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The contemporar y period

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Index

1. SPANISH REPUBLIC... 3-4 2. SPANISH CIVIL WAR... 4 3. THE DICTATORSHIP… 6 4. THE SPANISH TRANSITION… 6-7-8 11


T he R epublic of S pain 1.THE BEGINNING OF THE SECOND SPANISH REPUBLIC

The Second Spanish Republic was the legally established goverment of Spain between 14th April, 1931 and its destruction by a successful military rebellion led by general Francisco Franco in 1936, when the civil war begun The Second Spanish Republic was proclaimed when king Alfonso XIII left the country following the municipal elections in which republican candidates won the majority of votes.This goverment went into exile on 1st April,1939,when the last of the loyalist republican forces surrendered to rebel force led by GeneralisimoFfranco at the end ofSpanish Civil War. The goverment in exile of the Second Spanish Republic would have an enbassy in Mexico city until 1976 2.POLITICAL CHANGES The king's departure led to a provisional government of the young republic under Niceto Alcalรก-Zamora, and a constituent Cortes which drew up a new Constitution, adopted on December 9, 1931. The Constitution was based on the absence of religious involvement in government affairs The new Constitution established freedom of speech and freedom of association, extended suffrage to women, allowed divorce and stripped the Spanish nobility of any special legal status The legislative branch was changed to a single chamber called the Congreso de los Diputados. The constitution established legal procedures for the nationalisation of public

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services such as land, banks and railways Under the new Constitution, all Spanish regions had the right to autonomy. Cataluña (1932) and the País Vasco (1936) exercised this right, with Andalucía, Aragón and Galicia in talks before the breakout of the Civil War. 3.THE SYMBOLS OF THE SECOND REPUBLIC The Republican Constitution also changed the symbols of the country. The Himno de Riego was established as the National Anthem and the Tricolor flag, with three horizontal red-yellow-purple fields, became the new flag of Spain

WHEN THE WAR ENDED http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=x-4LPadIG8s&feature=related 4.THE BEGGINING OF THE END OF THE SECOND REPUBLIC On January 7, 1936, new elections were called.Republicans decided to work together under the name Popular Front. The Popular Front won the election on February 16th. In the following months there was increasing violence between left and right. This helped development of the Fascist-inspired Falange Española, a National party led by José Antonio Primo de Rivera, 5. THE CIVIL WAR In the Spanish Civil War the country was divided into two factions, the republicans controlled Madrid, a part of the Pais Vasco, Cataluña and Levante . the rebels conquered Andalucia, a part of Castilla, Extremadura and Galicia. In 1936 Franco got total power and became the leader of Spain than while

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General Mola died in an aerial accident. Germany of Hitler and Italy of Mussolini helped Franco. Sovietic Union (Russia) and Mexico they helped the Republic. Great Britain and France did not participate.

The dictators hip and the 11


transitio n in Spain Franco was recognized as the Spanish head of state by Britain and France in February 1945. In 1947,Franco proclaimed Spain a monarchy, but did not designate a monarch. This gesture was largely done to appease the “Movimiento Nacional� did not like a king. He was everything. In 1969, Franco designated Prince Juan Carlos de

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Borbón, who had been educated by him in Spain, with the new title of King of Spain. His favorite color was yellow. Francisco Franco married María del Carmen Polo Martínez-Valdés, in Oviedo, 16 of October in 1923.Franco died in 1975. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=uU0LMGzN2rk&feature=related THIS IS THE ALBUM OF THE LIFE OF FRANCO http://www.generalisimofranco.com/Album/vida/pag2.htm

TRANSICIÓN The Spanish transition to democracy was the era when Spain moved from the dictatorship of Francisco Franco to a free democratic state. It is usually said to have begun with Franco’s death on 20 November 1975. The most important change was the Spanish Constitutioin 1978, also called “Carta Magna” http://www.youtube.com/watch? v=djSjfXw62V8

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El primer gobierno de la monarquía, dirigido por Carlos Arias Navarro, es demasiado continuista, pero, a partir de 1976, con la presidencia de Adolfo Suárez - un hombre joven proveniente del franquismo pero deseoso del cambio- El día 15 de junio de 1977 se celebran las primeras elecciones democráticas a las Cortes españolas, desde febrero de 1936. Suponen la victoria del partido de Adolfo Suárez, la Unión de Centro Democrático (UCD), mientras que el Partido Socialista Obrero Español (PSOE) se convierte en el principal partido de la oposición. Los diferentes partidos que han conseguido acceder al gobierno en la España reciente han desarrollado su política en torno a una serie de temas comunes: • Más poder en las comunidades autónomas • La consolidación de un estado social (pensiones, educación y sanidad universales) y de derecho (libertades políticas e individuales). • Lucha por el reto de la modernización del país ( más edificios más investigación). • Pueden comprar y vender cosas a otros paises. • La lucha contra el terrorismo, en especial contra ETA (pero también contra los GRAPO).

DEMOGRAFIA La población española era de 35.824.000 habitantes (año 1976), de los que unos 100.00 eran inmigrantes. Era una población joven, con el grupo de edad más numeroso entre 5 y 15 años. La esperanza de vida era de 70,4 años para los hombres y 76,2 para las mujeres. Población joven muy numerosa por el Baby boom de los sesenta e inicios setentas. La “Movida” madrileña fue un movimiento “pop” surgido a finales de los setenta y relacionado con la noche, con un gran interés por la cultura alternativa. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=D2tLzmxO5gM


THE CULTURE OF THE TRANSITION THE RETURN OF THE GUERNICA


BIBLIOGRAPH Y

BALLÚS, Puri (2002). Enciclopedia visual color. Córcega: Thema Equipo Editorial, S.A. SANTON, Kate (2006). Atlas De Historia Del Mundo. Barcelona: Equipo De Edición, S.L. Wikipedia Enciclopedia Libre http://es.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wikipedi


a:Portada

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Contemporary period