education. Even when a person only acquires primary education, he/she should be in a position of getting involved in satisfactory activities that can bring development for him/her and the nation and not only working for just a living. Secondary education is considered for people who are already grown up and have got determi-

nation. It is where a person can fully decide who he/ she should be in the future. This is where a particular profession is being built. It should be a stage of education where students have to get exposure to their future profession so that they won’t find great difficulty while in university. Unfortunately, there is a big difference between the two things; the kind of secondary education in Tanzania and the real secondary education that deserves to be in Tanzania. The one we have currently is only a stage that one has to pass so that he/ she has to reach the university. No matter the subject studied, the specialization in secondary education, the course one will study in university will be another new thing for the student. Another awkward situation in our secondary education is that students will only be getting interpretations of what they studied in primary school. In primary school, the students learn in Swahili and the same things are taught in English while in secondary school and very few additions. The real essence of these two levels of education is not considered at all. It is difficult to know what is the meaning and reason as to why we have to run this very important sector for bringing development in the country in a way that is very difficult to explain and neither can it be understood easily. Without changing the situation, apart from experi-


8 encing massive failures in our examination, we will also experience professional workers who lack professionalism. Though scholars are still debating on whether examining students is the best way to determine students’ ability or not, our situation on examination is worse. It is a normal thing to hear that the examination has leaked and a couple of schools have got the copy, here students will not study again but rather look for the paper so that they can pass. Schools, parents and students themselves are players of this dirty game that its effects can never be seen without using critical and keen eyes. Examinations can be driven in a

way that will give room to the students to show how much they have understood what they were taught and not how much they can cram a lot of note. A focused and determined education system has to make sure that it is equivalent no matter the fees. Many Tanzanians now expect better education from schools with high fees so the government automatically that is serving the large number of students is the one providing poor education. This education cannot be determined. A lot of practical studies and teaching in African context is also another way of making the education to be more focused and determined.


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A country with education that has no syllabus is reminiscent of a Dying country.

T

he Foundation of a living state is made by good assembly of its people. The construction of these people is made through shift of knowledge and skills from the previous generation to the next.

The chain of shifting Knowledge and skills from elders to their offspring’s on ways of doing certain things, values and beliefs is what we call tradition. This is typically social studies that create the basis of who we are. Unsurprisingly we start that process since childhood. In a very tender age we are being taught how to be obedient to elders and fear of God. We are being nurtured to become yeast of positive change in the society. We are also told what is bad and what is good enthusing to do good deeds. Generally this is the preparation of workforce which is a fundamental principle in creating the basis of a strong nation. Actually the workforce is the primary capital that a country should have. If a country has a millions valuable natural resources but lacks an effective native workforce, then that country will be robbed by the thugs from the world of intelligent men. Then the native majority of that country will end up blaming and cry for salvation. And the intelligent thugs will say to Hell yet God will bless them and they will steal more.

What I mean is that in order for the human being to be useful as other resources has to be utilized. And as a matter of fact to utilize

your citizens is to train and equip them with various skills so that they will become useful in different fields. Through education we can transform the populace to a useful resource that will help to foster

development of the country. However the transformation of a merely common man to become a useful resource requires an updated education system. That system should be defined by a syllabus, a course outline which is designed to create independent minds which promote curiosity and the desire to try hard. It should explain what skills a student should be

taught,


10 at what time and why students undertake a particular course of study.

We do not need to have an education system which its future is uncertain. Therefore the syllabus has to be judicious enough to produce competent alumnae whom after the completion of their studies they will go out there and put into practice what they have learnt in schools and colleges. It has to be a syllabus that makes one aware of who he has to be and what responsibility as a student he holds for the future of the country.

Policy makers have to keep in mind that there is no universal education system. That’s not possible for the countries of Different problems and different opportunities to have the same modality of solving problem. The education system applied in England or any other country in the world won’t pertain to our national needs because we share different condition and problems. Therefore we have to design in our own way an education system that will be relevant to our National needs and problems. If there is no syllabus then each of the education institution will adopt its own curriculum whether it is from UK, Kenya or Oxford, therefore government institution will have their own, private ones will have theirs. And will not just end up there, it will reach an extent that anyone with authority using his own determination decides to cancel commercial subjects and remove form two examination and no problem, then another moron senselessness will mix-up chemistry and history and we will never question him because there is no a statute to shows what should be done.

We will create an education that has no direction, an education without a national dream, that education won’t convey really what we want to achieve as a nation. It will just create a lot of graduates but not intellectuals who understand the purpose of their education, that education will create job seekers and not independent entrepreneurs. And in the final hour the country will die silently. We have to understand that our men in schools, colleges or universities abroad or here at home hold greater responsibility for the future of this country, a lot of money is spent in their education while the country forgo to pay for good electricity, sufficient water and medication only with a prospect that when these men come back they will bring change to the hardship that their fellow men had to endure for them to get education.

Julius Nyerere Once said that our scholars are just like the man who has been given all the food in a starving village in order that he may have strength to bring supplies back from a distant place. And if he takes the food and didn’t bring Help to his brothers he is a traitor.

We have a thousand graduates and still the life becomes very worse. Why our science alumnae never seen in a technological space using their skills to bring life recuperation? Aren’t they betraying our expectations over them? Are they really traitors like Julius said? I swear to you it is not them who are traitors it us who gave a senseless education. They are now roaming in streets searching for jobs and better life, we expected that they will bring solution to our problems but they are a national burden.


Elimu yetu yafaa itambue changamoto za utandawazi, na kuzikabili Ulimwengu katika karne ya 21 umekuwa na maendeleo ya kasi ya teknolojia ya habari na mawasiliano. Maendeleo haya pamoja na mafanikio yake, msomi wa kiafrika bado hajawa sehemu hasa ya maendeleo hayo na badala yake amekuwa ni mtu tu wa kupokea athari chanya au hasi zinazoletwa na maendeleo hayo. Hatujawa sehemu ya mchango wa maendeleo haya kwa sababu ambazo zimepata kuelezwa katika makala zilizopita mathalani kujikita zaidi katika nadharia, mchango mdogo katika kuhimiza ubunifu na changamoto kadha wa kadha. Mbali na hayo wasomi wetu wamejeruhiwa vikali sana na maendeleo hayo ya teknolojia katika karne hii ya 21. Mbali ya kwamba vifaa vya kisasa kwa matumizi ya taaluma ya habari na mawasiliano kama kompyuta simu na luninga tunaviagiza kutoka nje ya nchi kwa gharama kubwa bado kuna uelewa mdogo wa matumizi ya vifaa hivyo katika taaluma. Luninga zimekuwa si kwa habari tena bali tamthiliya,muziki na filamu, nyingi zikiwa za kutoka nje ya nchi hususani Marekani na Ulaya. Nyingi kati ya hizo huwa zina maudhui ya mapenzi,mauaji ama starehe. Hizi zimekuwa na mashabiki wengi mno katika taasisi zetu za elimu hususan sekondari na vyuo. Kompyuta na simu zimekuwa njia rahisi za kuisogelea dunia lakini navyo pia wasomi wetu wengi bado wamekuwa

wakivitumia ndivyo sivyo. Mitandao ya kijamii imegeuka kuwa mvinyo usioisha kichwani mithili ya opium. Imekuwa ni kileo cha ajabu kwani muda mwingi kwa wanafunzi wanapokuwa katika mtandao muda mwingi wanautumia katika mitandao ya kijamii wakati mwingine bila hata sababu za msingi. Mambo ya hovyo kama vile matusi, mizaha, picha za uchi na habari nyingine zisizo na staha ndiyo imekuwa kazi kubwa inayofanyika huko. Wimbo wa dunia kuwa kijiji umekuwa ndio wimbo wetu wa kila siku. Wanazuoni nao wanaghani beti za wimbo huo bila kuelewa kwamba kijiji hiki kimekuwa uwanja wa jando na unyago wa mila na desturi za mataifa yenye nguvu kubwa kiuchumi ulimwenguni na sisi tumebakia kuwa wapokeaji tu. Katika zama za utandawazi wenye nguvu wamebakia kuwa watoa amri na wanyonge kuwa watekelezaji. Wenye nguvu wakisema turuke tunauliza urefu gani hata kama hatukuhitaji kuruka kwa wakati huo. Tumekuwa ni watu wa kupokea kila baya na jema alimradi tumelikuta kwenye mtandao likifanywa na watu katika nchi zilizoendelea. Elimu tuliyonayo bado haijaweza kutambua changamoto zinazoikabili jamii yetu katika zama za utandawazi. Tumeshindwa pia kunadi tamaduni na mila zetu matokeo yake tumekuwa makuwadi wa mila na desturi za watu


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wengine huku tukitupilia mbali zile za kwetu. Wachina ni sisi,waarabu ni sisi, wahindi ni sisi na wazungu pia ni sisi. Tumekubali kubeba tamaduni za kila jamii hapa ulimwenguni. Kadhalika, katika elimu ya juu mtandao wa google umeathiri kwa kiasi kikubwa ile hali ya udadisi na uwezo wa kufikiri wa wanafunzi walio wengi. Google imekuwa kimbilio kwa kila swali linaloulizwa hata kama linajibika kwa kufikiri kawaida tu. Imani ya watu kwa Google ni kubwa kuliko hata ilivyo imani yao kwa vichwa vyao wenyewe. Wanafunzi wa shule zetu za awali na msingi hasa mijini mwalimu mkuu wao kwa sasa ni luninga. Luninga imechukua nafasi kubwa katika maisha ya

watoto wetu na kupelekea kutoweka kwa fasihi simulizi za kiasili ambazo ilikuwa ni desturi kusimuliana wao kwa wao baada ya kusimuliwa na wakubwa zao au kusoma huko mashuleni. Hadithi hizi zilizojaa mafunzo zimeathiriwa na katuni za akina Tommy and Jerry na Ben 10 ambazo zote zinatoka katika nchi zilizoendelea. Elimu katika zama hizi yafaa itambue changamoto za utandawazi. Zama za utandawazi ni zama ambazo kila jamii ya ulimwengu inapambana kuusambaza utamaduni wake kwa kasi kubwa iwezekanavyo. Kama hatutakuwa na elimu bora yenye kulinda utamaduni na ustawi wa kimaadili wa jamii zetu; ni mapema mno tunaweza kuangamiza ustawi wa jamii zetu.


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Elimu ni lazima iwe bora na ya bure

A

liyekuwa waziri wa mambo ya nje wa marekani Bi Hillary R o d h a m Clinton alipata kuandika kitabu chake kilichokuwa na jina” It takes a village .” Kitabu hiki kilikuwa kikielezea mchango wa jamii katika malezi ya mtoto. Kwa mujibu wa wachambuzi wa masuala ya fasihi za afrika jina hilo lilitokana na methali za makabila na jamii mbalimbali za afrika. Kwa mfano waswahili husema ‘ asiyefunzwa na mamaye hufunzwa na ulimwengu,’ wahaya nao husema

'Omwana taba womoi,' huku wajita wakiongeza 'Omwana ni wa bhone,' kwa ujumla methali hizi zote zinasisitiza mchango wa jamii kwa malezi ya mtoto. Chimbuko la msemo huu wenye asili ya jamii za kiafrika uliokuja kuwa jina la kitabu la bi Hillary Clinton ndilo lililo jenga mantiki ya hoja kwamba elimu ni lazima iwe bora na itolewe bure. T u a n z i e hapa. Kwanza kabisa kiasili mwanadamu hapa ulimwenguni anakumbana na ajali kuu tatu. Ajali ya kwanza ni kuzaliwa. Hii inamkumba kila mwanadamu

hapa ulimwenguni na inakuwa ajali kwa sababu haipangwi na kile kiumbe kinachozaliwa. Chenyewe hujikuta tu ulimwenguni bila hata kushirikishwa katika mchakato wa kutoa maamuzi ya kwamba azaliwe au la! Lini na vipi? Yote haya anakuwa hajashirikishwa. Ajali ya pili ni ya hali au mahali. Yaani binadamu baada ya kuzaliwa binadamu huweza kujikuta katika hali ama ya umaskini au utajiri, uzima wa afya, ugonjwa au ulemavu urefu, ufupi, unene au wembamba. Na ajali ya tatu ni ajali ya mahali. Mtu


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“Binadamu anahitaji maarifa ili aishi. Maarifa hayo huja kupitia elimu.� hapangi kuzaliwa mahali popote pale bali hujikuta tu; ana uraia we nchi Fulani au kabila Fulani ndiko anakotoka. Aidha kutokana na ukweli kwamba mwanadamu huzaliwa akiwa huzaliwa akiwa huru kama matamko na katiba zote zinazoamini katika misingi ya haki za binadamu zinavyoainisha. Na kwa kuwa kuzaliwa huko ni ajali kwa kiumbe kiumbe huyo ni jukumu la jamii nzima kumlea na kumtunza mtu huyo. Mwanadamu tofauti na ndege hana uwezo wa kupaa kwa sababu hana mabawa. Tofauti na nungunungu hana uwezo wa kurusha miiba ili kujilinda. Tofauti na samaki yeye pia hawezi kuishi majini kwa kuwa hana uwezo wa samaki kufanya hivyo. B i n a d a m u anahitaji maarifa ili aishi. Maarifa hayo huja kupitia elimu. Elimu ndiyo inayomwezesha mwanadamu kukabili hali zote zinazomzunguka katika mazingira yake aliyoyakuta hapa duniani. Hakuna silaha nyingine kwa mtu huyu isipokuwa elimu. Hii ndiyo zana pekee inayoweza kumfikirisha mtu kwa usahihi na hata kumpa majibu ya maswali

yanayomsumbua Ikiwa elimu ndiyo nyenzo pekee inayomwezesha mwanadamu kuyakabili mazingira, na ikiwa mwanadamu huyo hujikuta akikabiliana na mazingira bila ya yeye kupanga au kupenda, elimu hii yafaa itolewe bure. Ni jukumu la jamii yoyote iliyostaarabika kutengeneza mazingira kwa wanadamu wote wanaozaliwa katika jamii hizo kupata elimu bora itakayowawezesha kukabiliana na mazingira wanayoishi. Na kwa kuwa maarifa ni hitaji la msingi liwezalo kumpatia mwanadamu mahitaji yote muhimu yaani chakula bora , malazi bora na pia makazi bora ni lazima itolewe bure. Si haki hata kidogo kumuuzia mtu elimu ilhali ndiyo silaha ya kumfanya aishi vyema hapa duniani ambapo amekuja kwa bahati mbaya pasipo ridhaa yake. Ni jukumu la jamii na tawala za ulimwengu kumpa mtu elimu. Jukumu hili haifai kuachiwa mtu huyo peke yake kwa kuwa yeye huzaliwa bila mali wala fedha hivyo kama ikiwa inatolewa kwa malipo kamwe hawezi kumudu gharama hizo. Vilevile si jukumu la wazazi

peke yao kumwelimisha mtu huyu kwa sababu hata wakimwacha ama kumtelekeza mateso huwa kwa kiumbe huyo na si kwa wazazi wake ama mtu mwingine yeyote. Nasisitiza kwamba si jukumu la wazazi pekee kwa sababu mtu huyu anapopata njaa au maumivu yatakwenda moja kwa moja kwa mtu huyo na kamwe hayawezi kwenda kwa wazazi wake. Kushindwa kwa mtu huyo katika ulimwengu kutamsababisha kutaabika yeye peke yake sio wazazi wala jamaa zake. Hivyo basi jamii yetu yafaa ifuate imani hii ya kistaarabu kwa vitendo. Jukumu la jamii iliyostaarabika na yenye kujali utu wa mtu ni lazima itoe huduma muhimu kwa kila mwanadamu ikiwa bora. Pia huduma hii ni lazima iwe ya bure. Hillary Clinton alikazia kwa kitabu chake It takes a village to raise a child huku waswahili wakihimiza kwamba Asiyefunzwa na mamaye hufunzwa na ulimwengu na hii ni baada ya wahaya kusema 'Omwana taba womoi,' ilhali wajita wakisisitiza kwa kusema 'Omwana ni wa bhone,'. Ni kweli jukumu la elimu kwa mwanadamu yeyote ni la jamii nzima.


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Despite of Uncondusive Environment,Tanzanian Children Still Suffer ‘Inherited Sparks’ From Colonial-education Tanzania, as said to be one among the peaceful and democratic African countries attained its independence for over 50 years now, and recently, it celebrates its anniversary 26th of April every year to congratulate itself and its people and see how far they have step foward. During this time many citizens around the country most of them being farmers and workers find themselves in a trap discusing and analysing as to what extent has the government proceed in developing social-economic and political matters either direct or indirect with its people, as far as the father of nation wished it could be, if at all he was alive todate. The late Mwalimu Julius Nyerere, commonly known as the founder of ujamaa andselfreliancepolicy as the major goal to proggressive attain of our lost identity,reality of our personality,solidaritywhich currently exists through the shadows of what is so known in Swahili as ‘ubeberu’ meaning capitalism whose character represents the exploiting class through the state power. In a socialist state,capitalism is a much strange allien in its surroundings, multiplying a class of haves and have not, employed and unemployed, educated and uneducated together with literates and ignorants which then leads to vast confrotations within the state. Tanzania being one among the socialists state, has digested itself within such strange allien system with its political allies who have bound themselves into capitalists interests, leading to commercializing of the granted ‘free education’by J.k.Nyererefrom primary,secondary to higher learnings

hence, one has to pay for, inorder to gain knowledge. Ubeberu which was an ideology practiced in north white surroundings had not only operate during the colonial ero, but also the root remains of such system was inherited to the countries including Tanzania which was under mandate by the time to archieve independence. This ‘inherited sparks’ of ubeberu experienced in various aspects but, education being a tangible room experincing such a system is used to mould and shape certain people who could help in running the colonial administrations, and even after independence, the system continued generating a good number of people whose mind attitudes are twisted to job seeking rather than self employment,foreing culture immitating and ways of living rather than African,selfish acts rather thansocial being,dependant rather than self-relying and innovative. Most primary children in the country today, inspite of unfavourable learning environment, still the government has not put into account the reformation of the type of education serviced to the primary and secondary students.

You may come across a primary standard seven student with a pile of about thirteen(13) to fourteen(14), different subjects, and he or she is only thirteen to fourteen years old of age and is supposed to learn, understand and pass the exam for further higher learning. One might ask if this can be possible, yes,


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“inspite of unfavourable learning environment, still the government

has not yet put into accounts the reformation on education system serviced to the primary and secondary students� to Tanzanian students is very possible for them to undertake such a pile of subjects through a good mind capacity to cram, memorize to answer the examination without understanding the subjects leading to an output of people who know less to read and write. Yes. I say this because in a recent survey done in Tanzania found that, 50% of seventh grade pupils could not read English which is the language of secondary education, 20% could not read kiswahili clearly as their national language and 30% could not multiply or were not able to solve multiplication as math subject. Much blame were to teachers who were not only claimed to have spent little time teaching but often had poor maths and language skills themselves. The system of primary education seem not to favor or suit the children seens it is more of learning without doing rather than understanding which could help

build a childs level of reasoning and thought despite of measuring ones capacity through examinations only. For the goals of Azimio towards education could not measure a childs ability and responsibility through exams itself. The education for self reliance was an important policy for Nrerere as it could mould and shape children in primary to be self relying, self innovative andshowed way on how to overcome poverty through practical works such as direct involvment in farm production to produce sustainable food for them and their schools so as it can stand and rely on its own. This veryfirst level of education,which is the very early stage in forming the basic knowledge of a child in primary, must then be taken to considerations as it is the important stage in the learning of a child after the family care where they learn to live with their society, sharing experience with others hence, overcome his or her environment.


"360째" 18

ASA


lyrics by Asa "360째" We don't have to go the 360 degrees, Now it's time to go the 180 You don't have to climb The highest mountain For all you're looking for Is within you Open the eyes of your mind Your ears and mouth As I sing my song Open the eyes of your mind Your ears and mouth As you hear my words ooo Pa ra ra n pa n pa ra re I'll be waiting I'll be We still live in yesterday Many today they waste away But never the less it's never late o See the times have changed

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I thought you knew That this world, will Never ever wait for you The world has gone past times of fighting So drop your guns and your swords And let us live all as one We all need love and understanding So drop your guns and your swords And let us live all as one hohoo Pa ra ra n pa n pa ra re I'll be waiting I'll be Every nation across the ocean It's more than just our colours We all need one another Every people, where ever you be It's more than just our colours We all need one another


FOCUS ON

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Media should bring positive changes to the society One of the most important factors for the development in a country at any sector being economic, social, moral or even political development is media. Media is the only place where people will get informed about any matter occurring in a nation, media is the only place where you will find the real trust from people about any other matter or event. Since the media is one of the most trusted and important, it high time we make our media relevant to the society that is the audience of the particular media. Instead of promoting and improving our ethics and morals, the media has been the agent of destroying our ethics. In-

stead of watching to a certain television so that you get more knowledge about important matters, what we gain from our media is knowledge on unethical issues that can never be helpful at any kind in any aspect that is developmental to our lives. One day I was speaking to a very young uncle of mine and he asked me a very important question that I realized how dangerous the unethical matters in our media are. The little boy was asking about a very famous radio station in Tanzania that he termed as the elders radio because of matters that never concern them are spoken there and still termed as the leading radio station in Tanzania. He asked, “Do you know


21 what to do to be hooligan? I replied to him that if you don’t go to school. His next statement was even if you study hard but always listen to that radio what you will end up to be is a hooligan. The confusion that comes around is that if even young people can realize the unethical things in the media then where are the media experts in those media stations? The media experts definitely must be there but the question is why are they failing to control the media to do something that is very important to the development of the society? At times we speak with different people about this issue but many of them come with the saying that ‘society get the media they deserve’. This might be true but it is true that the media has got the largest opportunity to create a society of there kind. If our society is a society that needs all those kinds of matters then we should make the society change. If we continue giving them what they deserve then are going to bring the kind of development that we are thinking the media can create? Am not that much against that saying but at times it doesn’t work. There are societies that really need to be changed and before any other kind of change to occur by any group of people, the media should be ready to bring the change. So if we remain providing what the societies deserves it will reach times when we will project pornography because now we are speaking things related to that so soon we shall show.

In EATV on of the most liked TV stations in Tanzania and East Africa at large is possibly the most liked TV station by youths in East Africa. It would be the best idea if we use this opportunity to make the youths to be more patriotic and have more love for their nation, East Africa and Africa at large. If we can use this opportunity to do that it would be the best idea instead of giving what they deserve. Because giving them what they deserve we shall never create a great future generation. I once had a chance to watch a Monday program in EATV called Mkasi. The presenter asked the guest who is one of the very famous artists in Tanzania. The presenter asked the man when did he last have sex with a lady then the man confidently answered that it was the last night. The next question was did he use condoms? The guy came back with no shame and he said NO. What are creating to the people who trust and like to be like this artist? Is this what music fans deserve? The media should not be a place to ruin celebrities’ reputation and neither should it be a place to create a big difference between certain people and others, something that is not good to be done by a media that is objective to the society. On the side of newspapers the situation is very dangerous, because there is a kind of newspaper that have been given the name of the magazeti pendwa (loved newspapers) these have the newspapers that are


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only looking for nasty events that in one way or another portray sexual matters, matters that never bring any kind of development in our society but rather destruction. It cant be denied that they are the best selling newspapers in Tanzania but are we judging the effects towards the society due to the high selling and increase of the tabloid newspapers. I always think of the future most of the times, the time where today’s children will become the youths the times where we will be having a group of youths who have grew up in a situation where what they read most in newspapers is tabloid and what they here and watch in most of the broadcasting station is things that are never ethical for there welfare and for the benefit of the society. The responsible people should put this into consideration because it might be seen as a very minor thing for the time being but this thing will bring a very big effect to the society because this is what the upcoming generation will fall at. The media council of Tanzania (MCT) and the Information Service Department “ Habari Maelezo” are media regulatory organization for the media in Tanzania so what are they up to this unethical matters that our media are doing? Are they aware of the situation that we are in? It is high time that they do something for the benefit of the society and our nation at large. By doing so we shall have a very big opportunity to cre-

ate a society with one of the best morals ever. In other countries, Uganda for example, sensational newspapers have got age limits. People under the age of 18 are never allowed to read those newspapers but for our country this isn’t considered. This is the largest effect if we are giving even young children opportunity to read things that are not of any benefit to them. If we can only restrict even the age we shall have done a very great stage because we have put our young generation away from stuffs that end of the day manipulate their minds. Media practitioners and all other people related to the media field, we have to look at this matter in a very keen eye because if we leave it we are digging a big hole where we will all fall in and at last we will be seen as a nation that doesn’t even consider media ethics. Tanzania is a country that there comes the president of the world’s conference for journalists Mr. Kajubi Mukajanga who is also currently the general secretary of MCT. This is a very big reason as to why we have to judge our media and ethics specifically. It’s high time we do changes for the benefit of the coming generation in our nation and for the great standing for the media industry in Tanzania where we have to have one of the success media as far as media for development is concerned.


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Colonization of information in Tanzania TV broadcasting Since the establishment of multiple media under broadcasting act of 1993 under the so called National Broadcasting Services now TCRA several number of broadcasting media has been formed. From one state owned radio station in 1991 the data shows that in Tanzania up to 2009 there were 68 registered radio stations and 28 television cables the establishment and the increasing of this broadcasting media in the country is the first step towards media development even though there are several challenges these media in Tanzania. One of the big challenge is the situation where by since the establishment of multiple media broadcasting in Tanzania at 1993 now is about 20 years broadcasting in Tanzania still programs and information from abroad particularly western world. If you take an example in 5 big television stations in Tanzania like TBC, ITV, Channel ten, Star TV and Capital TV no one has reached at least 80% of airing local programs. According to Kilimwiko 2009 the own-

ers of these local stations argue that it would not make commercial sense to make local programs while they can get better quality via satellite for free. This what the media owners argue about the phenomenon. But the question here is, is this kind of broadcasting that the Tanzanians want? Is it the reason for broadcasting act of 1993 that to own a TV station at Ilemela District but to air programs from Berlin Germany the programs prepared special for Germans according to their environment, culture and social economical situation? Or was the 1993 act aimed at having the TV station in Kinondoni and show the programs about how life goes in Miami, Brooklyn and Texas than Dar es Salaam or Arusha? If not why this is too much in our local TV stations for many years now? MCT and TCRA now must have the principles to handle this situation because it is very unfair to the audience and it lead to the destruction of culture and underdevelopment of our media industry in Tanzania. Our local media which are respon-

“When CNN air the story about the increasing of price of burger in a certain supermarket somewhere in New York how is it relevant to the people of Luchelele, Mkolani, Sikonge or Sumbawanga.�


24 sible to give the people accurate information about different things happen in the community they still depend to get information and free programs from abroad especially western world. This is the reason to head this article by the name of “colonization of information in Tanzania Broadcasting” because for years now our media are not yet independent. For example in TBC1 which is claimed as the independent public services CCTV and RT are the ones who dominate news programs than TBC1 itself. How this national

permarket somewhere in New York how is it relevant to the people of Luchelele, Mkolani, Sikonge or Sumbawanga. Our broadcasting media depends western media even for the stories about things happened in Africa. For example when you watch international news in our local televisions you may see TBC1 take the story about Al-shabaab of Somalia from RT or CCTV and ITV will do the same from CNN or BBC. They are doing so and forget that western media always promote western culture and they display nothing good about Africa but

television use much news programs from abroad. Films and soap operas in this public media most of them are in English language while the public are the Swahili speakers and they are the ones who pay taxes for run this television. This is not fair. TBC1 is like an instrument to promote foreign culture, for example in TBC1 now there is a Chinese drama go by the name of “Mau dodo na wakwe zake” which was written by Chinese special for the Chinese but now translated in Swahili and aired by TBC1 every Monday, Tuesday and Wednesday. Is it relevant to our environment and culture? When CNN air the story about the increasing of price of burger in a certain su-

savages. Africa to the western media is a hopeless Dark Continent where people go hungry and bad people run government. A lot of propaganda has been used by western media to under grade Africans heroes since those days of Lumumba, Malcom X and now Mugabe and Gadhafi. Due to these negative images about Africa on western media some Africans believe that they can’t do anything good in their continent because it is like the cursed one and those from out of the continent scare to came in Africa and if they come they don’t fill like be at home. This is because western media in association with our local African media like TBC1, ITV and Channel ten shows that in Africa there is nothing but


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hunger diseases and violence. Now Tanzania is so multicultural country because our media display much soaps from Philippines, U.S, China, and South America. Cartoons for our children are from western world. Music which gets much air time in our radios and televisions is Hip Hop, pop and R n B from USA and movies are from Hollywood (USA), Bollywood (India) and Nollywood (Nigeria) This domination of information from western world affects local people mentally and culturally so much. We give too much praises and credibility to the western culture. Today in Tanzania people give much attention to FA cup and UEFA than they do in Vodacom league or CECAFA. Global publisher company which is the local media house in Tanzania they run competition go by the name of “vaa, cheza na imba kama Rihana “and the winner will get 10,000,000 Tanzanian shilling. They emphasize to dress, dance, and sing like an American musician known as Rihana and for those who knows how this Rihana dress, dance and what she sing will understand how we use money and power to destruct our ethics. See how we give credibility to western culture and

this is because our media depend and display much from western world. Journalists suffer for unemployment because the local programs which will be aired by them get no air time in our local media and they are abandoned by the media owners. If a program of 1 hour can be produced by the team of 15 people how much people loose jobs in every hour when programs from abroad is on air and how many will get jobs if we localize our programs? We want free media to display our own programs, events, news and entertainment. People are tired to watch programs which are irrelevant to their environment and culture. The ministry of information and other instruments like MCT and TCRA must do something to stop this phenomenon. People don’t want to hear stories about California, London, Paris or Moscow they don’t want see or hear about Rihana, Lady Gaga or Jay Z. They want to see and hear much about our political situation, they want to hear much about agriculture, development, unity, love, health, and prosperity of our society but what do the local media feed them? We need changes now.


26

PERUZI VITABUNI

Albeit Chinualumogu Achebe


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Moja ya mambo makubwa yanayoifanya kazi ya sanaa kuwa bora na ya kipekee ni ile hali ya kazi hiyo kuweza kudumu na kwenda na nyakati kwa vizazi na vizazi. Hiyo ni moja ya tabia ya kazi nyingi za mwandishi nguli na gwiji wa fasihi za afrika hayati Albeit Chinualumogu Achebe. Kwa kuzitazama na kuchambua kazi zake za awali sana ambazo ni riwaya maarufu ulimwenguni ya Things Fall apart iliyopata kuandikwa kwa mara ya kwanza mnamo mwaka 1958 na ile ya A man of the people iliyopata kuandikwa mwaka 1966 ni dhahiri kwamba pamoja na kupita muda wa takribani nusu karne sasa kazi hizo bado zinasawiri maisha halisi ya sasa. Kwa kuanza na things fall apart riwaya ambayo ilichambua kwa undani maisha ya bara la afrika baada ya ujio wa wakoloni kuna mengi ya kujifunza. Achebe hapa anaichora jamii yaw a igbo ambalo ni moja ya makabila maarufu huko afrika magharibi. Jamii hii baada ya ujio wa wakoloni(wazungu) ilijikuta katika mmomonyoko mkubwa wa kiutamaduni. Hii ilikuja mara baada ya jamii hiyo ya kiafrika kuamua kutupilia mbali mila na desturi zake na kuamua kuzikumbatia zile za wakoloni. Muhusika mkuu Shujaa wa riwaya hiyo ambaye pia ni muhusika mkuu anaingia katika mgogoro mkubwa na jamii yake yaw a igbo hata kujikuta akikumbana na misukosuko ikiwemo kupelekwa uhamishoni na baada ya hukumu hiyo kujikuta anazidisha uhasama na wakoloni na vibaraka wao. Ni katika hali hiyo ndipo Okwonko alipofikia hatua ya kuamua kujinyonga mwenyewe kuliko kufia kwenye mikono

ya wakoloni. Riwaya hii bado inasawiri maisha ya jamii nyingi barani Afrika hata sasa. Ni katika jamii za Afrika ya leo bado tunashuhudia utumwa wa kifikra ulioachwa na wakoloni katika bongo zetu. Katika zama za leo bado tunashuhudia watu wetu wakiendelea kuhusudu mila na desturi za wakoloni kuanzia kwenye mavazi,tabia na mitindo ya maisha. Kuhusdu ama kuiga hayo ni kuendelea kuwa makuwadi wa ukoloni. Mambo haya ambayo jamii yaw a umofia huko afrika magharibi walikuwa wakiyapokea na hatimaye kujikuta wameshafungwa minyororo na kuwekwa chini ya ukoloni,bado yamekuwa ni tafsiri ya kwenda na wakati katika afrika ya leo Hii inamaana kuwa jamii zetu mpaka sasa bado zinashindwa kujifunza kupitia historia. Mambo ya mila na desturi za kimagharibi ambazo akina okwonko walizikataa hata kuamua kuasi na kuyagharimu maisha yao ili kuyapinga,sisi tumekuwa tukiyatafuta kwa gharama yoyote ili tufanane na wazungu Mbali na hayo,woga na usaliti katika mapambano kama ulivyoonekana katika riwaya hii pale ambapo okwonko anapojaribu kuwashawishi watu wa jamii yake kuungana ili kupambana na wavamizi watu wanaonekana kusuasua ama kukosa ujasiri wa kufanya hivyo. Hili pia ni tatizo mojawapo la jamii nyingi zinazonyanyaswa. Woga wa watu kupinga unyonyaji au unyanyasaji ni jambo ambalo lipo hata sasa. Katika jamii nyingi za afrika hata katika karne ya 21 bado watu wameshindwa kukemea maovu kama vile uharibifu wa mazingira,rushwa na ufisadi,wizi au kufichua maovu kwa hofu


28 kwamba wanaweza kudhuriwa na watenda maovu. Kwa mantiki hiyo tunatambua fika kwamba riwaya ya things fall apart bado inayo nafasi kubwa ya kutufunza sisi waafrika hata katika karne hii. Tunahitaji kujifunza mengi juu ya umuhimu wa kuhifadhi na kuenzi mila na desturi zilizo sahihi badala ya kuhusudu na kuzitukuza za watu wengine ilhali hazisawiri hali halisi na mazingira yetu. Riwaya hii bado inahitajika ili kuweza kutufunza kwamba uchapaji kazi huleta heshima na uvivu huleta fedheha. Pia kusimamia jambo sahihi hata kama jambo hilo halitapendwa na wengi wakiwemo ndugu ama jamaa zako. Lakini si riwaya hiyo tu. Katika riwaya nyingine ya mwandishi chinua achebe inayokwenda kwa jina la a man of the people mwandishi bado anaichora jamii ya leo katika muktadha wake. Hapa tunaona maisha ya msomi na mwanaharakati Odili Samalu akiwa katika mgogoro mkubwa na mwanasiasa na waziri wa utamaduni ambaye pia alikuwa mwalimu wake(Odli) aliyejulikana kama chief Nanga. Wakati odili anawakilisha kizazi kipya na kinachohitaji mapinduzi Chief Nanga yeye anawakilisha wanasiasa wakongwe wasioamini katika mabadiliko ila

rushwa,ufisadi,ubadhirifu na utovu wa maadili na nidhamu katika jamii. Baada ya mwalimu Odili kupata mwaliko wa kumtembelea mwalimu wake wa zamani ambaye tayari ni waziri mheshimiwa Chief Nanga anapata mshtuko ulioambatana na funzo ndni yake. Odili anashtuka kuona jinsi viongozi wanavyoishi maisha ya hali ya juu kwa kufuja mali ya umma ilhali wananchi walipa kodi wanaishi katika hali ya umaskini usiomithilika. Mali hizo na utajiri huo ndiyo uliomvutia aliyekuwa mchumba wa Odili Elsie hata kuamua kufanya tendo la ndoa na Chief Nanga. Mgogoro huu unapelekea kuibuka kwa upinzani mkubwa kati ya odili na chief Nanga na hatimae vuguvugu la mageuzi kuanza. Imani za kishirikina Mbali ya kuwa na tabia hizo mbovu na zisizofaa kuigwa katika jamii bado Chief Nanga alijulikana kama A man of the people. Hata leo hii bado tunao watawala dhalimu ambao wanajilimbikizia mali kwa jasho la wananchi lakini bado hujiita ama huitwa watu wa watu. Hii ni tabia inayotokana na unafiki woga na ujinga unaofanywa na tabaka la chini dhidi ya lile la juu. Pamoja na maandiko hayo kuwa na miaka takribani 50 ama zaidi, bado Afrika inamengi ya kujifunza kupitia vitabu hivyo. Katika zama hizi ufisadi rushwa na mmomonyoko wa maadili ni changamoto kubwa kwa kizazi hiki. Ukoloni mamboleo,utumwa wa kifikra na kudharaulika ama kutupiliwa mbali kwa misingi ya mila na tamaduni zetu kama waafrika ni changamoto ya karne ya bara la afrika Kwa mantiki hiyo basi, yafaa kusoma na kujifunza tena na tena kupitia riwaya hizi murua za mwalimu Achebe. Kazi hizi zinaishi na kutoa mafunzo sahihi yenye majibu ya changamoto zinazoendelea kulikabli bara letu kwa sasa. Wanamapinduzi tunaamini kwamba Yule mtu aitwaye Albert Chinualumogu Achebe ni kweli amefariki dunia lakini Yule mwandishi aitwaye Albert Chinualumogu bado yu hai na ataishi milele.


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UCHUMI WETU

Katika kipindi ambacho jamii imekuwa ikishuhudia nchi mbalimbali zikifanya jitihada za kukuza uchumi wake ni muhimu kwa jamii kuelewa nini maana ya ukuaji wa kiuchumi na nini ni maana ya maendeleo ya kiuchumi. Kukua kwa uchumi ni jambo moja na maendeleo ya kiuchumi ni jambo lingine.

Ukuaji wa kiuchumi na maendeleo ya kiuchumi


Ukuaji wa kiuchumi humaanisha ukuaji wa pato la taifa (GDP) na hii inapelekewa na kuongezeka kwa uzalishaji wa taifa. Ukuaji wa uchumi Tanzania kwa wastani ni asilimia 6. Kama ilivyo Tanzania nchi nyingine pia zimekuwa zikiangalia sana ukuaji wa kiuchumi kuliko maendeleo ya kiuchumi. Ukuaji wa kiuchumi unachangiwa sana na uongezekaji wa uwekezaji ambapo uwekezaji unongeza uzalishaji. Kwa upande wa Tanzania uwekezaji kutoka nje umeongezeka na kufikia asilimia 97 mwaka 2011/2012. Ukuaji wa kiuchumi pia unaangalia zaidi katika sekta kuu za uzalishaji kwa kuangalia maendeleo yake ya ukuaji wa sekta hizo. Tanzania sekta ya kilimo inaajiri Idadi ya watu asilimia 75 kwa mwaka 2010 ukuaji wa sekta ya kilimo ulikuwa asilimia 4.2 na ukashuka mwaka 2011 mpaka asilimia 3.6. Na uchangiaji wa sekta ya kilimo na ufugaji katika pato la taifa umeshuka kutoka asilimia 24.1 mwaka 2010 mpaka asilimia 23.7 mwaka 2011. Ukuaji wa sekta ya uvuvi umepungua kutoka asilimia 1.5 mwaka 2010 mpaka asilimia 1.2 mwaka 2011. Ukuaji wa sekta

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ya viwanda umepungua pia kutoka asilimia 8.2 mwaka 2010 mpaka asilimia 6.9 mwaka 2011 na uchangiaji wa sekta ya viwanda katika pato la taifa umekua kwa asilimia 0.3 tu kutoka asilimia 22.4 mwaka 2010 mpaka asilimia 22.7 mwaka 2011. Ukuaji wa Sekta ya manufacturing imepungua kutoka asilimia 7.9 mwaka 2010 mpaka 7.8 mwaka 2011. Sekta ya nishati imepungua kutoka asilimia 10.2 mwaka 2010 hadi asilimia 1.5 mwaka 2011. Sekta ya usambazaji wa maji ukuaji wake ni asilimia 4.0 mwaka 2011 ukilinganisha na ukuaji wake mwaka 2010 ambao ulikua ni asilimia 6.3. sekta ya biashara ukuaji wake ni asilimia 8.1 mwaka 2011 ukilinganisha na aslimia 8.2 mwaka 2010. Ukuaji wa sekta ya elimu ni asilimia 7.4 mwaka 2011 na kwa mwaka 2010 ilikuwa ni asilimia 7.3 hivyo kuna ongezeko la asilimia 0.1 tu katika sekta ya elimu. sekta ya afya ukuaji wajke ni asilimia 5.4 mwaka 2011 ukilinganisha na 6.9 mwaka 2010 ukuaji wa sekta ya mawasiliano ulikua ni 22.1 mwaka 2010 na mwaka 2011 ulikua ni 19.0. Ifuatayo ni grafu inayoonyesha ukuaji


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wa sekta zilizotajwa hapo juu

UKUAJI WA ZA KIUCHUMI 2010/2011

SHUGHULI TANZANIA

Kwa upande mwingine tunaposema maendeleo ya kiuchumi tunamaanisha hali ya maisha ya wananchi katika nchi husika.tunapoongelea maendeleo ya kiuchumi upimwaji wake unaangaliwa kwa watu je watu wana maisha bora na ni vipi pato la taifa linagawanywa miongoni mwa watu. Hivyo maendeleo ya kiuchumi ya naangalia hali ya maisha ya watu je ni bora au sio bora na ni Idadi ngapi ya watu wana maisha bora . Tanzania ni kati ya nchi ambazo hazijaelekeza sana juhudi zake katika kuleta maendeleo ya kiuchumi yaani maisha bora kwa wananchi wake. Kwa Tanzania ukosefu wa ajira mwaka 2008/9 ulikuwa ni asilimia 2.5 na mwaka 2010/2011 ukosefu wa ajira uliongezeka hadi asilimia 3.5 . ukosefu wa ajira ulikua mkubwa Dar es salaam na hasa kwa vijana. Na wakulima wengi wa Tanzania, asilimia 85 wanamiliki mashamba chini ya heka nne hivyo uzalishaji wao ni mdogo. Na pia ajira kwa watoto wenye umri kati ya miaka 5 na 14 imeongezeka kutoka asilimia 14 mwaka 2008/09 na kufikia asilimia 25 mwaka 2010/2011 nba pia asilimia 96 ya watanzania wanategemea nishati ya kuni na mkaa. Na pia ukuaji wa kipato kwa mwananchi umekuwa ni wa asilimia 12 tu kwa mwaka. Mfumuko wa bei umeongezeka kufikia asilimia 18.7 mwaka

2012 ukilinganisha na asilimia 8.6 mwaka 2011. Mfumuko wa bei wa chakula ni asilimia 24.7, aprili 2012 wakati aprili 2011 ulikua ni asilimia 9.2 hivyo ni ongezeko la asilimia 15.5. na mfumuko wa bei katika nishati umeongezeka kutoka asilimia 22.1 mwezi wa nne 2011 hadi asilimia 24.9 mwezi wan ne mwaka 2012. Thamani ya shillingi imeshuka ambapo mwaka 2010 dola moja ya kimarekani ilikuwa sawa na shilingi 1,432/= na mwaka 2011 dola moja ilikua sawa na shilingi 1,579/= na mwaka 2012 ilikuwa shilingi 1600. Pia deni la taifa limeongezeka kutoka shilingi bil 17, 578.9 mwaka 2012 na kufikia shilingi bilioni 20,276.6 mwaka 2012. Na pia sekta ya afya ukuaji wake umeshuka. Hivyo haya matatizo yanayoikumba Tanzania yanaonyesha kwamba maisha kila siku gharama yake zinapanda na hivyo kupelekea umasikini kuongezeka na wakati ukuaji wa kiuchumi unakua kwa wastani wa asilimia sita. Je nini kifanyike? Ni wakati wa Tanzania kutambua kwamba ukuaji wa kiuchumi upimwe kwa kuangalia maisha ya watu yanaendeleaje hasa kuhusu mambo ya muhimu hasa afya, malazi, makazi na elimu. na ni lazima tuhakikishe tunapunguza utegemezi kutoka nje kwani deni la taifa linazidi kukua. Ni lazima pia kila mwananchi afanye kazi kwa bidii kwa ajili ya taifa lake la Tanzania ili tuweze kupata maendeleo ya kiuchumi na sio ukuaji wa kiuchumi tu. Pia serikali ni lazima ipendekeze na kufanyia kazi sera zitakaazoleta manufaa kwa jamii nzima na kuondokana na umasikini


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OUR ENVIRONMENT


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Environmental sustainability depends on us, lets do something Environments and living things are two different things with the connection as they do share and use each other presence to sustain their time-being. The emission of gas or air (Carbon dioxide) by living things at daytime helps the trees and most of plants to survive as they take in for growth and production. Most plants emit oxygen; produce fruits, used as building materials and many others as benefits to living things in return tends to put more emphasis on the connection available between the two. However, living things especially human beings are so intelligent as they discover and invent more fuel-based power plants, planes, coal, road vehicles and other machines for making work easier. Cars, planes, motor cycles, and other fuel burning devices does emit Nitrogen Oxides, for instance Nitrogen dioxide(NO2) and Nitric oxide when are burned at a high temperature. Nitrogen oxides can be emitted by factories and

companies that manufacture explosives most being chemicals. When the trees also produce and give out isoprene, a molecule that is plentiful of air and protects leaves from being damaged by oxygen and temperature changes. Contrary to that, this substance also contributes to particulate matter: particles of air pollution that are small enough to get lodged in lungs and can result in asthma and lung cancer, and also damage to other tissues. And also there is damage to environments. But this isoprene damages human health and environment when exposed to the sun as it alters its chemical structure and reacts with man-made nitrogen oxides to produce particulate matter. So isoprene evolved to protect trees and plants, but because of the presence of nitrogen oxides, it is involved in producing this negative effect on human health and environment. Therefore as human beings need


34 plants and trees in their environment to have better health and usage of such natural gifted things, then there is no need to cut down trees to reduce production of isoprene. The human beings needs to reduce the usage of man-made emissions of gases that react with isoprene in endangering the human health and environments as it will cut down the production of fine particulate matter There is much need for the environmental agencies and regulations start to notice how plants and trees can help in endangering human health and destroy environments. What should be done now is that there should be reduction of nitrogen oxides either by factories or road vehicles for the benefit of living things. The importance and relationship of plants and trees to human beings is set to be compromised by they are the ones producing nitrogen oxides emission devices which tends to produce dangerous particles in health and environment. So the life lies on our hands as either to reduce emission of nitrogen gas to have

a long life span and also enjoy the fruits, medicines productions (herbal), fresh air and many others or keep grabbing the technological aspects which will lead to more emission of nitrogen oxides and so destroy our own health and environments. The better tomorrow lies in the hands of human beings as they have the ability to control well their environments and create the sustainability in all living things. Human being needs environments more than it needs them in preservation. The ability to think and invent more technologies given to human beings has to have the solutions and preventive measures rather than just using it for commercial only. Plants and trees will help in the future if used well and by protective ways then this must be a lesson as the labor force of the nation or society needs healthy people for more productions and so better life. Everyone is responsible for his/her own health so it must start with individuals before the government comes to solve it as a nation; nobody wants to dig his/her own grave.


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AFRICAN AWARENESS

Africa is power, Black is pride After reading much and understanding deeply about the real history of Africa, I can now say that there is no place like Africa in this world. There is no place that one can be very proud of to come from than Africa. Africa has got the best ever History that if you only study the History that is from western countries you can never come to the correct understanding because it is not the true history of Africa. It is a History that will end up making you have a negative attitude towards Africa and make you never believe that Africa has got the best ever History. There are very many facts about Africa that have been hidden and are not put in to African syllabuses so that African students can learn the truth about Africa. Africans have the right to know the real true History about their continent and understand the real reality about Africa. Syllabuses concerning Africa cannot logically be taken from western countries since they cannot bring the real thing that we deserve as Africans to know about Africa. Prof. Issa Shivji, one of the great scholars in Africa once said that history cannot

be re-made, but it can be re-learnt and also reread. What the western countries are trying to do is to re-make the History and include a lot of manipulation that at the end of the day will make Africa to be considered as a continent that has always been back since times and times. In the world, there is something known as race. Meaning that different races in the world are in a race, so every race is struggling to be the first in the race. This makes every race to struggle for its own race. That’s why you can see the whites are much against the Chinese and Koreans because up to the particular time they are seeing as if they are soon getting closer to them. All these kinds of things that are being done are for the sake of making Africa to loose in the race that is going on. That’s why you can see that even the History that we are being taught doesn’t reveal and make an African child to know how great his/her continent is and was since the past. The history that we study now tells and shows that Africa was a dark continent be-


36 fore the coming of the merchants from Europe who came and discovered plenty of resources in Africa and that’s when they discovered Africa. The history continues and says that they found the Africans much uncivilized and they are the people who brought civilization to Africa. The history that we are not taught is that Africa was already civilized before they came; they do not want to show in the history that Africa colonized countries in Europe like Spain for more than 300 years. It is believed that Spain has got one of the most beautiful women in Europe simply because they were colonized by Africans for more than 300 years and there was a lot of cross breeding hence outcome of a strong result which still exists in Spain up to present. Now here we can easily come out with contradictions that even if we ask our o’level History teachers they can fail to give you a reasonable answer. We are told that before the coming of the whites in Africa, Africa was not civilized but the same history says that the first university ever to exist in the world was the Timbukutu University that was in Africa. So how do we define civilization if you say we were not civilized yet we were the first people to provide Education one of the best keys to civilization? We are told that the coming of whites to Africa was the initiation of medication to Africans. This cannot be true automatically because before they came there was life going on in Africa and even if we take the

simple understanding that they are the ones who came with medication then they found Africans with a very great immunity because it was time when people lived for more than 100 years, it was a time when there existed giants in Africa, very strong and huge people. So what has the medication that the whites brought to Africa done? The first ever existed genius in the world came from Africa Egypt in particular. He was called Imhotep. He was the first person in this world to do brain surgery. Then how can I be convinced that there was no medication in Africa till the coming of the whites. Man healed a broken leg in the bush with wet mud even before the white had thought of the Plaster of Paris (POP). So we had our own medication before the white came to Africa Washington is called the District of Columbus and hence called Washington D C this is derived from the History that says that Christopher Columbus was the first to discover America which by then lived the Red Indies. But the truth is not said here that even before the coming of Columbus in America already there were Africans who were trading with the people of America but for now that black man has got no Importance but rather the Columbus who came later. There are very many things concerning the History of Africa that are not well elaborated to the world. The history of Africa did not begin from the pre-colonial period that


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we are taught, the time of slave trade and the collapsing of strong states in Africa. The strong history that concerns us to the fullest is the one that we are not told. When we mention about the existed kingdoms in Africa we cannot end up teaching on factors for the rise and fall. Africans have to know deeply about their kingdoms. If this kind of history cannot be taught to us by these syllabuses that do not favor us then it’s high time we go and seek for the real and true history about our continent. And this history is not hidden it is available and many scholars from Africa have wrote about this. Though the books that really show us the truth are the books that are really never assigned to students to go and read and are the books that we hardly come across with. But if we look for them we can never fail to get them. Different authors like Dr. Fr. Innocent Onyeuwenyu, D.S Masolo, Frants Fanon Dr. Cress Wellson and other have written much about African history in different perspectives being political, religion, philosophical and even educational. The history that you cannot know if you only rely on that from the syllabus. Since the history that many of us believe is not the true history so what the whites

now are trying to do is to make the Africans to not get even time to seek for the true history. That’s why you can see our studying time table that we have since young is a very fixed one whereby you take a lot of time in school learning only matters that are much not of your history or relevance but rather whitish. After school your mind is fixed with things like movies and other kinds of manipulation just to make you believe they are the superior and not think of how to be more than them but rather trust in them. Africa is one of the best places to ever be in this world. Putting aside the issue of History but there are other aspects also. The best climate where by we experience all kinds of seasons and in different parts of Africa. There are many things that we can be proud of from Africa. Instead of accepting that we are inferior in front of the other races, we should strive to remove the inferiority. The best way and initial point is by not praising any others culture than we do to our own. Not only praising but also practicing it and living in its codes. We have to be proud of Africa as how others are afraid of Africa. BE PROUD TO BE FROM AFRICA. GOD BLESS AFRICA


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AFRIKA SI GIZANI “Dhana ya kwamba Afrika ni bara la giza kwa muda mrefu imekuwa ni zana ya wanyonyaji na maadui zetu kuzidi kuendelea kutimiza malengo yao.� Moja kati ya makosa makubwa kuwahi kufanywa na historia ni kutoa tafsiri ongofu na kutupilia mbali ukweli na uhalisia wa bara la Afrika.Kwa kipindi kirefu sasa historia imekuwa ikieleza kwamba Afrika kabla ya ujio wa wazungu lilikuwa ni bara la giza na wala hapakuwahi kuwa na maendeleo kabla ya hapo. Hivi ndivyo historia ilivyotengenezwa na kuuaminisha ulimwengu hivyo. Wanazuoni wana msemo wao kwamba kalamu ina ncha kali zaidi ya mkuki.Msemo huu unadhihirika katika mjadala huu kwani tutaona wazi ni kwa jinsi watu wanchi za maghariibi wamefanikiwa kutumia kalamu kuidunisha Afrika na hatimae imekuwa hivyo.Tunaposema ncha ya kalamu tunamaana ya maandiko na machapisho mbalimbali ambayo aghalabu hutumika katika mitaala ya elimu na vyombo vya habari. Ni kwa ncha hii ya kalamu ndipo waafrika waliaminishwa kwamba hata mila na desturi zao ni za kishenzi na potofu hatimae wakaziacha na kufuata zile za magharibi Lakini ukweli ni kwamba Afrika ni bara lenye neema kubwa na rasilimali watu makini na katika zama hizi waafrika wanapaswa kuamka na kulitambua hilo Katika historia ya kweli ya Afrika ambayo ni nadra sana kukuta ikifundishwa kwa ufasaha hata katika shule zetu inaelezwa bayana kiwa kabla ya karne ya 15 maendeleo ya Afrka na Ulaya yalikuwa sawia.Ustaarabu pia ulianzia barani Afrika na uliambatana na maendeleo ya sayansi,siasa,jamii,uchumi,dini na teknolojia.Mwanazuoni maarufu wa Jamaica hayati Walter Rodney aliandika katika kitabu

chake cha How Europe Underdeveloped Africa ikimaanisha Jinsi gani Ulaya Ilivyodumaza maendeleo Afrika-tafsiri isiyo rasmi anaeleza kwamba Afrika ilifikia hatua za juu za teknolojia ya viwanda na huko Morocco waafrika walitengeneza nguo kwa umaridadi kuliko zile zilizotengenezwa kwenye viwanda vya nguo vya Ulaya. Elimu ya nyota(astronomy) inafahamika wazi kwamba ilianzia barani Afrika, kalenda na mahesabu pia ni asili ya bara Afrika.Kabla ya kuja kwa wazungu waafrika walipata kusoma na kuhitimu hadi vyuo vikuu. Katika kitabu cha Profesa Innocenti Onyeuwenyu wa Nigeria kinachoitwa African the origin of Greek philosophy anaeleza kwamba waafrika walitoa elimu kwa watu wa dunia hii miaka mingi kabla ya Kristo,Chuo kikuu cha Timbuktu na vile vyuo vya kale zaidi nchini Misri ndivyo vyuo vya kwanza kuwapo kabla ya kutokea vyuo vikuu sehemu nyingine hapa ulimwenguni japo haielezwi hivyo hata katika shule na vyuo vya Afrika hata sasa. Waafrika ndio waliokuwa walimu katika vyuo hivyo ambapo walifundisha elimu hiyo pekee hapa duniani.Machapisho na vitabu vinaeleza kwamba wahadhiri hao walifundisha mahesabu,sayansi,uhandisi,t iba,falsafa pamoja na elimu nyingine.Onyeuwenyu pia anaeleza wazi kwamba hata wanaosemekana au kutajwa katika historia na kada nyingine za elimu kwamba ndio waanzilishi wa falsafa kama akina Socrates Plato na Aristotle walisomea taaluma hizo barani Afrika na kufunzwa na walimu wa kiafrika. Sanaa ya lugha na maandishi kilimo cha umwagiliaji maji katika maeneo yaliyozungukwa na mito kama Nile ni moja


39 kati ya mambo ambayo yalifanywa kwa ufanisi mkubwa na mafanikio kabla ya kuja kwa wazungu. Pia biashara za ndani za wenyewe kwa wenyewe mfano ile ya masafa marefu ya Afrika mashariki(East African long distance trade) na ile ya kupitia jangwani Sahara(Trans Saharan Trade) zilikuwa ni biashara za mafanikio ya hali ya juu na zilifanyika kabla ya kuja kwa wazungu barani Afrika.Sampuli hii ya biashara za ushirikiano wa ndiyo inayoigwa hata sasa na jumuiya za kimataifa kama vile umoja wa uchumi wa nchi za Ulaya,Jumuiya ya Afrika Mashariki na jumuiya nyingine za kimataifa. Ikumbukwe pia hata katika vitabu vitakatifu Afrika inatajwa kuwa chimbuko na kimbilio la manabii wa Mungu.Katika biblia wakati Yesu (masihi) anazaliwa lilitokea jaribio la kutaka kuuwawa na mfalme Herode lakini Mungu alimtumia Yusufu malaika na kumwamuru kuja kumhifadhi masihi barani Afrika katika nchi ya Misri.Masihi aliishi Afrika kwa

kipindi hiki chote hadi mfalme Herode alipofariki.Hii inathibitisha kwamba Afrika ni sehemu salama zaidi hata mbele za macho ya mwenyezi Mungu.Lakini hata nabii Ibrahimu na uzao wake walikuwa wakikimbilia Afrika kila lilipotokea baa la njaa kwenye maeneo yao,hii inonekana katika kitabu cha mwanzo 12:10 Ibrahimu anakwenda Misri(Afrika) kwa kuwa kumetokea njaa kali katika nchi yake.Ni katika vipindi vigumu ambapo dunia nzima iligubikwa na njaa kama inavyoelezwa katika mwanzo41:54 kisha Yakobo(Israel) anawaelekeza wanae kuja katika Afrika kwa kuwa ndiko pekee palipokuwa na chakula cha kutosha.Katika mtiririko huu wa kutafuta neema ndipo wana wa Israel walipokuja kuwa watumwa barani Afrika katika nchi ya Misri.Swali la msingi hapa ni je kama Afrika ni bara la giza na lililolaanika kama inavyosemekana mbona Mungu anawahifadhi watu wake katika bara hili?Ikumbukwe pia hata nabii Musa ambaye alibobea katika elimu ya sheria hata kupewa kibao cha amri kumi alikuwa mzawa wa Afrika na alisoma katika vyuo vya Afrika.Haya yote yalifanyika kabla yakuja kwa wakoloni hapa Afrika Hitimisho Kwa muda mrefu sana historia imekuwa ikipotoshwa na hii ni sababu mojawapo inayowafanya waafrika kuendelea kuwa nyuma kimaendeleo.Dhana ya kwamba Afrika ni bara la giza kwa muda mrefu imekuwa ni zana ya wanyonyaji na maadui zetu kuzidi kuendelea kutimiza malengo yao.Ni dhahiri kwamba matatizo ya Afrika ni matokeo ya uongozi mbovu,uvivu wa mawazo na ukosefu elimu inayoakisi uhalisia na muktadha wa bara hili.Kwa mantiki hiyo basi makala hii itakuwa ikijadili masuala mbalimbali kuhusu Afrika na umaridadi wake lengo likiwa ni kujenga jamii ya waafrika yenye kutambua vyema mambo mazuri yaliyopo barani Afrika na kuleta uhuru wa kweli wa kimawazo na kurejesha tumaini lililopotea.


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Poverty in our rural communities has led to domestic refugees The development imbalance between rural and urban is a sign of the continuation of minority rule in developing countries especially Africa. This is due to the fact that the urban ever since colonial era, predominates the whole economic welfare over the rural. Due to this unequal distribution of development in African countries nations are divided in two for every single state. One is urban where all basic needs are available and other is rural where by electricity is considered as luxury service which only the rich families deserve to get. According to Global Monitoring Report of 2013, it states that In SubSaharan Africa, poverty is concentrated in rural areas where 75 percent of the poor reside. Not only that, the report continues; compared to rural areas, urban areas have lower poverty and better access to basic human needs. It insists that in sub Saharan Africa there is a wide disparity between rural and urban areas. It insist that, In Sub-Saharan Africa, poverty remains for now a predominantly rural phenomenon ,but rural to urban migration is playing a prominent role in reducing overall poverty.

This report has nothing new. All this things are known to almost all of us. But the issue here is the persistence of the rural to urban migration which is a real tragedy in Africa in general and Tanzania in particular. In countries which are huge of wealth in terms of natural resources in rural areas but less development in the first like place like Tanzania this report must shock every time when announced no matter how much the announcement is repeated. The question here is why our people leave the potentials in their villages and move to town where by everything there is occupied by the rich or government? As it is stated bellow the in Tanzania rural-urban migration is a real nightmare in the country. According to Tanzania National Population Policy of 2006, the urban migration grows for more than 5% per annum. According to this policy the main factor for this rapid population growth is rural to urban migration. By then population density was 12 persons per square kilometer in Lindi region while in Dar es Salaam was 1700. This policy was derived from 2012


41 census report. Now, the 2012 Population and Housing Census show that, Dar es Salaam city account for 10% of total population of Tanzania mainland. The population density reported to be 3,133 persons per square kilometer in Dar es Salaam city while it is 13 people per square kilometer. This population is unhealthier for our urban in terms of environmental and social. It must cause environmental degradation, diseases like cholera and social evils such as robbery and drug abuse. The recent report of global monitoring report also explain that, In Kagera, a region in Tanzania ,between 1991–94 and 2010, more than 50% of the rural population migrated to urban areas. The report states that the main motivation was to find better-paying work. Therefore movement of people from rural to urban is the kind of domestic refugees. They are not migrants but they are refugees because of their moving purposes is to escape primitive savages in their homeland. The same way as other refugees do anywhere else. People move to towns to seek for good jobs and other social welfare which are unavailable in our villages. But moving from rural to town will make our economy safer? According to the national population policy, towns are becoming overloaded by the rapid growth population from rural areas. Also the rural are being lost manpower simply because they lack basic social amenities. In the rural to urban migration no one is becoming a winner. It is losing to lose situation where by both rural and urban loses. Any government plan or policy must look for the rural as the centre of evolution. There is no need to increase more development projects in the places like dare s salaam where population density seems to overload the city. That money is supposed to build the rural areas projects in places like Lindi region where the density is 12 persons per square kilometer.

We need more agriculture inputs and social services Agriculture sector is the remedy for the rural areas and that is what it will always be. But still the national budget does not support this sector the way it supposed to be. For instance the agriculture budget this year did not meet at least10% of the national budget. This is against Maputo declaration number7 (2) of 2003 on agriculture and food security in Africa. The declaration agreed that in order to support agriculture and rural development all AU members of states should implement this by allocating 10% of the whole national budget to agricultural development. Agriculture sector is the main employer in rural areas. This is very clear. It does not need long research to prove that fact. Agriculture development is development of both rural and urban. So the governments have to do a lot to improve the life in rural areas. They must ensure the sustainable social services such as education, health, communication, transport and energy. To save the life of rural people is to save over 70% of Tanzanians. In a nutshell, the development of Tanzania and Africa in general is the development of rural areas. This is due to the fact that in rural is where the majority are living. The development of rural will eventually change the status quo in our communities. But to relay on urban only is to increase social and environmental problems in towns meanwhile under developing the villages where the means of production are available but remain useless by lacking human labors that fleets to town every day. We do not want to see the domestic refugees in our countries. We do not want to nations in any single states. As long as majority of our people live in rural areas we have to consider villages as the centre of our economic revolution. Development of our communities is development of rural areas.


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Usasa sio maendeleo Vijana wengi Leo wanashindwa kutofautisha kati usasa na maendeleo, wanajikanganya kwa kufikiri akiishi kisasa ndiyo atakuwa ameendelea.Usasa ni hali ya kuishi kwa kufuatisha mukumbo hasa kuishi maisha ya kimagharibi na kuacha tamaduni zetu za kiafrika. Hii yote inaletwa na kutokuelewa maendeleo ni nini?... Ili mtu au watu waendelee wanaitaji kujitambua kwanza wametoka wapi? (Kihistoria), Wako wapi? Na wanataka kwenda wapi? Baba wa taifa la Tanzania Mwl.Julius Kambarage Nyerere amewahi kusema MAENDELEO ni lazima yamuzungumzie mtu, kwanza lazima awe na uhuru ndiyo apate maendeleo au ili apate uhuru anaitaji maendeleo. Pia Mwalimu alifananisha uhuru na maendeleo ni kama kuku na yai, yaani uwezi kupata kuku bila yai na uwezi kupata yai bila kuku. Hapa tunajifunza ili tuendelee inatupasa kutafuta uhuru wa kifikra,kiutamaduni,k iuchumi,kisiasa na kijamii. Hasa hili la uhuru wa kifikra au ukombozi wa kifikra tukilisimamia kidete litatuletea mazao ya mapinduzi ya kiutamaduni, kiuchumi, kisiasa na kijamii ambayo tutayaita maendeleo. Je tunalisimamiaje?.Ni kuhakikisha TUNATHUBUTU kupambana mifumo kinzani au mifumo sumu inayoendelea kututafuna waafrika na kupelekea kudumaza vijana kimaadili na kimaendeleo. Mfano vijana Leo utasikia anajisifia kumiliki magari, simu kali (smart phones), magari makali, vinywaji vya bei na vifaa mbalimbali kutoka magharibi na kujiona yeye ndiyo anaishi bora (usasa). Anashindwa kuelewa vitu vyote vinaingizwa toka nje ya nchi na sio vyake na wakati huo huo taifa lake alinufaiki kiuchumi, bali analidumaza

kiuchumi. Haya yote yanasababishwa na kutumia vibaya utandawazi, jamii zetu zinafata mukumbo wa jamii za kimagharibi zinavyoishi bila kufuatilia kiundani wao wametokea wapi?, mpaka wamefika pale..Sisi tunaiga vitu vya kishenzi tu, atuchukui vya maana kama maendeleo ya kiteknolojia na sayansi ili tuweze kuendeleza viwanda vyetu vya ndani na tuache kuagiza Blackberry nje ya nchi.Eti tunajipongeza kwa mvinyo kwa kuagiza vitu vya wenzetu, tunasahau kwamba rasilimali zetu tunazowapa kwa kupitia mikataba ya kishenzi tunayoisaini kama tumelewa, tena hotelini ndiyo fimbo inayotumiwa na mataifa ya magharibi kutuchapa kiuchumi. Madini kama Almasi, Dhahabu, Tanzanite na rasilimali nyingine kama gesi na chuma zimekuwa zikichukuliwa pasipo faida inayotakiwa kama taifa tena bila aibu baada ya muda tunaagiza vito kutoka magharibi vya almasi Dhahabu naTanzanite, mfano Saa, Heleni, na Pete. Huu ni wakati wa vijana wote wa Africa kutoka gizani na kufungua minyoro ya utumwa wa kifikra na kuanza kutumia silaha ya KUTHUBUTU kuhakikisha tunashinda vita ya usasa na unyonge ili tuweze kupata maendeleo ya kweli.Vijana ndiyo wenye nguvu ya kuleta mabadiliko chanya ya maendeleo ya Afrika na kuacha kutegemea serikali zetu peke yake. Mimi, Wewe na Yule tuungane pamoja, tushikamane, turudie tamaduni zetu na tujivunie kuwa Waafrika ili tuweze kukomboa bara letu la Afrika. Uzalendo na Mshikamano iwe dira yetu tufikie maendeleo ya kweli, kwa pamoja tunaweza.


Bi Kidude

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“will take more than a bullet on heart tpo hold you back Bibi..”

I

t is hard to believe, hard to aceept but it was ment to be, Everybody who is born, will do every and each that has to be done, but when time comes that person will leave this world and go back to where we all belongs. Fatma bint Baraka is the first name that a Taarab veteran was given by her parents but she well known as Bi Kidude. Bi kidude a daughter of Coconut seller was born in zanzibar at the vilage of mfagimaringo. No one is certain of her exact date of birth and even if you ask her she will probably answer “I cannot say that I know it myself, but my birth was at the time of the rupee.” The rupee is an indian currency used in East Africa aproxmately more than 100 years ago This Granny is among the first Zanzibar girls to sing in in public and she is considered a Queen of taarab puting away her roll modal legend Siti Bint Saad. At the age of 13 kidude fled to Tanzania mainland as she has to go for her forced marriage. However this marriage didnt last long as she was not able to conceive so


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she was divorced. Later she marry another man but also divorced because of her conceiving inability. In 1920s bi Kidude was singled out for hefine voice and joined Egyptian Taarab group. With this group Kidude travelled barefoot and sometimes by train allmost every part of East africas big cities like Mombasa, Kampala, Dar Es Salam, Tabora and so forth. Bi kidude spent almost a decade in Mainland especialy Dar es Salam where she used to sing in local concerts and government celebretions. In 1940s she quit working with egyptian taarab group due to low pay so she went back to zanzibar where she moved into a small clay house in the Shangani quarter of Zanzibar town. She went to small taarab social clubs, usually run by women and, most importantly, became involved in unyago, the initiation procedure for Swahili women. Bi Kidude and her friends would play their drums and sing provocative songs to an audience of hundreds of women. She helped initiate so many girls over the years that she acquired the nickname that became her trademark. In the 1980s there was a

revival of interest in her music when she performed with the Sahib El-Ahri band. Later, she joined the Zanzibarbased group the Twinkling Stars and toured Germany, Scandinavia, Japan and the Gulf. In the early 1990s she was recruited as an occasional member of Shikamoo Jazz, a band made up of veteran singers from dar es salam. Bi Kidude deep, wailing voice expressed the raw emotion of a lifetime’s experience was a major attraction in every concerts or tour Jazz perfomed. appart from fame and respect bi kidude won several honorary awards in and out of Tanzania. in 2005 she won a Womex (World Music Expo) award, For her outstanding contribution to Music and culture in zanzibar. Also in 2012 President Jakaya Kikwete awarded Her “Sports and arts” award of all time. Bi kidude’s fame has been widely acknowledged throughout Tanzania East africa and the World in General. No one to cover Granny,s gap Just like Siti bint saad Kidude dies with all that she has, talent, courage, but her deep wailing Voice will always linger in the minds and Hold her back , she will always be with us RIP Granny.


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