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Padmashree Dr. D. Y. Patil

Dr. Vijay Patil Shri Vijay Patil

Dr. Ajeenkya Patil Dr. Ajeenkya Patil

BLESSINGS THE PRINCIPAL, Dr. Ramesh Vasappanavara:

I feel extremely ecstatic to see the ISA committee releasing the 5th edition of their magazine. I appreciate the hard work put down by the students to come up with such an informative and well-shaped magazine. I hope the committee continues to work with their utmost dedication and make the Department of Instrumentation proud.


I feel delighted to be a part of this magazine as it has been made with lots of efforts and dedication by the ISAAC team. They have put in maximum information, which would be invaluable to the readers. It is also very good to see the ISA committee reintroduce Niyantran. It was a huge fest and everyone benefitted from it from a learner’s point of view. I wish them all the best for all their endeavours in the future.

International Society of Automation

International Society of Automation (ISA) is a leading global, non-profit organization that is setting the standard for Automation by helping over thirty thousand world-wide members & other professionals, to enhance their professional & leadership capabilities. ISA was founded in 1945 and is based in Research Triangle Park, North Carolina, USA. ISA certifies Industrial Professionals, provides education and training; publishes books and technical articles. It also hosts conferences and exhibitions for Automation Professionals.

With an intention to reach masses, we have recently launched our brand new website which has all the details of the previous and upcoming events and activities conducted by the committee. Have fun!!

EDITOR’S NOTE It is not every day that you get appointed the Editor in Chief of a technical magazine. It is not every day that you get to write a letter to your readers. Playing your part responsibly is no cakewalk, especially when you’re embarking on a journey having no clue as to what is in store for you. I began mine in quite a similar manner. The decisions you take affect the work you do. All the bittersweet experiences, the music you face, the people who you laugh with, and whose shoulders you cry on, everything is a part and parcel of what you do. The insanity, and the determination and will power of my teammates to meet every obstacle head on, be it professional or personal, are what make working and learning every bit fun. As I frantically type this letter, I know I write (and you all read) exactly what is in my heart. I will be forever grateful to my excellent, brilliant, and diligent ISAAC team for all that we have been through together. I will truly cherish every moment. I sign off now, all pensive and teary-eyed, wishing each one of you a truly enjoyable read. I hope you flip each page feeling the same emotions that we felt while making this magazine a reality.

Your Eddy who loves you,

Aparna Mahalingam


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In a country with a population of more than 1.2 billion, it is very difficult to have a common connection between each and every individual. We have innumerable religions, castes and cultures in different parts of the nation, but despite all these differences and distances, there is one thing that connects every person on the face of India- Cricket. This wonderful game has created extraordinary individuals in both batting as well as bowling who have defined themselves as legends. Just as Thor is nothing without the powers of his hammer or Green Lantern without his torch, in much the same way, these prodigious personalities are incomplete without their own weapons of destruction, bats.

Since 1729, the shapes and sizes of bats have changed drastically. Sir Donald Bradman, Sunil Gavaskar and Sachin Tendulkar, all have used extremely dissimilar Cricket bats. Comparing the legends themselves would be a very harsh thing to do, but comparing their destructive arsenal is a thing that would electrify many, if not all. Marylebone Cricket Club, an organization which was established in 1787, was a first of its kind in the world. It is the world’s biggest cricket brand, also responsible for establishing and amending every law in the game of Cricket. It has also been responsible for instituting and altering bat specifications over the years. The evolution of bats has been a very interesting tale on its own. From the thin hockey stick-like bats used in the 18th century to the long-handled Mongoose bats used in the 21st century, bats have been designed to meet the needs of the generation. Not a lot has changed in terms of the material used in the manufacture, but the shapes, dimensions and technology used to develop these willows have varied over time.


When we look at Sir Bradman’s bat, the first thing that comes to our mind is the thickness of its edges. The length and width of bats have remained the same at 38 inches and 4.25 inches respectively. Cricket bats cannot exceed these specifications. Bradman’s bat was surprisingly thin around the edges. It didn’t have the bulge on the back of the bat to intensify and enlarge the ‘sweet spot’ of his willow. The face of the bat was rather flat than curved. It weighed at approximately 1.16 kilograms. We could actually compare this piece of willow to the bats we used during our childhood, only a little heavier. In those days the bats were usually Kashmir willows, made in our own nation.

Sunil Gavaskar, the first person to cross the 10,000 mark in Test Cricket, had to work very hard to maintain his cricket bats. During those days, when a bat was purchased, you couldn’t directly use it. Oiling was the first process that every batsman had to obey, since without it the bats wouldn’t last at all. The second thing that a batsman had to do was maintain the ‘sweet spot’ by knocking it with a wooden mallet or a cricket ball. These two steps had to be followed by every batsman for the well-being of their beloved weapons. Around 70% of cricketers used the Kashmir willow instead of the English counterpart due to its reliability and weight. Although there was no special care taken in terms of technology, Sunny Gavaskar had to do his share of labor to keep his bat at its optimal level of performance.

The twilight of the 20th century gave rise to various other technologies not only in improving the quality of stroke making, but also in the manufacturing. Manufacturers started using specially designed instruments to plan curved faces on the bats. A considerably large amount of wood was used to optimize the quality of the ‘sweet spot’.

When we come to Sachin Tendulkar’s bat in particular, the first thing we notice is the weight of his willow. At 1.3 kilograms, Sachin’s bat is heavier than any of the other legends we discussed. The little master uses a chunk of wood so heavy that anybody would wonder how he manages to survive such long innings with it. Even though his bats have become lighter over the years, the edges seem to have not shrunk at all. Sachin’s current piece of willow has an edge at about 33 millimeters, which is around 1/4th of the width of the face. The bat has a large amount of wood behind the ‘sweet spot’, thereby optimizing his strokes. This weapon of mass destruction is very different from the one used by Sir Don Bradman himself. The quality of cane used in the handle along with other shock reduction material, makes Tendulkar’s bat much more favorable.

Nowadays, we have a few emerging technological advancement in the manufacture of willows. ‘Mongoose’, used by Matthew Hayden in the IPL, was a revelation in the T20 world of cricket. The longer handles and shorter faces enhanced the power output, resulting in better stroke play. Scientists have also tried a variety of techniques and materials to enhance a bat’s shock absorbing power. The use of piezoelectric materials has been tried to absorb the energy of the shock and convert it into heat or light energy. Imagine a bat glowing after every stroke played. However, these innovations have faced opposition by the MCC as they violate the rules put forth by the organization.

Bats have indeed changed over the past century, but what have not changed are the thrill and the excitement in the game. Cricket has seen fabulous players come through in different eras, and many more fabulous players will burst onto the scene. Comparing their styles of play or even their batting equipment wouldn’t give us a fair judgement of who is best. The only thing that we could do is sit back and enjoy the spectacular display of talent by these legends.


ISA-RAIT Committee International Society of Automation (ISA) is a global non-profit organization, founded in 1945, especially for aspiring Instrumentation and Control Engineers. ISA publishes books, technical articles, and holds conferences and automation related exhibitions. It assists automation professionals with solving difficult technical problems and enhances their leadership qualities, thereby setting the standards for Automation. ISA-RAIT is the student chapter of ISA, which was started over ten years ago, as a part of Ramrao Adik Institute of Technology. It operates under the supervision of the Department of Instrumentation with an objective to enlighten the students about the many career opportunities in the field.


The ISAAC crew Editorial team: Aparna Mahalingam [Editor in Chief] Maroof Kazi [Managing Editor] Chinmay Wadikar[News Editor] Chaitra Purakkandy [Supervisory Editor] Gaurav Shetty [Supervisory Editor] Shruti Chaurasia [Copy Editor] Rohit Kadam [Copy Editor] Design: Sudarshan Pol Chaitra Purakkandy Gaurav Shetty


THE ISAAC CREW Aparna Mahalingam [Ms. Steady-State Error]:

The Editor-in-chief a. k. a. Eddy, happens to have the concentration span of a lovely little goldfish. The ISAAC team is privileged to have a boss like her who comes up with new and amazing ideas every day and inspires the team to do the same. Her enthusiasm is contagious and so is her cheerfulness. She also has the wonderful ability to make any sane person panic, by “misplacing” things, which are ultimately found somewhere or the other. ISAAC has one thing that no other magazine has – it has the sweetest Eddy.

From a “Hawk Eye’s View” (for the love of Tennis), here’s what I have to share about my wonderful team, the Newtoons.

Maroof Kazi [Mr. Insulator]:

In the near three years that I’ve known him, Maroof has hardly changed in terms of his attitude towards work and punctuality. He multitasks effortlessly. Besides being the most efficient, hardworking and sincere person in my team, Maroof is also one of my best friends. You’ll never see the both of us NOT fighting, nor will you see us not laughing our heads off at each other. When he’s around, there’s only laughter. Genuine laughter at how hard he tries (but in vain) to take jibes at the Editor! It’s alright, Maroof. Better luck next time! Needless to say, he always gets the work done and makes sure the others do, too.

Rohit Kadam [Mr. Free-wheeling Diode]:

He is by far the most enthusiastic Newtoon, with his slap-stick humour and continuous yapping. He can interact and socialize with anybody who’s at arm’s length. That’s probably how in a span of 25 days of his stay at RAIT, he was voted runner-up for Mr.RAIT! Wow.Rohit has more stories to tell than Aesop and his Fables! Though they all almost invariably begin with, end with or revolve around his “Mine”, Rohit makes sure we end up laughing every time.

Chaitra Purakkandy [Ms. Capacitor]:


If you’re on the lookout for the true meaning of a silent killer, let me have the honour of introducing you to our Chaitra. I can assure you that if you don’t have the patience or time, or are very talkative, Chaitra’s silence will kill you. It won’t be too long before you start screaming, “Something? Anything??” She is both dedicated and loyal (to both her work and silence); but you will definitely hear lots of giggles and even end up admiring her through and through.

Gaurav Shetty [Mr. Superconductor]:

Gaurav might be just 19, but he’s got the wit and maturity of a 21 year old. The “Piracy King” that he claims himself to be, Gaurav is great company, ideal moral support, and has a brilliant sense of humour to complement his good-boy nature. Well, maybe not such a good boy (a devil, really). Making fun of his Eddy is one thing he’s excellent at, besides his other domains. This boy is impossible, but will nevertheless be seen working till late nights with his awesome seniors, feeling like one himself. Caution: He is not as quiet as he may appear to be!

Shruti Chaurasia [Ms. Heat Sink]:

We grew tired of watching the never-ending sequel of “Runaway Bride”, since February 11th, 2013. The speed at which she does her work (and runs away) is commendable, and so far, unmatched. Always smiling and eagerly waiting for the green signal, with an adorable look on her face, she usually has only one sweet question to ask- “So, I’ve no work, right? I can go, right?” Hats off to you, Shruti! (She does come back the next morning).

Chinmay Wadikar [Mr. Diode]:

The one guy who’s a know-it-all (and not to forget, a staunch pessimist), Chinmay can be seen everywhere else except with the team. Always busy with his technical work, he’ll come around now and then to ask about Radioactivity, Laws of Thermodynamics, Heisenberg and the likes, just to realize he will not be getting any answer from anybody. It is incredible how he behaves like he’s the only one whose jokes we worship (we really do), the busiest person on the face of Earth, and gives the wackiest intellectual inputs for our magazine. Goodness gracious, Chinmay! I still can’t understand how you know so much about Indian Mythology?!

Sudarshan Pol [Mr. Filter]:

The latest entry into the clan, Sudarshan is our youngest member whose sarcastic comments come free with his invaluable technical inputs. Creative as any designer is required to be, he does the job you want him to do. The last thing you should expect him to possess is the telepathic power to understand you. He may look and behave like a senior, but when you get to know him, he really is a kid at heart!

RAHUL TALEKAR [Mr. Transformer]: An extra special thanks to our wonderful friend, Rahul Talekar. He is a motivating, caring and helpful senior who’s always been around to mentor, inspire and encourage us.



Dark of





“That’s one small step for man, one giant leap for mankind ” said NASA astronaut Neil Armstrong while initiating his first step on the Moon on July 20th, 1969. If there was any specific incident that you would say was the highlight of the 20th century, the first thing that would come to your mind is “Man landing on the Moon”. But did it really happen? Was Neil Armstrong’s amazing dialogue just a part of a billion-dollar play? Was it composed and orchestrated just to win the cold war against the Soviet Republic? These are the questions that many scientists and engineers have been asking for decades. Since the end of World War II, the United States of America and the Soviet Republic have been in a long and intense cold war for more than four decades. These two nations competed against each other on every level they could, resulting in the commencement of a fierce battle for glory. On October 4th, 1957, the Soviet nation landed a sucker punch on the face of the US government by launching the first ever satellite in space, Sputnik. This historic event proved to be the catalyst required to start a ferocious ‘space race’ between the two super powers of the world. Everyone anticipated that winning the space race would prove to be decisive in winning the cold war. Sending a man to the Moon was assumed to be the only criterion to win this space race between the big guns. While watching the live feed from the Moon, Bill Kaysing, an engineer and analyst who worked in the making of the Apollo rockets, had an intuitive feeling that these pictures of the Moon couldn’t possibly be real. It wasn’t just his gut that said that, the pictures themselves were screaming out the real story. He noticed quite a few inconsistencies in the film shown to over 600 million people, igniting his skepticism. In the film, he noticed that there were no stars visible in the perfectly dark space around the Moon. He also surprisingly noticed the American flag flutter, even though there is no atmosphere on Moon. Another very important detail that came into light was that there was no blast crater created after the landing of the shuttle on the surface. Although NASA has dismissed the possibility, there remains a question mark on the greatest moment of the 20th century. Kaysing believes that the probability of man landing on Moon and returning to Earth safely, during the 60’s, was a mere 0.0017%, which was as good as impossible. And the fact that NASA had six successful missions to our own satellite is very difficult to believe. He also pointed out to a very famous saying during the 60’s, ‘If you can’t make it, fake it!’ Was this the inspiration behind the creation of such a plot? We will never know.


Capricorn I, a movie made in 1977, was based on a fake mission that the government planned to Mars. The movie shows beautifully designed sets of Mars, simulating the incidents on the planet. So, now the question is, if a movie set can depict the surface of Mars on a budget of 4 million, what could NASA have done with a budget of 40 billion? Is it possible that the Moon’s surface was designed on the face of the Earth itself? Kaysing believes that that whole act of NASA was filmed in the highly guarded place of Area 51, Nevada. There are many investigators who consider that the surface of the Moon filmed is in fact, the desert of Nevada. Images from spy satellites of the Soviet Republic show structures similar to movie sets and have also found a crater in the desert of Area 51, having striking similarities with a crater supposedly on the surface of the Moon. Some people also believe that the reason behind the heavy security of Area 51 is because of this dirty little secret that NASA is trying to hide.

A very noticeable detail in the clip is the footsteps of the astronauts who landed on the surface. Scientists believe that due to the thrust force of the shuttle, there should be very little dust on the vicinity of the vehicle as most of it will be blown away by the force. On the other hand, there is not even a single speck of dust on the footpads, indicating either that the astronauts cleaned up the footpads after landing, or that the vehicle didn’t actually land on the Moon. There is no unsettled dust found anywhere near the footpads, which leads us to believe that the Apollo shuttle was staged to be landed on the Moon.

Since the late 2000’s, high-definition photos taken by the LROC (Lunar Reconnaissance Orbit Camera) spacecraft of the Apollo landing sites have captured the lander modules and the tracks left by the astronauts. In 2012, images were released showing the Apollo flags still standing on the Moon. NASA may have either successfully pulled out all the Apollo missions or the best prank ever; only they know. Some people will always believe in fairy-tales coming true, but there will be a population which would say otherwise and remain skeptic. Every great discovery or invention has produced its own critics, and so did this episode. For the most of us, Neil Armstrong will always be the first man to set foot on any celestial body other than the Earth, whatever the conspiracy theorists may say.


Petrol from air


In this era, where petrol is getting costlier than gold, there has come up an invention, which would probably give our descendants a chance to ride a bike rather than a bicycle. Petrol from air! It’s too good to be true, but it is!! This innovation will be a potential game changer in the battle against climate change and a savior for the world’s energy crisis. A small company in the north of England has developed the “air capture” technology to create synthetic petrol using only air and electricity. The technology, presented to a London engineering conference, removes carbon dioxide from the atmosphere. The “petrol from air” technology involves taking sodium hydroxide and mixing it with carbon dioxide before “electrolyzing” the sodium carbonate that it produces to form pure carbon dioxide. Hydrogen is then produced by electrolyzing water vapors captured with a dehumidifier. The company, Air Fuel Syndication, then uses the carbon dioxide and hydrogen to produce methanol which in turn is passed through a gasoline fuel reactor, creating petrol! Company officials say they had produced five litres of petrol in less than three months from a small refinery in Stockton-on-Tees, Teesside. The fuel that is produced can be used in any regular petrol tank and, if renewable energy is used to provide the electricity it could become “completely carbon neutral”. The £1.1m project, in development for the past two years, is being funded by a group of unnamed philanthropists who believe the technology could prove to be a lucrative way of creating renewable energy.


Genesis, one of the technical festivals of ISARAIT brings with it fresh themes, innovative ideas and groundbreaking events every year. This year too, Genesis succeeded in creating a benchmark, the theme being ‘Super Heroes’. They took us around their “super” world. The various events that were conducted during this tech-fest were ROBOTICS, VIRTUAL INSTRUMENTATION, TECHNICAL/CREATIVE PAPER PRESENTATION, VIRTUAL ARENA (LAN GAMING), GEN ‘X’ ENTREPRENEURS, CYBER SURVIVOR, FOOT POOL, and TECH TREASURE. Robotics has always been one of the biggest attractions in every technical festival. Ours is no exception. However technical the event or fest may be, the sky is never the limit for our creative team.


There was a wide array of the most exciting colours and designs that were aptly chosen for the themes. Our beloved Principal Sir himself had come to see “The Dark Knight” tracks and also appreciated the efforts put in by the event coordinators. Our robotics tracks were THE DARK KNIGHT [the glow-in-the-dark L1 track], WEB TRAP [L1 track], THE INCREDIBLE HULK [a fight-off between robots on the arena provided], KRYPTONITE [autonomous/L3 line-follower track], RO-BOAT [water event with robot boats, provided by the organizers]. Virtual Instrumentation’ was an event designed for the true Instrumentation engineer in every student. This competition required the participants to solve a problem based on real industri‘al processes, using the software ‘LabView’. A pre-event seminar was held to familiarize the contestants with LabView simulation.


In the Creative Paper Presentation, the participants were required to bring in and present any topic from a variety of creative and technical topics. They were judged on the basis of their Power Point presentation and delivery skills. Virtual Arena, as everybody must know, was all about LAN gaming. It was one of the most cherished events of the fest and saw huge participation from inside as well as outside the college. Prizes were won; new friends were made, happy faces were all around. everyone had a great learning as well as fun experience.


Niyantran ’13 Technical Fests are very popular in almost every engineering college of Mumbai. Our college is known for its creativity, innovativeness and enthusiasm in all kinds of activities. One such event that happened is NIYANTRAN ’13, which was held on the 15th, 16th and 17th of March. NIYANTRAN is the tech-fest conducted by ISA-RAIT in the even semester by our extremely dedicated and enthusiastic Student Section Committee. After seven long years it made a comeback as one of the important technical fests in RAIT. This year, as a combined effort to attract even more public than before, the students have decided to bring to the participants, some very interesting and mind teasing events in the truest sense of fun, as a perfect ambience to what they have to offer.


The highlight of the fest was INNOVATION ’13. It was a project-cumexhibition competition. Mass participation was seen from inside and outside the college. Some very brilliant and amazing projects were displayed. Deciding the winner was really tough, as all of them had so much to cater to the technical world. Apart from Innovation ’13, there were several track events as well. STONE AGE MAYHEM was the theme event and a Stone Age scene was mimicked where robots had to be driven through various hurdles. ROBO LIGHT RACE, another track event, where the robots ran in complete darkness only between the glowing LEDs. It was one of the most enjoyed events as the obstacles were challenging and reaching the end was not easy. To add to the fun, we had a water event too, THE PIRATE’S BAY. The skilled captains, sailed their Robotic ships, faced the Pirates and finally reached their bay. An engineer is complete only when apart from being a tech savvy he is excellent in communication as well. To check their flair, we introduced LITERARY EVENTS in the fest for the first time. There were PAPER PRESENTATIONS, VIRTUAL ARENA and VIRTUAL INSTRUMENTATION as well which provided them with an opportunity to interact with the audience in huge. Last but the most enjoyed game was FOOT POOL. It was a hybrid of Football and Pool. It was enjoyed immensely by everyone.


With a wide range of exciting events to choose from, and the total prizes worth 1 Lakh to win in NIYANTRAN 2013, RAIT was jam-packed with people from all over Mumbai, Navi Mumbai, Thane and many more places this year.

“We Believe In Humanity And Humility. We Care For Others.�



The war I fought alone, with my sword filled with ink. Where I had no soldier beside me to show me a way to win. My mind was set to a 40, but I had aimed to win it all. But alas! The mighty Laplace, was forcing my brain to fall. And yet the networks chased me, to get me tangled in them. But I fought myself out, with great will and strength. Not so easy was it, to tackle the sensors, as the endless answers were making me fall asleep. Then arrived the mighty transducers and helped me to creep. Then the day had come, when I had to apply some logic. Boolean in my mind, lying around in bits. So I hoped to sort it out, without making it tragic. Nothing but problems were amplified for me, So, I fixed them with some biasing to set myself free.


HIGGS BOSON Shruti Chaurasia ( T.E. INSTRUMENTATION ) The universe was formed millions of years ago. Since then a number of clamorous events took place. Many scientists were born, millions of theories were contemplated; many proved, many denied. Amongst all these theories and concepts, there was one theory which could prove the quintessence of the fundamental building block of our existence. Everyone existing on Earth has mass. But the question is, how did we get it? In July 2012, there were messages from CERN (the European Organization for Nuclear Research, where the experiments to discover the ‘Higgs’ particle were being conducted) that the scientists have finally found the elementary particle that gives mass to a body. However, later, they refused to accept the particle as ‘Higgs Boson’ as they were still studying the particle revealed. Even though this particle had many of the characteristics similar to those of the Higgs Boson, a lot of research had to be performed before referring to it as the same. In 1964, physicist Peter Higgs, after whom the particle got its name, suggested that such a particle exists which could justify the existence of the Higgs field. This particle could also justify the Standard Model’s theory as to why some bodies have mass, where according to the naïve theory they are supposed to be massless. Eventually, it will help in finding why the weak forces have shorter range than that of the electromagnetic force. Particle Physics’ Standard Model explains how actually the basic particles namely electrons, protons and neutrons are bound together with a force to form an atom. But it has ineluctably failed to enlighten the source of mass in these particles. What scientists say is that it is the Higgs Boson which provides mass to all these particles. The experts believe that the world has been built on the foundation of electrons and quarks, but it is the Higgs Boson which has furnished mass to these fundamental blocks and thereby plays the essential role of being the ‘God Particle’. The Higgs Boson got the title of God Particle after a book by Nobel Prize winning physicist Leon Lederman. The physicist did not wish to give the name of God particle or craft any kind of pious affairs between the particle and the God. He actually wanted the name to be ‘Goddamn’ particle as there was nothing that could be found about it then.


The only way to relate God to the Higgs Boson, the so called God particle is, just as we have conjectured God to be omnipresent, this particle creates a field, called the Higgs field which is also present all across the world, in space, over the universe, which keeps all the fundamental elements together. These particles are moving all around in this field, colliding with the Higgs Boson particle which gathers around the particles in huge quantity. Looking into the theory of The Standard Model, Higgs Boson Particle has no spin; it does not have a color or electric charge either. It is unstable and decays into other particles instantly. It is in fact a quantum excitation of one of the four components of Higgs field (two neutral and two charged field components). The charged components and one of the neutral fields together are known as ‘Goldstone Bosons’. The quantum of the one neutral component left has been presumed to be the significant Higgs Boson. Large Hadron Collider (LHC) at CERN, the most powerful particle accelerator ever built, was built under the Alps, in Switzerland to perform the research. It was constructed over a period of ten years (1998 to 2008). It is a 27 km long tunnel, located 328 feet underground. Previously known as Large Electron Positioner, it was designed with the intension of colliding two beams of protons at energy as high as 3.5 TeV per beam which has the potential to reach up to 7 TeV if required in the future. The theory says, if the Higgs Boson exists, high energy collision of protons would unveil the particle. Disappointingly, by the end of 2000, there were no results that could prove the particle’s presence. The scientists, after a lot of research concluded that if the particle exists, it has to be heavier than 114.4 GeV/c2. The researchers and scientists worked for eighteen months to find the magical particle by these collisions in the $10 billion LHC. In July 2012, two different research groups at the LHC announced independently, that they had finally found a particle which weighed in the range of 125 and 127 GeV/c2, which they suspected could be the Higgs Boson. Physicists are yet to confirm that the particle discovered is Higgs Boson and the studies are still on. Experts say that if they succeed in finding the Higgs Boson, it will be ranked as one of the top scientific achievements of the past five decades. “The Higgs Boson is the last missing piece of our current understanding of the most fundamental nature of the universe”, says Martin Archer, a physicist at Imperial College in London. He also adds, “It’s not the be all and end all -- but in terms of what we can say practically about the world and how the world is, it actually tells us a lot.” Martin Archer considers not finding the particle to be more intriguing. He justifies it by saying, “If we don’t see it, it actually means that the universe at the most fundamental level is more complicated than we thought, and therefore maybe the way we’ve been attacking physics isn’t right.”


Instrumentation and Control Ajinkya Jiwane (T.E. INSTRUMENTATION) Just imagine your office and home without instruments! You will get a feel of ‘The Flintstones era’ as soon as you start thinking of such an extreme idea. Instruments of different nature have become an essential part of our lives, and this is possible only because of the Instrumentation and Control Engineers around us. Instrumentation and Control Engineering is one of the brightest fields in engineering today. If you look at the Indian scenario, there are many people who are willing to make a career in this stream. There are many colleges that provide education in this field, and to top it all, there are ‘well-paid’ jobs as well. Nowadays almost all the industries are going for Automation. So, Instrumentation and control engineers have a role to play in all the fields where there is Automation. The industries are switching almost all their processes to Automation. Students are interested in making career in this stream of engineering because there are job opportunities in this domain. This is a specialised stream of engineering that deals with measurement and control of process variables in a production process. This discipline finds its origin in both electrical and electronics engineering, and it covers subject related to electronics, electrical, mechanical, chemical and computing streams. In short, it deals with measurement, automation and control processes. OPPORTUNITIES A talented Instrumentation and Control Engineer need not worry about getting a job because he has a sky full of opportunities to explore. As the trend of automation picks up in the country, they are finding more opportunities. Right from R&D units to aerospace companies, thermal power plants, steel plants, fertiliser plants, automobile companies, refineries and cement plants, these engineers find job opportunities in almost all domains of the world apart from Instrumentation companies, of course.


The instruments created by Instrumentation and control engineers automate the processes, reducing the involvement of manpower. Nowadays companies resort to minimal manpower as most of the processes are automated. Automation ensures maximum productivity and accuracy by using minimal manpower resources. It is due to these engineers and this stream of engineering that dependence on manpower has reduced, bringing efficiency in the processes. Instrumentation engineers can find jobs in both hardware and software sectors. There is more number of jobs for Instrumentation and control engineers in the software sector but you should opt for your core area of expertise where you can make use of your knowledge and skillset. Instrumentation and control engineers work with the industries with the goal of improving productivity, optimisation, stability, reliability, safety and continuity. These engineers design, develop, and maintain and manage the instruments and the Instrumentation systems. Instrumentation engineer is the person who takes call on what kinds of instruments are needed for ensuring efficiency and quality of the end product. NATURE OF JOB An Instrumentation and control engineer is required to: 1. Design and develop control systems. 2. Maintain the existing control systems. 3. Manage the control systems. 4. Collaborate with design engineers, purchasers and other staff members involved in the production processes. 5. Manage projects within the given restraints including cost and time. 6. Troubleshoot. 7. Ensure that the instruments comply with health and safety regulations. 8. Ensure that quality standards are maintained. 9. Provide consultancy support. An Instrumentation and control engineer is expected to learn subjects like Industrial Instrumentation, System Dynamics and Process Control. Some basics required for this job include in-depth knowledge of physics and exceptional logical ability. Those willing to make a successful career in this domain and find applicability in both software and hardware domains should master subjects like microcontroller-based Instrumentation, microprocessor -based Instrumentation, VLSI, computer architecture and embedded system design. They should also be thorough with computer languages like FORTRAN and ‘C’. The job requires a lot of precision, so the person should have a close-to-perfection attitude.



- Ameya Shikhare (T.E. INSTRUMENTATION)

Your box can watch you while you’re watching it; your notebook can follow you when you surf the Web and you Smartphone can secretly scrutinize every corner of your house. All these pictures could then go ashore in the hands of hackers. Hackers can fob watch you through your PC’s WEBCAM TV device or mobile phone. There have been cases of PC rental agencies exploiting such weaknesses to track their customers and even schools have tracked students without their awareness. Amongst the many things these spying mechanisms permit hackers to do is install malware. And some of the more nasty PC malwares can even lock up a PC and pressurize it to delete everything on it unless you pay a sum, and a picture of yourself through your own webcam is shown to show you proof of you being monitored. The consequences can be much more severe if a wicked hacker takes over your mobile phone cameras. Since they are used at many locations and are always moving, phones can be used to extrapolate detailed, variable, zoom-able panorama shots of apartments and offices. Papers scattered across an office and notices on boards can be read. Scientists have already developed proof-of-concept software to produce high-resolution images from such cameras. Besides pc and smart phones, there are also smart TVs’ with integrated webcams that can be tainted. A Smartphone can disclose secure details about you not only through its camera but with its other sensors too. With an active internet connection, 1 or even 2 cameras and other sensors, your Smartphone is a chiefly satisfying target for hackers on a job. Unlike a motionless pc, it not only includes potentially compromising photos but a range of information that can be called up together with images connecting you to it, including details such as where and when the photo was taken. Even manufacturers of smart phones and their business partners are desperately interested in collecting such information.


The Mobile operating system is dependent on two basic principles: the user must grant each app authorizations for what it wants access to, and apps are strictly separated from one another. This way malware can only upload stolen data if it has been authorized for Internet access. However, proof-of-concept app Soundcomber bypasses all of this. It only requires authorization for sound recording and disguises itself as a risk-free voice memo app. It slyly taps phone calls and extracts numbers entered or spoken into the phone. It then transfers these numbers to its author by calling up the Android browser, which does not require authorization. It directs the browser to go to a specific URL, which includes the numbers that have been stolen. The URL is interpreted by the author’s server and he gains one of the numbers. As an alternative, Soundcomber can also smuggle this data through a “dead postbox” to a second identical malware app. For this purpose, it changes the authorizatiwons on different photos in your camera roll in a predetermined sequence. The information is then reassembled by the second app and then transferred via the Internet. Hackers can also transfer images this way. Besides the camera and the microphone, a Smartphone’s motion sensors are also used to spy on users. This is supported by the research project (sp) iPhone which uses the highly accurate accelerator sensors of an iPhone to determine what is typed on a PC keyboard set beside the Smartphone on the table. Smartphone registers the vibrations and reconstructs the text typed in from the sequence and a dictionary, although it helps if you know the subject matter that is being typed in advance. The researchers managed a success rate of 80 percent. In Apples App store for iOS, it is very difficult to find malicious apps, says Omar About Deif, head of app development at Vukee. Unlike Android, iOS apps can only remain active in the background if there is a very good reason for it doing so. Apple checks precisely why an app would like to run over a long period of time in the background and allows only a few to do so. No matter which platform you use, it’s a good idea to uninstall apps that you don’t use regularly -- once an app is removed, it no longer poses a threat. In order to check exactly which device communicates with which server, you will have to analyze your household data traffic. To do this, switch off all network devices except your PC and the device you wish to examine. Your router should let you see which devices are currently using the Internet connection and which IP addresses data is being sent to and received from. Anyone who wants to feel completely safe from surveillance should, as with a PC webcam, simply unplug the camera when not in use, or if that is not possible, cover it with a physical barrier.


She thought of it! - Maroof Kazi (B.E. INSTRUMENTATION) What name springs to mind when you hear the phrase “famous female inventor”? If you’re having a tough time answering this, you are not alone. As you are well aware, women historically have been under-represented in scientific and technical fields. We know that there are multiple reasons for this, one of the main ones being the cultural stereotypes and definitions of women and men, which are grounded in the religious and political culture and have been institutionalized through our education and socialization over the centuries. Women have been given limited educational opportunities, have been restricted by law from many activities, and have been excluded from professional societies and publications. Over the past 100 years, these limitations have begun to be lifted and doors and minds have begun to open. There have always been women who have applied their common sense and natural abilities to contribute to their world through scientific and technical innovations. Today we are seeing far more participation by women in the technical fields. It is ironic that the concept of women as inventors has been belittled or ignored. Here is a brief look at a few ingenious women and their inventions.

Liquid Paper - Bette Nesmith Graham You know that white stuff you paint on paper to cover mistakes? It was originally called “mistake out” and was the invention of Bette Nesmith Graham, a divorcee who went to work in 1951 to support herself and her son. Graham used her own kitchen blender to mix up her first batch of liquid paper or white out, a substance used to cover up mistakes made on paper.

Windshield Wiper - Mary Anderson Anyone who’s ever driven in a rain can attest to the dire importance of windshield wipers. What a lot of people don’t know is that windshield wipers were invented by a woman. During a trip to New York City, Mary Anderson noticed that streetcar drivers had to open the windows of their cars when it rained in order to see, as a solution she invented a swinging arm device with a rubber blade that was operated by the driver from within the vehicle via a lever. The windshield wipers became standard equipment on all American cars by 1916.


Kevlar - Stephanie Kwolek Stephanie Kwolek’s research with high performance chemical compounds for the DuPont Company led to the development of a synthetic material called Kevlar which is five times stronger than the same weight of steel. Kevlar, patented by Kwolek in 1966, does not rust nor corrode and is extremely lightweight. Many police officers owe their lives to Stephanie Kwolek, for Kevlar is the material used in bullet proof vests. Other applications of the compound include underwater cables, brake linings, space vehicles, boats, parachutes, skis, and building materials. Apgar Scale - Dr. Virginia Apgar The Apgar scale is a standardized scale that is used to determine the physical status of an infant at birth. This simple, easy-to-perform test was devised by Dr. Virginia Apgar, a professor of anesthesia. The Apgar scale is administered to a newborn at one minute after birth and five minutes after birth. It scores the baby’s heart rate, respiration, muscle tone, reflex response, and color. This test quickly alerts medical personnel that the newborn needs assistance.

Spread Spectrum Technology - Hedy Lamarr Silver Screen superstar Hedy Lamarr with the help of composer George Antheil invented a secret communication system in an effort to help the allies defeat the Germans in World War II. The invention manipulated radio frequencies between transmission and reception to develop an unbreakable code, so that top-secret messages could not be intercepted. The technology called spread spectrum, now takes on many forms. However, the entire spread spectrum that we use today directly or indirectly flows from the invention created by Hedy Lamarr.

Radioimmunoassay (RIA) - Rosalyn Sussman Yalow This technique was an important invention that was used for measuring substances in the human body found in tiny quantities such as viruses, drugs and hormones. This technique is also used for screening diseases such as hepatitis or any other hormone related problems in the blood, especially after people donate blood. It is also used to mark the presence of any foreign bodies in the blood stream which allows them to detect even some types of cancers.


Computer Compiler – Dr. Grace Murray Hopper She was one of the first programmers to transform large digital computers from oversized calculators into relatively intelligent machines capable of understanding ‘human’ instructions. Hopper invented the first computer ‘compiler’. A compiler is software that makes other computer software called programming languages easier to write. Computer programmers had been required to write programming instructions in binary code, a series of 0’s and 1’s. Grace Hopper’s compiler allowed programmers to use more human sounding language commands to replace repetitive commands. Grace Hopper also developed a common language with which computers could communicate called Common Business-Oriented Language or COBOL; now the most widely used computer business language in the world. COBOL enabled firms, large and small to compile computerized payroll, billing, and other records. Various cooking devices, including stoves, ovens, and steam cookers, were both invented and improved by women. A variety of medical instruments and devices were invented and patented by women, including sterilization techniques and devices, medical beds and chairs, field ambulances and stretchers. A number of helpful devices, exclusively for the disabled have also been invented by women, including a watch and a typewriter for the blind. The ubiquitous trash can with the step-on lever to open the lid is also an invention by a woman. Other inventions include: Barbie Doll – Ruth Handler, Baby Carrier –Ann Moore, Submarine Telescope and Lamp - Sarah Mather, Chocolate Chip Cookies - Ruth Wakefield, Circular Saw - Tabitha Babbitt, Dishwasher - Josephine Cochran, Disposable Diaper - Marion Donovan, Electric Water Heater - Ida Forbes, Elevated Railway - Mary Walton, Ironing Board Sarah Boone, Medical Syringe - Letitia Geer, Refrigerator - Florence Parpart, etc. Being aware of the history of women inventors gives us both pride in our heritage and ammunition to fight prejudice as we strive for real equity and opportunity. Women’s innovations and inventions have been instrumental in the development of Western society and industry. Many of the women mentioned, struggled against prejudice and indifference, and created their ideas and products in their own homes, without the benefits of a technical education, laboratories or workshops, proper equipment, assistants, or funding and support. But they succeeded nonetheless, and are finally being recognized for their work. I hope we can all take some inspiration from them.


Lights, Camera, Technology! Chaitra Purakkandy (T.E. INSTRUMENTATION)

What proved to be more breath-taking than the dramatic reappearance of Batman after a span of eight years was undoubtedly his wonderful pair of hot wheels- the Batpod. The police, being dutifully keen at charging Batman with a number of crimes he had not committed, chased him to a dark alley culminating in a dead end. With looks of immense satisfaction at having cornered Batman with no obvious possibility of an escape, the police advanced further. But before those expressions of satisfaction could intensify, they turned into surprise with noticeable traces of awe. From the depths of the dark alley emerged a majestic vehicle in black. It had an amazing appearance and prowess to match. It didn’t roll on wheels towards the police. It flew over them. Although it had a much longer technical designation, it was conveniently and much suitably called “The Bat”. In the movie ‘The Dark Knight Rises’, the Bat was a crucial saviour. The Bat, also called as the Batplane or the Batwing, resembled a sturdily built military aircraft. It possessed incredible fire-power which could be targeted sharply. This powerful flying machine could be maneuvered at any angle and was game to last moment manipulations in its trajectory. It was resistant to bullets, fire and water but certainly not to envy. Meanwhile, a certain Mr. Ethan Hunt who had accomplished impossible missions time and again, was back in the fourth installment of the ‘Mission: Impossible’ series. This movie was merrily loaded with gadgets that any technology enthusiast would die for.


Contact lenses that were capable of capturing images and transferring them to a memory device, 3D printers that could recreate a person’s head so that it could be used as a mask. and battery operated gloves that helped the lead character climb the world’s tallest building were some of the exceedingly impressive applications of technology. Yet, what truly stole the show was the holographic projection screen. Holographic projections are not uncommon, but this one was remarkably smarter than the others. A holographic impression of an empty corridor was created in the movie to hoodwink a security guard. The empty corridor was projected on a screen while the lead character and his accomplice worked behind it. A sensor tracked the changes in the guard’s line of sight and accordingly altered the position of the “empty corridor”, thus successfully making the guard sense nothing out of order. Technology has always found comfort in being teamed up with action. Along came “Hugo”, to nudge technology out of its comfort zone. “Hugo”, an adorable movie with a child protagonist, was elegantly injected with ample doses of technology. The child had an ‘automaton’ in his possession, left to him by his father, along with some curious secret. This curious secret turned out to be an intriguing sketch, which had been fed into the automaton. The automaton required a key to initiate its working. Once it was set to action, it recreated the sketch that was stored in it for over a decade. It did all of this, without a single electrical component. The automaton was purely and astonishingly, a mechanical device. When the discussion is about technology in movies, there is one series which simply cannot be kept unmentioned. “The Iron Man” movies have been radiantly bursting with technology. The heart of the movies and of the central character is an ‘arc reactor’. Due to a dreadful terrorist attack, sharp fragments of ammunition had entered the Iron Man’s body. To prevent them from reaching his heart, an electromagnet was installed in his chest. The electromagnet was originally powered by a car battery, and later by an arc reactor. The arc reactor originally had a Palladium core, which was improvised to a ‘Vibranium’ alternative, thus making it a clean and abundant source of energy. The reactor worked on the principle of ‘cold fusion’.


In addition to keeping him alive, the arc reactor powered his specially designed Iron Man suits. These suits were packed with fascinating marvels of technology. The Iron Man could not have fought evil without his suit, and surely not without his arc reactor. If there is a real man with an engineered controller, there is also an engineered man with real emotions. The character David in the movie “Prometheus” was an android- a robot that appears convincingly like a human. David was an efficient android, holding an unthinkably large volume of vital data in his system, capable of handling complicated calculations, and he couldn’t die. However, his human acquaintances weren’t as appreciative of him as he would have liked them to be. Gradually the android that was devoid of emotions began developing them. The robotic system started feeling disappointed, curious, insulted and angry, and it started showing them too. Ultimately, a feeling of revenge had risen to such an extent within the metal fixtures and wires, that David killed a human. Technology depicted in movies is admirable. Some find science fiction movies to be the most entertaining genre. Some find it to be the most imaginative one. The world needs people who find inspiration within the frames. People, who wish to do something productive with technology. People, who wish to use technology in a morally right way. People, who wish to touch lives.




It was my last theory paper and a short vacation was most awaited. I had already been planning to do an internship or industrial training of some sort. One day, my classmate told me about the Winter Training program at the B.P.C.L.(Bharat Petroleum Corporation Limited) Refinery, Mahul. We wrote applications to our H.O.D. regarding the permission for the training. He gave his approval which was submitted to the training cell of the company. This is how we began our journey through the maze. On 20th December, 2012, we went to B.P.C.L. to start off our very first day as interns. I felt proud just to be standing there, at the entrance itself. The tight security at the main gate, the gigantic trucks and tankers entering, the glimpse of the whole refinery at the main gate made my nerves tingle. After all the final admission formalities, we were assigned to a plant named R.M.P. (Refinery Modernization Plant) which was situated at the far end of the humungous 454-acre Refinery. Yes, we had to put in lots of efforts to walk towards the plant area; that too, wearing safety gear which included special shoes, safety suit and helmet. We wouldn’t be allowed in the plant area without these safety measures taken. Electronic gadgets were also strictly prohibited in the vicinity of the plant. The treatment and hospitality provided to us as trainees were extremely delightful. We were provided with meals. Frankly speaking, I loved the delicacies provided during both meals that left me wanting for more. Evidently, they proved to be highlights of the entire training program. Every morning we used to reach at 8.30 am. After having breakfast at the refinery canteen, we boarded the bus for the plant at 9.00 am. Punctuality was a necessity, since missing the bus would mean walking an entire kilometer through the plant area, filled with suffocating odour of the oil and deafening noise. Coming to the technical part of the program, we learnt the theoretical and practical use of almost all types of transducers and sensors. We understood their industrial applications and how they are operated manually as well as through P.L.C. (Programmable Logic Controller) and D.C.S. (Discrete Control System). We went through the datasheets of different flow, temperature and pressure detectors. We even got a few opportunities to calibrate the control valve and the DP transmitter ourselves. Most of the time was spent in the control room, which was the hub for the entire plant’s working and control. We observed the huge control panels, display screens, etc. The sincerity with which the staff worked there justified their position to be in the heart of the Refinery. What we realized after the training is that, the theory which we learn in our college is hardly 20% of the knowledge we require, to be professionals. The remaining 80% comprises of the knowledge and experience we gain at such training setups. I believe students should test themselves at such industrial trainings and internships, since our college already supports these knowledgeable programs. For me, it proved to be immensely significant as I got acquainted to the real instruments and control systems used at industrial facilities. One should definitely grab such opportunities with both hands and imbibe every bit of experience and information they provide for one’s own future.




Engineering is the field which deals with innovations, inventions and the advancement of technology. Although the curriculum covers all the aspects of a particular branch over the semesters, it is necessary that students take initiative on their own to gain actual knowledge on what the current trend in their field is, and what are the advancements which have taken place; it is not possible to teach such things in a classroom. That is where internships come into the limelight. I believe every engineering student should do atleast one internship from a reputed industry or research centre. This would help them in correlating what they learn in their regular curriculum with how they apply it in the real world. I did my internship after my second year, i.e. after my fourth semester, from one of the reputed research centres of the country, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre. It was a 30 day internship. At first, I was nervous about whether I would be able to understand what would be told to me, or if I would be able to perform what would be asked of me. However, I can assure everyone that the trouble is really worth it. Of course, I had to study some advanced topics on my own because being just a second year student then, I was not acclimatised to many core topics, which I understand better now, being in third year. I did my internship in the Electronics Division. Many of you would be surprised and would be wondering what an Instrumentation Engineering student like me could understand or perform, in the Electronics Division of one of the most advanced research institutes of the country. But what people must understand is that Instrumentation is not a separate field altogether. It can link with Electronics, Mechanical or any other core branch. My area of study was a High Voltage Power Supply which powers a Nuclear Reactor. When I got the circuit diagram, I nearly fainted on seeing just how big and complicated the circuit was. But what one must understand is that a big circuit is just made up of many small circuits. You cannot expect to see a single rectifier or a single protection circuit. In a real project all the basic circuitries which we study are interlinked. One may wonder what the role of an Instrumentation Engineer is in this project. The job of an Instrumentation engineer is to control the high output voltage which is 1000V, make proper feedback loops to control the gain of the circuit so as to achieve the required output (because the input is just 5V) and make protection circuits using the feedback concept. Initially, my guide spent the first 10 to 15 days explaining to me the different sub parts of the circuit. Of course, I wasn’t able to follow everything at once, so, I had to spend some time in the humungous BARC library reading up on op-amps, filters, and regulator IC’s, etc. I even had to go through the datasheets of the IC’s used in the project. So, the first half of the internship was basic theoretical work. After the theory, it was time to actually work on the circuit. Thankfully, the circuit was already built and I didn’t have to help in making it! Nevertheless, it was still a prototype and not a finished product. The initial work assigned to me was to ‘cold-test’ the circuit, which means to check the components of the circuit without giving it any supply. I had to check whether all the diodes were operational or not or whether the polarised capacitors were soldered properly or not. Even though the PCB (Printed Circuit Board) was hardly the size of a small notebook, there were around 50 diodes and numerous capacitors. So it wasn’t an easy feat. After the cold test, the supply was provided and the output was observed. What one must understand is that whether they are performing an experiment in college lab or in BARC, it is highly unlikely to obtain the desired output in the first attempt. The output was either high or low or was oscillating. Only after some days of adjusting the ‘trimpots’ or trimmer potentiometers (miniature adjustable electrical components) did we get the desired 1000V. My experience during the internship at BARC is highly invaluable. It even helped me in my SCCD (Signal Conditioning & Circuit Design) mini-project. I gained a hands-on experience on real life industry and research work. According to me, every Engineer should have this experience.


Make The Most of What You’ve Got -Wahid Qureshi (B.E. INSTRUMENTATION) This is my experience on the placement hullabaloo and industrial training which made me realize that life is hell without school and college. In 2008, I got an opportunity for Industrial Training for a month at ONGC (Oil and Natural Gas Corporation). I was delighted to be getting a chance to learn something new, but it turned out to be a faraway dream. My first day was horrible. I went to the department in which I was told to seek the training. The engineer then called me and asked me to sit in front him.He then began by asking me which subjects were included in my Diploma course. Then the real roller-coaster ride started, when he began bombarding me with questions on the Pythagoras Theorem, Bernoulli’s Theorem, Flow Rate Formula, Definition of Energy, Charles’ Law, Boyle’s Law with precise definitions and dates of these formulations. It continued till the last day of my training. If I didn’t answer their questions, I would be asked to study at home and would be asked again the next morning. It was like a daily trauma. Whenever I requested to be allowed on the field with a technician to learn, I was told that it would be dangerous. It was as if I was asking them permission to stroll around in a battlefield. After training, I learnt something important that as an engineering student, if you want to be a good engineer, put in your own efforts because nobody would help you unless you ask for it. People in school will help you when in need; that too, without you asking for it. Every day of your college life should be enjoyed because it will never return. Now, I would like to add about the placement racket. People in third year would consider a student to be a film star if a final year student got placed. My suggestion to all of them is that after the sixth semester exams, start studying R. S. Agarwal book for quantitative section, especially for students who are weak in mathematics as it’s very difficult to get through an aptitude test. This is my personal experience. For those who fear interviews and those who come from a vernacular medium, they should try to practise speaking in English rather than in their own language and make new friends on Facebook and chat with them in English, too. This would help in grasping and learning new words. It is also for those who shy away from talking. For group discussions, watch debates aired on news channels and practice by arguing in English with your friends on random topics; I’m not saying start meaningless fights. There are so many intelligent people who always clear the aptitude test but fail in the Personal Interview especially vernacular students. I’ve said so much about doing this and that, but my most sincere advice to everyone is that you should be true to yourself. You are your own teacher. Prepare a note about yourself, your limitations, your strengths, information about your project that will be required for every interview. I wish luck to all the Third Year students, who will be facing the placement hullabaloo next year.


Rendezvous with Mr. V. P. Raman

Our team of seven had decided since the very first meeting that we would be interviewing Mr. V.P. Raman. Almost every brainstorming session used to conclude with his name or with the question of a professional interview. The only question was, how? As a technical magazine, we did not want to go back on our word about interviewing the crème de la crème from the field of Instrumentation. Then, as though a mighty force heard our prayers, the professional networking site LinkedIn opened the doors for us to get in touch with Raman Sir! Here’s a brief introduction of the Divisional Director at Mott MacDonald Pvt. Ltd. Mr. V.P. Raman is presently working as the Head of Engineering and Business Development with Mott MacDonald Pvt. Ltd., an Engineering Consultancy Organization involved in executing various Upstream, Midstream & Downstream Oil & Gas, Refineries & Petrochemicals and Cross Country Pipeline Projects, for both Local & Global clients. With a post graduate degree in Instrumentation Engineering and 35 years of experience in basic & detailed engineering, project management, planning & scheduling, construction supervision, commissioning assistance related to Automation & Control, he has proven his experience in managing total engineering cycles for projects, covering all engineering disciplines like process, piping, civil and structural, mechanical, electrical and instrumentation. Associated in various capacities with prestigious professional bodies like ISA District-14, ISA Maharashtra Section, ISA SP 20 & 84 Technical Committees, IEC and FFEUC, Raman Sir is currently the District Vice President of ISA (District 14), covering India, Japan, Korea, Malaysia and Singapore. He has worked with reputed organizations like UHDE India Limited, ADMA-OPCO in Abu-Dhabi, Chemtex Engineering, Chemtrols Engineering and Silvertech Middle-East.


“Learn to love mathematics, as you can prove anything without ambiguity.� -Mr. V.P. Raman What ignited the passion in you to take up Instrumentation Engineering? When I started my engineering, specialization in Instrumentation branch was not available, except for few institutes/universities in India. Hence, I took Electronics as my prime subject for the degree course . However, we had Instrumentation as an elective in the final year and I was fascinated with the subject. Hence, I pursued my post graduate with Instrumentation and Control as major, with specialization in advanced process control. I completed my Post Graduation in 1978 and started my professional career. I had a strong faith in this branch (Instrumentation), because of limited seats availability and vast opportunities. Now, it is almost 35 + years, I am associated with various types of process industries and fortunately, my area of work experience has been mainly in the upstream/midstream/ downstream Oil & Gas Industry, Refineries, Petrochemicals and fine chemicals. At the end of the day it is the passion that should drive you, and that is what drives me even today, as even today I spend time in studying. Learning & upgrading self is a continuous process, which every individual must embark upon, failure for which will lead to stagnation and losing pace with the market.

You have been in this field for as long as 35 years. What are the changes you have witnessed in this field? There have been substantial changes in the Instrumentation and Control field. In the early days majority of instruments were pneumatic based and electronic revolutionized the same in late seventies & early eighties. Soon microprocessor technology entered in this field, which totally changed the concept. The chronology of the changes, that have happened is: a) During pneumatic days, all field instruments and its associated control systems were pneumatic and had large number of pneumatic tubes running between the field instruments and its monitoring/control systems. Air compressor was the main source of power for these instruments and in complex requirements like refinery, the control room size used to be huge, with lots of tubes running between the field & control room. Though this used to serve the purpose, it had lot of problems like leakage, sensitivity, accuracy & response time of the control system.


Even the interlocking systems, were pneumatic or relay based, resulting complex arrays of instruments and any logic change was a nightmare. b) Then came the Electronic Instrumentation. Though, this eliminated the sensitivity, accuracy & response time of the control system to some extent, the control room size was still big, as every field instrument was connected to its dedicated monitoring/control system and hence used to be called single/multi-loop controller systems. For the Interlocking systems, Programmable Logic Controllers (PLC) were introduced, for the logics, as it was possible to make on-line changes, without major impact on wiring. Though PLC was introduced in the market primarily for machine monitoring, it soon found its way to the process industries, due to its acceptance. c) Then came the Distributed Control System (DCS), where by single loop system changed over to multi-loop system, retaining the single loop integrity using appropriate redundancy. This minimized the field cabling to some extent, as remote I/O stations were also available. This also resulted in reduced control room sizing. Also at this stage, substantial changes happened in the PLC field, specially the types of redundancies. d) Then came the Serial Communication like Modbus, HART, Ethernet etc. where it was possible to take some of the diagnostics of the field instruments to control room. This eased the pressure on the maintenance team, as it was possible to calibrate the field instruments from the control room. At this stage, multi drop facilities were also available on the field instruments, resulting in lower cables running between the field to control room. e) With the advent of Information Technology (IT) integration, we now have a wide gamut of sophisticated devices and field instruments, working on Foundation Field Bus, Profibus etc. which has resulted in substantial saving in the field cabling, reducing the size of control room, as well give a wide range of diagnostics on the field devices. The system has become more intelligent, reliable and smart, from the past vintage systems to Present day Emergency Shutdown Systems (ESD), Fire & Gas Systems etc.

f) The same applies for wide range of safety systems has become more intelligent, sophisticated and reliable. With the breakthrough in technology come the expectations. The management wants smart plant operation and maintenance, with increased productivity & profitability, zero tolerance on safety etc. with minimum inventory and with high quality products.

There is no room for compromising the quality and safety of the plant operations specially with regard to human life and assets. The absolutely new trend and the requirement is the care & protection of environment, which were abused. Now the top management wants all relevant information on their dashboards in iPads/ Laptops/Mobile etc., so as to monitor the performance continuously.

What is your role as Divisional Director in your Organisation? We are an engineering company involved in the Basic/ Detailed Engineering, Project management, Procurement Assistance and Installation/Commissioning assistance services to industries. Our area of expertise and strength is in Upstream/Mid stream/Downstream Oil & Gas, Refineries, Petrochemicals and Cross country Oil & Gas Pipelines. At Mott MacDonald, I head the Engineering and Business Development. As Head engineering, I am responsible for all fields of engineering namely – Process, Piping, Pipeline, Civil, Structural, Instrumentation, Mechanical and Electrical. We are responsible for the total concept to commissioning of the various plants and work on various projects with PSU’s like ONGC, IOCL, BPCL, HPCL, CAIRN apart from various reputed EPC contractors.

As a District Vice President of ISA, can you elaborate on this voluntary professional organization and other professional bodies? I am proud to be part of ISA and joined ISA as a member in late Nineties. It has been more than 15 years, I am with ISA and fortunately served various positions within ISA. I belong to Maharashtra Section and served as Section president in 2004-2005 and again between 2011-2012. Apart from this, I was fortunate to serve the section in various capabilities as standards & practices chairman, program chairman etc. I am also into the various technical committees of ISA-USA like SP 20 and SP 84 committee. It is very beneficial to get involved with these committees, as it keeps you abreast with the latest developments and technology. Fortunately, I am also involved with other professional bodies like Foundation Field Bus (FFIEUC), BIS, IED, AIA, IEC etc. It has been a long journey, but it keeps me engaged as these platforms give an opportunity to network with other professionals.

What is it that you look for in a fresher during recruitment? What sort of training do you give at your company? There is wide gap between the industry and institution and we need to bridge the gap. The syllabus needs to be worked out towards industry expectations and the industry in turn should get associated with the institution.

When we recruit a trainee candidate during our campus interviews, we look at the basic knowledge on the subject, attitude and approach. Once the candidate is selected, moulding the candidate to suit our requirements is our job. We conduct training, tests, work on live project, site visits etc. and ensure that candidate is best suited for our type of business. The most important expectation is the attitude.

There appears to be limited job opportunities in Instrumentation field. Many of our students feel getting a job in an IT firm/company is better than waiting for a core job. They are always hopeful of coming back to their field of interest after a few years of working elsewhere. Now, in these 3-4 years they will not be in touch at all with their core subjects, especially with their own work load and pressure. How can they expect to get recruited if they’ve lost touch with their subjects? It is matter of choice and interest. Students join different branch like IT, due to its lucrative index like salary, working place, name of the company and its reputation etc. In many cases it might be due to family constraint. When you join Instrumentation be it in engineering consultancy, manufacturer or vendors, salary might not be high, but will you all a fantastic opportunity to be in the real world. However, over a period of time, the salary benchmarks are same with no disparity. Yes, it is indeed difficult, to get back to main stream like Instrumentation, once you are away from it for 3-4 years. By this time, there is a general tendency for people to forget the fundamentals. IT, specially call centres are very different and having wide diversity of people.

Is there anything in particular that you would like to share with us, or any advice you want to give to all the emerging engineers in this field? Learn to love mathematics, as you can prove anything without ambiguity. Everything in Instrumentation is connected with mathematics. Never ever lose touch with your fundamentals. Have a positive attitude. The most important thing is to listen first to what others want to say, before responding. These are the fundamental seeds for you to grow.

- The ISAAC Team


Super Studs - Rohit Kadam (S.E. Instrumentation)

Football, a sport played in more than 205 countries, said to be the most viewed sport all across the globe, needs no special introduction as such. Being one of the oldest sports, its origin can be traced to the 15th century. Legends like Pele, Diego Maradona and many more have painted the history of football to make it reach its golden glory. As we sailed across time, we came to see lots of inventions, change in technology and progress in every field; football did not remain the same either. The quality of football players, the quality of sports accessories and the technology used to make them also improved to unbelievable standards. Prodigies were born in every era of the game, who showed great ability to be the masters, with hard work and impeccable skills to make the football travel all over the world. The most lethal weapon used in the game is a pair of football shoes. It all started in the 15th century when the first pair of studs was commissioned by King Henry VIII. They were made of leather, and the studs hammered into the sole. The studs did not exceed a 0.5’’ projection and possessed a minimum of 0.5’’ diameter. They could neither be conical nor pointed. Later, the German brothers, Adolf and Rudolph Dassler who later went on to form Adidas and Puma respectively, invented boots with interchangeable studs, so as to tackle any kind of weather conditions. Subsequently, to enhance the performance of the boot, polyamide was used, which offered a great touch on the football. As the need for accuracy increased, rubber patches with teeth-like dimples were attached on the face of the boot to allow the wearer to apply extra spin while passing and shooting. At present, the NIKE Mercurial-SL weighs a mere 190 grams and is one of the lightest boots ever; they are made almost entirely of carbon fibre. Mizuno Morelia being the lightest is made of lighter Pebax material. Its studs are the same as sprinting spikes. Any stud manufacturing firm today uses the latest technology on its studs, to help make the players’ performance more precise and accurate.


Some common processes which are carried out are the selection of materials, cutting, stitching, printing, High Frequency embossing and assembly. In any shoe, the upper material is one of the most important (and expensive) components. The product is created and tested to the set specifications. Special material employing water resistant applications is used to design the shoes so that perspiration is taken care of. The TPU (Thermoplastic polyurethane) ‘outsole’ is the outer sole, on which the rivets are fitted externally. An upper sole is the part of the shoe which is fixed over the outsole with the help of an adhesive. The complete area of the outsole is coated with primer cement which is treated by UV light to activate this glue/adhesive. Then the outsole and the upper sole are hard-pressed using a HYDRAULIC PRESS which applies a constant pressure for a constant time and helps in binding them properly. Rivets are then to be fixed on the sole. This is done using a rivet machine; which is loaded like a machine gun with rounds of rivets. It is operated as required in the process. The various models of studs come in different shapes and number of rivets. The latest and the most efficient studs are made of materials like carbon. They consist of replaceable rivets; made of fibre and are designed according to the requirements of the player. The Nike Mercurial Superfly I and II have ‘gear changers’ to provide the required swing for the player. Whilst the use and benefits of football boots that employ both plastic and metal screw-in studs on their soleplate have often been hot topics amongst keen players and boot-fanatics alike, a collision between Wayne Rooney and Fulham’s Hugo Rodallega has seen the normally-niche topic being thrust into the limelight of mainstream media. Just as an author would never dedicate his success to his pen, or Spiderman never thanks a spider for his powers, a footballer, too, would never think of acknowledging his shoes. A footballer does not receive his basic education of the game from a pair of cleats. The creativity of a player’s mind, on the field would also be a difficult thing for a pair of wellpolished boots to explain. Studs can only do a certain job on their own, and that is to nurture an extraordinary player into becoming a legend.


Anurag A prodigy among us...

There is always more to life than what you do, what you have to do, or what you plan to do. It’s what you want to do; your passion. 21 year old Anurag Godbole is a very down-to-earth young man. He might be a budding Instrumentation engineer aiming to get good grades, participating in various extra-curricular activities happening in college, or working hard to submit a well-written project report, just like the rest of us. But above everything, what he most certainly is, is our friend; our friend, who is passionate about music. Anurag’s love for music has taken him to heights that not too many college students could’ve reached easily. Blessed with a wonderful voice, he started learning music in his 3rd grade. What might surprise others is that Anurag did not develop a liking in it till after his 8th grade. He was more into acting, back in those days, and has even competed in State Level One Act Play Competitions, in Maharashtra. Two years later, Anurag realized that he definitely had some interests for the subject he had been learning since childhood. They seemed to be growing, and he sensed the change in his attitude towards it. There was much more than just a connection. He knew it was the music; his music, that he began to compose.


Post his 10th board exams, began Anurag’s beautiful journey. At 16, he took up training in Hindustani classical music professionally. He owes some of his credit to Mumbai University, where he did a Music Composition course for 6 months. This helped hone his talents, thus, taking him to a different level in the world of melodies. Soon after, he joined our college, RAIT, and opted for Instrumentation Engineering. Here, he found many open doors and opportunities that allowed him to carve a niche for a career in singing. He participated in many cultural fests, and won many singing competitions, Marathi debates and the likes. He became a favourite for anything that involved music and Instrumentation, and his talents started being recognized, both in college and outside. Anurag’s first breakthrough was when he was approached by a Marathi film director in 2010 to compose the music for the 2011 film, Ragging Ek Vikruti. With a truly beautiful and hearttouching song, Tuch Nahi, along with other soft, melodious numbers like, Tu Fulanari, Anurag’s charming voice moved everybody. Anurag was also nominated for the ‘Marathi Chitrapat Padarpan Puraskar’, an award specially for debutants, for his work in Ragging, at the young age of 18. None of us were surprised when he was approached for two more Marathi films, in a span of just 2 years. We were elated on hearing about, The Strugglers- Amhi Udyache Hero, which released in November 2012, and also, Gulmohar, that is due to release sometime in April, this year. Anurag got a brilliant opportunity to showcase his talents as a Music Director for The Strugglers, working with famous playback singer Kunal Ganjawala. He is also the man behind the background score for his latest film, Gulmohar, working alongside Indian Idol contestant and finalist, Rahul Saxena. Besides commercial cinema, Anurag’s work in a documentary on Tuberculosis for a renowned Doctor in Tamil Nadu shows his compassion towards people. This was made to create awareness in our society on TB. Being his most recent venture, it will be out for the public later this year, in Tamil. Baba Ranchoddas, courtesy Terry Guillemets, once said, “Follow your passion, and success will follow you”. That is exactly what our fellow Final year student and friend is doing, and success is not far behind. This is definitely the very beginning of a bright future that lies ahead of Anurag Godbole. The world awaits talented geniuses like him, and we all wish him the best in everything he does. We are proud to have him in our college, and our Department.

- Aparna Mahalingam (B.E. INSTRUMENTATION)


Instrumental Symposium Shruti Shetty (T.E. INSTRUMENTATION)

“I am an engineer, but what I find important and necessary is that you just learn things as you go along.” -Terence Howard, American Actor & Singer. Learning knows no boundaries, and it is likewise in engineering! Knowing your engineering field becomes an integral part of your life. Whenever someone asks you about the field you study in, you proudly reply like James Bond, “Engineering, Instrumentation Engineering!” But all that pride comes crashing down when you are asked about its significance. You just remain clueless as to how to explain! For this very reason, ISA-RAIT Students’ Section and Department of Instrumentation Engineering arranged seminars on the 25th & 26th of February, 2013. It was based on distributed control systems and thermal power plants explained brilliantly by Apurba Ratan Ghosh & Rajesh Sampath from Larsen & Toubro (L&T). Mr. Apurba Ratan Ghosh has a prior experience of 5 years at Asea Brown Boveri (ABB) and is currently at L&T. Mr. Rajesh Sampath enjoyed his experience with Emerson and TATA Power Station before joining the same company. They enlightened us with the prerequisites to be an Engineer and how to tackle obstacles in an actual industry. We were awed by the way they elaborated about the Distributed Control System which is used as a computerized control system to control the production line in the industry. They also explicated us on the various norms used in the Instrumentation line as well as on how SCADA (Supervisory Control And Data Acquisition) helps as an interface for the maintenance of a distributed industry. A DCS typically uses custom designed processors as controllers, comprising of both proprietary interconnections and communications protocol for communication. Input and output modules form components of the DCS. They highlighted the evolution of a PLC (Programmable Logic Controller) over a period of 40 years, which began its journey in the seventies. The description of Thermal Power Plants made me curious about their existence as well as development. The knowledge bestowed upon us through this seminar was truly inspiring. We had a fully-fledged question and answer round to follow up, where both speakers reciprocated humbly by answering each and every query.


On the 26th of February, 2013 we had an interactive session with Mr. Rajesh Shah, Owner and Founder of NICE Consultancy organized by ISA-RAIT Students’ Section and Department of Instrumentation. The seminar was titled, “Various Scopes in Instrumentation”, which had all the answers to our queries. We were so intrigued by the way Mr. Shah spoke for 3 full hours on just a single slide. Mr. Shah cited many pros and cons of each profession related to our field, with examples from his past. He shared his experience as an engineering student when he passed out in 1987, all the companies he worked for, what he challenges he faced, and how he is now the owner of NICE Consultancy with 20-25 people under him. He suggested his views about how we can also have career in military and artillery, space & research. “Instrumentation is an amalgamation of various fields together”, very rightly said by Mr. Shah. He also explained to us the Instrumentation engineer has and how to maintain and develop one’s job profile. It was such an interactive session that each and every student was pumped up with energy. Indeed, this seminar was an eye opener to those of us who were apprehensive of the future prospects of this field. A day after the wonderful experience, the Instrumentation department, along with the Electronics department of RAIT organized a remote triggered lab project for Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD), New Delhi regarding DC motor control. Prof. P.S.V. Nataraj, Systems & Control Engineering Group from IIT Bombay, Powai, was present with a group of students who supported him during this workshop. In this particular project we used a virtual laboratory where distant learning and experimentation, thereby allowing people to share knowledge, data, voice, video, tools, and many other resources. For instance, 5 motors are installed at IIT-Bombay and we, using a LABVIEW programming window, are able to monitor it from our college laboratories via internet connection. We can vary the speed, rotations and also study the graph simultaneously. The whole workshop was divided into two slots- the 1st was about imparting basic theory concepts about the motor speed & control, and the 2nd, a hands-on practical session on motor assemblies which had been installed in our college for the same. We were accompanied by our teachers who took great interest in the project as well. We had three fine, informative seminars which not only helped us imbibe such great engineering philosophies, but also inculcated in us an engineer’s approach to a particular problem. We can rightly quote “There is no such instrument that can measure the talent of Instrumentation!”


“Laughter is the sun that drives winter away from the human face.”

- Victor Hugo

Phrases Used By Engineers And Their Meaning: Years of development. (It finally worked.) Fax it to me. (I’m too lazy to write it down.) No maintenance. (If it breaks, we can’t fix it.) We’re following the standard. (We’ve always done it this way.) I haven’t gotten your email. (It’s been days since I’ve checked my email.) We’re trying a number of different approaches. (We still guessing, at this point.) The project is in process. (It’s so tied up in red tape that it’s completely hopeless.) We’ll have to abandon the entire concept. (The only person who understood the thing just quit.) We’ll look into it. (Forget it! We’ve got so many other problems already, we’ll never get to it.) Customer satisfaction is believed to be assured. (We’re so far behind schedule that the customer will settle for anything.)


The Year That Wasn’t Mumbai

April 1, 2013

Delhi Metro to issue advisory for women Mary Kom sells her Olympic medal to start a matrimonial passengers “Agla station, Molestation...” Press Trust of ISAAC (PTI)

New Delhi: An analysis of figures shows that Delhi witnesses four rapes a day. However, police say that the surge in number of rape cases could not be directly attributed to the law and order situation as it is impossible to police a city which runs on such high levels of testoterone. After all the protests that have QUICK READ been going on at India Gate, in an initiative to make Delhi safe for wom• Vijay Mallya approaches Bappi en the Delhi Metro Railway Corporation (DMRC) decides to take steps Lahiri for a gold to battle violence against women. loan. The DMRC has decided to install an • Chuck Norris indigenously built system which will lets the dogs out; issue an advisory for women.

site, “Mary dot Kom”. Press Trust of ISAAC (PTI)

Manipur: On hearing about IOC’s recent threat to suspend the IOA, our very own woman boxer from the North-East, has thought of a new way to make ends meet. “I plan to sell my Olympic medal to the highest bidder, for the capital to start my new venture”, she says. A well-known business analyst in India credits her on her choice of the name for the matrimonial site.

Rajnikant solves the mystery.

• BEST bus conductor found giving change for hundred rupees. •Boy misses 3 calls from girlfriend; jumps to death. •After the poor performance of their teams in the IPL, Gilchrist and Dinda were found playing Gilli-Dinda.

After months of toil, research scientists all over the world concluded, “Jatayu was the original angry bird.”

Press Trust of ISAAC (PTI)

Raameshwaram: Self-proclaimed research scientists all over the world came to a unanimous decision agreeing with their counterparts in India, to rebuke the claims made by Rovio Entertainment on its ‘Red Bird’ being the real Angry Bird. This delighted Jatayu’s brother Sampati, who had given up waiting for this justice that has finally come his way, and is very thankful to the ISAAC crew, who were the first to report this, bringing it to the limelight.

EMPLOYER NEEDED Dynamically static B.E. graduate willing to work anywhere in India seeks employer, who will provide him a much needed reason to be called ‘employed’. Being forever alone, in-time and out-time no bar. Salary no bar. Ph: 9876543210


April 1,2013

Anjali asks Sachin to retire because of the Sau-ton and because she never liked it....!!! Press Trust of ISAAC (PTI)

Arindham Chaudhary asks Ashwathama to "Discover a diamond in you...!!" Press Trust of ISAAC (PTI)

Mumbai: The man who was a living nightmare for many international bowlers, retires. Behind every man’s success, is a woman. Anjali probably found out about this woman. We approached her for a comment. “Sau-ton! Sau-ton! Sau-ton! was all that he used to talk about! How can any Indian naari tolerate this??”, fumed Anjali. Those are some sentiments, Anjali.

After returning from her second mission to space, Sunita Williams shares 157 photos on Facebook, with an album titled, “space trip with frndzzzz!!!! <3<3<3”

Dwarka: A regular “Pg 3” guy with a ponytail has finally made it to the headlines. Shakuni Mama, being Mr.Chaudhary’s spokesperson and an IIPM graduate, clarifies, “Arindham found Ashwathama lacking in his managerial skills, on seeing his performance in the Mahabharata project.” An IIM-A alumnus, Lord Krishna, retorts via text message, “Ashwathama hatayanate | Narova kunjarova ||” Our ISAAC correspondent, from Dwarka, translates, “Ahwathama had a day with Sharapova and Kournikova.”

Dhrutarashtra got pissed off after Ohio: The U.S astronaut is still our the Govt announces 9 LPG cap per family. very own Shrimati. Sunita WilPress Trust of ISAAC (PTI)

liams, parachuted through dark and landed near Northern Kazak town. As told by a renowned numerologist Bejan Daruwala, Williams touched down on shubh muhurat at 7:56 A.M. local time. After being questioned by our ISAAC reporter about the trip, thrilled Sunita behen says, “It was so fun, we chilled out for 125 days. The best thing about space trips is that they never make you feel conscious of putting on weight so we partied hard. Clicked coool pics! In fact, I have uploaded some photos on my Facebook wall and you know I’m eagerly waiting for more likes, they will surely get me more votes to go on another one!”

Press Trust of ISAAC (PTI)

Hastinapur, Meerut: This morning, cabinet committee on political affairs (CCPA) raised the cap on subsidized LPG cylinders from 6 to 9, annually per household. This evokes strong reaction from the masses, condemning the decision. A blind father from Hastinapur, Meerut, has lots to say- “I have a 100 little sons. This decision puts me in a very sticky situation, you see?!” This is just one of the million disappointed families in India. The Home Minister was unavailable for comment.

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Chinmay Wadikar (B.E. INSTRUMENTATION)

• One of the greatest chemical engineering inventions was made by a mechanical engineer. In 1927, Eugene Houdry invented catalytic cracking, which allows high-quality gasoline to be made from heavy crude oil. Born in France, Houdry moved to America to work on his process, eventually commercializing it in 1937. This process, with much advancement, is still widely used today.

Ever wonder why computer keyboards are arranged in the QWERTY pattern? In the early days of mechanical typewriters, proficient typists could type so fast that that the keys frequently jammed against each other. The familiar but illogical QWERTY pattern was developed in an effort to space often-used-keys apart to prevent jamming.

• Charles Goodyear, inventor of vulcanized rubber, wanted to make everything of rubber; banknotes, musical instruments, flags, jewellery, ship sails, even ship themselves. He had his portrait painted on rubber, his calling cards engraved on it, his autobiography printed on and bound in it. He wore rubber hats, vests, and ties. Neither Goodyear nor his family was ever connected with the company named in his honour, Goodyear Tire and Rubber Co.

The microwave oven was invented by accident. A scientist found his chocolate bar had been melted by an experiment he was running on radar systems - the kind that locate flying objects miles away. Percy Spencer was running trying to find new uses for radar, as World War II had just ended, and spotting enemy planes was no longer a driving concern. Spencer reached into his lab coat pocket one day during the experiment, and found that the chocolate bar he was looking forward to eating had melted into a soggy mess.

• Moore’s Law predicts that the number of transistors industry places on a computer chip will double every year (later updated to doubling every 18 months). The creator, Gordon E. Moore, cofounded Intel Corporation in 1968. Intel is one of the world’s leading innovators and suppliers of microprocessors and computer chips.

• The construction of the Panama Canal, a great engineering and construction feat, required the removal of 211 million cubic yards of earth. A typical pickup bed holds about 3 cubic yards.


Cartoons Aparna Mahalingam (B.E. INSTRUMENTATION) Gaurav Shetty (S.E. INSTRUMENTATION)

Engineering is defined as the application of scientific, economic, social, and practical knowledge, in order to design, build, and maintain structures, machines, devices, systems, materials and processes. I bet no one has ever tried to search its precise definition. The complexity of the definition makes our mind boggle about the depth of the subject. The laws of Physics, Chemistry, Mathematics as well as Environmental Sciences, combined together results in the invention of this magical and adventurous stream. An engineer, being well educated with the basics and the complexes of science, is a very difficult person to argue with. He will never take the high road in any debate, instead would try to take you to the dogs. But there is one extraordinary group of professionals that has challenged these technicians, making their lives a living hell. I mean it in a good way, a competitive way. This herd of creative geniuses is known as Cartoonists. The Flintstones, an animated television show launched in 1960, proved to be the first revelation in the world of high-tech cartoons. Based on a working class family during the Stone Age, The Flintstones takes us into an artistic and comic world of the pre-historic period. The Hanna-Barbera production shows the pre-historic animals to be analogous to modern machines. The use of a baby woolly mammoth as a vacuum cleaner and the use of an adult counterpart for a shower are few of the innumerable Stone Age gadgets that the artists innovated. The basic day-to-day instruments and appliances have been shown in such a way that even a Stone Age man, if he ever watched, would think of applying these imaginative applications into use. Evidently, Hanna-Barbera just ignored the first half of the definition, traumatizing the engineers to their very core.


Two years later, Hanna-Barbera scripted another inventive show, The Jetsons. Based on a family living in 2062, this show gave engineers a reason to stay in the field. The duo showed astonishing detailing in the crafting of incredible futuristic gadgets. The aerocar used for commuting and the robotic maid, Rosie are the first things that pop up in my mind. In a world where airplanes where just becoming a common commute, this awesome twosome presented engineers with a challenge of a flying car and adjustable building towers. Even though such innovations are still not a common scene in the dawn of the 21st century, five decades would be more than enough for engineers to build a real ‘Jetsons World’.

The artistic magic canvased by Hanna-Barbera wasn’t maintained by cartoonists, in terms of unrealistic technology, in the latter part of the 20th century. But along came two boys after the turn of the century to put a few technical brains into severe hard work. Phineas and Ferb are two brothers who love to experiment new schemes and ideas of their own which would be difficult for even an adult to keep up with. Broadcasting its first episode in 2007, it became an instant hit among crowds all over the world. Cartoonists Dan Povenmire and Jeff “Swampy” Marsh combined humour with exceptional innovations to carve out a sparkling plot, which makes me think about our bright future. The addition of Perry the Platypus, a secret agent for an all-animal government organization called the O.W.C.A. (“Organization Without a Cool Acronym”) and Dr. Doofenshmirtz, an evil scientist inventing weapons like Shrink-inator, Giant Dog Biscuit-inator, etc., makes it a treat to watch for people from all age groups.

The human mind is a source for unlimited treasure. You just need to dig a little deeper to discover the hidden gold, and unlike real gold, this precious wealth is renewable. Imagination knows no bounds, just as these cartoonists have depicted, inspiring innumerable engineers to rack their brains into replicating such ideas. Who knows, by 2062 we could actually be flying to the supermarket with our own aerocars!


Oh Beautiful Night


Oh Beautiful Night, Oh Beautiful Night… Twinkling stars and the sparkling moonlight Oh Beautiful Night… Beauty lies in her naked sight, Covered only by the darkness right. In her presence, I find peace alright, After the daily rat race, & those silly fights, Oh Beautiful Night… The Moon is full, the stars shine bright, A look at her shuns the gloom and fright. Shadows play games in the darkness quiet, Fear them not, they’re your mind’s sleight. Oh Beautiful Night… Unlucky are those who sleep tight, I pray for those who wish me ill & spite. You can hurt me with all your might, You can cut me with your hateful eyes. Yet, just like the Sun after the Darkest Night I’ll RISE … Oh Beautiful Night, Oh Beautiful Night… Twinkling stars and the sparkling moonlight Oh Beautiful Night… Kiss my loved ones Good Night.


Around hell in

13 days...


I moved around some place on earth A human along with me, A screaming breeze just blew us through, Took all the life in me. A pack of wolves all filled with filth, The devil of lust in them, Was I wrong being born a girl? That I was dragged in pain to hell. Hanged me up on a rope of thorns, Pricked me more than death. My heart was pacing fast in fear As the dirt was entering my blood. Torn apart like a piece of flesh, Still begging for the life I had lost, They made it even worse for me And I was dumped as food for dogs. My words were sailing in boats of tears, Could never come back to life again. The 13 days, agony it was, Like 13 years of pain. Come out, oh good! Kill this evil, And make it a happy world. Or a day may come when a girl will say, You better kill me at birth. 48

S. E. Instrumentation

T. E. Instrumentation

B. E. Instrumentation