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UNIT 7: CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS BETWEEN THE 8TH AND THE 13TH CENTURIES 2nd ESO

ISABEL GARCÍA-VELASCO teachermsisabel.com


WHAT ARE WE GOING TO STUDY IN THIS UNIT? 1. The northern kingdoms. 2. The expansion of the Christian kingdoms. 3. Castille. 4. Aragรณn. 5. Toledo, the city of three cultures.

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Glossary Remember to add the terms that we explain along the unit. The glossary should be at the end of the notebook. WORDS FOR THE GLOSSARY WILL BE IN PINK.

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1. THE NORTHERN KINGDOMS


1.1 The first kingdoms As we have studied in the previous unit, the Muslims invaded the Peninsula in 711, but some Visigoths could resist in the north and defeat them led by Pelayo in 722 in the battle of Covadonga. They formed the kingdoms of Asturias, Leรณn and Castille.

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1.2 Charlemagne’s invasion In 795 Charlemagne invaded the north and created the Hispanic March along the South of the Pyrenees to protect his empire against the Muslims. This area gradually became independent forming Navarre, Aragón and the Catalan counties.

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1.3 Asturias and Leรณn Asturias was the first Christian Kingdom, created by Pelayo after the battle of Covadonga. Gradually it grew until it reached the river Duero and then was renamed as the Kingdom of Leรณn.

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1.4 Castille Originally, it was a county of Leรณn, but in the 10th century Fernรกn Gonzรกlez made Castile independent. In the 11th century became a kingdom with Ferdinand I who united it with Leรณn in 1038.

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1.5 Portugal It was initially a county of the Kingdom of Castile and Leรณn. In the 12th century it declared its independence and Alfonso Henriques became the first king of Portugal.

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1.6 Navarre In the 9th century the Arista family founded the Pamplona kingdom that lately was renamed as Navarre kingdom. Its most important king was Sancho III (1004-1035).

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1.7 Aragรณn. Until the 11th century, it was part of the Navarre kingdom when Ramiro I created an independent kingdom. In the 12th century it was united with the Catalan counties.

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1.8 The Catalan counties In the 9th century Wifredo el Velloso (the hairy), gained control over the counties. The counts continued paying homage to the French kings during a long time, but in the practice they were independent.

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Which kingdom am I talking about? ➔ ➔ ➔ ➔

When it expanded was renamed as Kingdom of León. It became independent with Ramiro I. Alfonso Henriques was its first king. In the 10th century, it became independent with Fernán González. Its most important king was Sancho III. 15


2. THE EXPANSION OF THE CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS


The process known as Reconquista or Reconquest, refers to the expansion of the Christian kingdoms southwards. It was a slow process that started in 722 and lasted until 1492. The kingdoms were usually fighting between them

The Christian kings considered themselves the heirs of the Visigoths.

instead of fighting against the Muslims. When Al-Andalus was divided in Taifa kingdoms in 1031, the Christians began to cooperate, defeating the Almohads in 1212 in the Navas de Tolosa battle. Fernando III and Alfonso X conquered most of Al-Andalus and finally the Catholic Monarchs conquered Granada in 1492.

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TIME TO INVESTIGATE El Cid was considered a hero and of the first poems written Castilian is about him. ★ Do you know who did he fight initially? ★ Which city did he conquer rule? ★ What was his real name? ★ What is the origin of nickname?

one in for and

his

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3. CASTILE


Castile and Aragón became the two main kingdoms in the Iberian Peninsula during the Reconquest, Castile occupied most of the Peninsula, its society was rural with powerful nobles, its economy was based on agriculture, mainly in sheep-farming for wool and cereals. It also traded with the Low Countries, selling them merino wool for textiles. Alfonso X el Sabio (the Wise) 1252-1284, created the Mesta, an association of shepherds to promote the wool market in Castile and regulated the paths for the sheep, cañadas reales. It had a weak parliament, the king had most of the power.

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Did you know that now a days the shepherds still pass through Madrid once a year?

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Discover the king: Using the ICT and these clues you have to discover the king I am talking about: ★ The Catholic Church made him saint. ★ His son’s name was Alfonso. ★ He took control of many cities: Córdoba, Jaén, Sevilla, Cádiz, Cartagena, Alicante. ★ He was buried in the cathedral of Sevilla. 22


4. ARAGÓN


✗ ✗ ✗ ✗

Aragón occupied a smaller part of the Peninsula, however, it had a Mediterranean empire, hence its economy was based in trade. It was divided in towns where artisans and merchants lived. Unlike Castile, its king was less powerful and the Parliament was strong and took decisions. It produced olives and vines and traded with different products, such as cereals, rice, spices, leather, wood and mainly textiles. Jaime I el Conquistador (the conqueror) 1208-76 expanded the kingdom throughout the Balearic islands, Valencia and Murcia. The kingdom continued its expansion through the Mediterranean sea conquering Sardinia, Sicily, Naples and Neopatria (Greece).

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5. TOLEDO, THE CITY OF THE THREE CULTURES


Toledo was the capital of Hispania with the Visigoths, but when the Muslims occupied the Peninsula they conquered it and ruled it until 1085, when Alfonso VI reconquered the city. It became then the city of the three cultures, where Christians, Jews and Muslims lived peacefully, sharing their knowledge at the university as well as in the Toledo school of translators, where philosophical and scientific works were translated into Latin from Arabic, Greek or Hebrew. 27


Now that we have visited Toledo,create a virtual tour using the pictures that you took during our school trip. Use Genial.ly videos app to do it and upload it to the Google classrooms task. 28


HOW MUCH YOU KNOW ABOUT THE CHRISTIAN KINGDOMS? Let’s play Plickers!!!

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That’s the end of this unit!

Any questions? You can find me at: ✗ ✗

@teachermsisabel contactme@teachermsisabel.com

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Unit 7 christian kingdoms between the 8th and the 13th centuries  

Complete unit with a summary for 2nd ESO about the Christian kingdoms and some engaging activities.

Unit 7 christian kingdoms between the 8th and the 13th centuries  

Complete unit with a summary for 2nd ESO about the Christian kingdoms and some engaging activities.

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