THAT’S ENGLISH! – MODULE 11 UNIT 3 ( A BRIGHT FUTURE) A) GRAMMAR
PRESENT CONTINUOUS AND BE GOING TO
FUTURE TENSES: BE GOING TO – PRESENT CONTINUOUS- WILL( FUTURE SIMPLE ) – FUTURE CONTINUOUS - FUTURE PERFECT
B) VOCABULARY Match the expressions (1-7) to the defi nitions (a-g). 1 a no-brainer 2 whizzkid 3 the brains behind (something) 4 the brainchild 5 it’s not rocket science 6 brainpower 7 to brainstorm a the person responsible for inventing something b it’s easy to do c to generate ideas from a group of people d a highly successful young person e intelligence f so obvious you don’t need to think about it g an original idea, concept or invention
Complete the sentences with one of the expressions from the previous activity 1 The Internet was ... of British computer expert Tim Berners-Lee. 2 Richard Branson was a ... who started a music publishing company before he was 20. 3 Not many people know it was a woman, Josephine Cochrane, who was ... the invention of the dishwasher. 4 Fish oil is believed to increase a child’s ... and ability to concentrate. 5 Don’t use your date of birth as a password – ... to realise it’s important to create a safe one. 6 The boss asked us ... some ideas for new marketing strategies. 7 Of course I want scientists to find a cure for cancer – it’s … . Choose the correct answer. 1 My father still reminds / recalls the first time he saw a television. 2 Sadly, my mother’s memory / recollection is not very good now. 3 My computer crashed but luckily I was able to retrieve / recall all my work. 4 We bought these plates as a recollection / souvenir of our trip. 5 I clearly remember / remind my first day at school. However, I have no souvenir / recollection of my first day at college. 6 She always puts her ring on her little finger to remember / remind her to buy bread.
C) LISTENING COMPREHENSION: 1- Are gifted children born or made?: http://www.learnglish.net/archives/2188
2- Do you fear artificial intelligence?: http://www.bbc.co.uk/learningenglish/spanish/features/6-minute-english/ep-150219 This is not a word-for-word transcript Rob Hello, I'm Rob. Welcome to 6 Minute English and with me in the studio is Neil. Neil Hello, Rob. Rob Hello. Feeling bright today, Neil? Neil I am feeling quite bright and clever, yes! Rob That’s good to hear. Well, you’ll need all your wits about you – meaning you’ll need to think very quickly in this programme because we’re talking about intelligence, or to be more accurate, ………………………………………….. And we’ll learn some vocabulary related to the topic so that you can have your own discussion about it. Now, Neil, you know who Professor Stephen Hawking is, right? Neil Well, of course! Yes. Many people say that …………………………….. – in other words, he is very, very intelligent. Professor Hawking is one of the most famous scientists in the world and people remember him for his brilliance and also because he communicates using a synthetic voice generated by a computer – synthetic means it’s…………………………………... Artificial is similar in meaning – we use it when something is man-made to look or behave like something natural. Rob Well, Professor Hawking has said recently that efforts to create thinking machines are a ………………………………………………... A threat means something which can put us in danger. Now, can you imagine that, Neil?! Neil Well, there’s no denying that good things can come from the creation of Artificial
Intelligence. Computers which can think for themselves might be able to ……………………………………………… we haven’t been able to solve. But technology is developing quickly and maybe we should consider the consequences. Some of these very clever robots are already surpassing us, Rob. To surpass means to have abilities superior to our own. Rob Yes. Maybe you can remember the headlines when a supercomputer ………………………………………………………… Gary Kasparov, to everybody’s astonishment. It was in 1997. What was the computer called, Neil? Was it: a) Red Menace b) Deep Blue c) Silver Surfer Neil I don’t know. I think (c) is probably not right. I think Deep Blue. That’s (b) Deep Blue. Rob Okay. You’ll know if you got it right ………………………………………………………….. Well, our theme is Artificial Intelligence and when we talk about this we have to mention the movies. Neil Many science fiction movies have explored the idea of computers................................................... One example is 2001: A Space Odyssey.
Rob Yes, a good film. And another is The Terminator, a movie in which actor Arnold Schwarzenegger played ........................................ An android is a robot that looks like a human. Have you watched that one, Neil? Neil Yes, I have. And the android .................................................. Rob No, it’s not. In many movies and books about robots that think, the robots end up .............................................................. But some experts say the risk posed by Artificial Intelligence is not that computers attack us because they hate us. Their problem is related to their efficiency. Neil What do you mean? Rob Well, let’s listen to what philosopher Nick Bostrom has to say. He is the founder of the ................................................................................................. at Oxford University. He uses three words when describing what’s inside the mind of a thinking computer. This phrase means ‘to meet their objectives’. What’s the phrase he uses?
Nick Bostrom, philosopher, Future of Humanity Institute at Oxford University The bulk of the risk is not in machines .......................................... or hating humans but rather that they ............................................................... and that in pursuit of their own goals we humans would suffer as a side effect. Suppose you had a super intelligent AI whose only goal was to make as many paperclips as possible. Human bodies consist of atoms and those atoms could be used to make a lot of really nice paperclips. If you want paperclips it turns out that in the pursuit of this you would have instrumental reasons to do things that would be horrible to humanity. Neil A world in which humans become paperclips - wow, that’s scary! But the phrase which means ‘meet their objectives’ is to ‘pursue their goals’. Rob Yes, it is. So the academic explains that if you’re a computer responsible for producing paperclips, you will pursue your objective ................................… Neil … and even use atoms from human bodies to turn them into paperclips! Now that’s a .............................................., Rob. If Stephen Hawking is worried, I think I might be too. How can we be sure that Artificial Intelligence – be it either a device or software – will have a moral compass? Rob Ah, a good expression - a moral compass - in other words, an understanding of what ................................................... and what ............................................. Neil Artificial Intelligence is an interesting topic, Rob. I hope we can chat about it again in the future. But now I’m ............................................ and we are running ......................................., I’m afraid, and I’d like to know if I got the answer to the quiz question right? Rob Well, my question was about a supercomputer which defeated the World Chess Champion Gary Kasparov in 1997. What was the machine’s name? Was it: Red Menace, Deep Blue or Silver Surfer? Neil And I think it’s Deep Blue. Rob Well, it sounds like you are .................................................................... because you got the answer right. Yes, it was Deep Blue. The 1997 match was actually the second one between Kasparov and Deep Blue, a supercomputer designed by the company IBM and it was specialised in chess-playing.
Neil Well, I think I might challenge Deep Blue to a game obviously. I’m a bit of a genius myself. Rob Very good! Good to hear! Anyway, we’ve just got time to remember some of the words and expressions that we’ve used today, Neil. Neil They were: you’ll need your wits about you artificial genius synthetic threat to surpass to pursue their goals moral compass Rob Thank you. Well, that's it for this programme. Do visit bbclearningenglish.com to find more 6 Minute English programmes. Until next time. Goodbye! Neil Goodbye!
- Computers to match man by 2029: http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com/0802/080221-robots.html http://www.breakingnewsenglish.com/0802/080221-robots.mp3 A leading US scientist has predicted that computers ___________ intelligent as humans by 2029. ___________ Dr Ray Kurzweil told the American Association for the Advancement of Science that ___________ future, machine intelligence _______________ power of the human brain. He said that within two decades computers will be able to think quicker than humans. Dr Kurzweil painted a picture ___________ tiny robots called nanobots implanted in our brain ___________ intelligence and health. He told reporters that these microscopic nanobots would _______________ brains to make us think faster and give us more powerful memories. Kurzweil explained that we are already “a human machine civilization” and that the upcoming technology “will be a _______________ of that."
Dr Kurzweil ___________ 18 top intellectuals asked by the US National Academy of Engineering ______________ greatest technological challenges. Other experts included Google founder Larry Page and the ___________ pioneer Dr Craig Venter. Kurzweil has a very impressive background in science and innovation. He was an innovator _____________ of computing, including the technology behind CDs. He also pioneered automatic speech recognition by machines. He predicts ___________ new inventions will increase greatly from now, saying: "â€Śthe next half century will see 32 times more technical progress than ___________ century." This means scenes from science fiction movies, like Blade Runner, The Terminator and I Robot, will become ______________ a part of our everyday lives. - How to improve your memory: http://learnenglishteens.britishcouncil.org/skills/listening-skills-practice/how-improveyour-memory
D) READING COMPREHENSION:
Solution for: The Return of Artificial Intelligence Answer Table 1. E
8. NOT GIVEN
6. NOT GIVEN
Put the words into the gaps in the text.
New research (1) ____________ the Internet is hanging our memory. Researchers from Colombia University presented people with different questions and found many (2) ____________ to think of computers. Lead researcher Dr Betsy Sparrow said that when test participants knew the answers would be (3) ____________ on a computer, they did less well on the memory tests. She said we use the Internet as a new “transactive memory”. We (4) ____________ on this to do the remembering for us. It’s similar to our personal (5) ____________ being backed up on a hard disk. The Internet acts as a huge storage (6) ____________ for all the world’s knowledge, that is there when we need it. Dr Sparrow said computers were not making us (7) ____________ intelligent. “I don't think Google is making us (8) ____________. We're just changing the way that we're remembering things,” she said. Dr Sparrow believes we are (9) ____________ very good at remembering where we keep information in different (10) ____________ on our computers. She said: "This suggests that for the things we can find online, we tend to keep it online as (11) ____________ as memory is concerned - we keep it externally stored." She explained that because we are remembering the (12) ____________ of the information, rather than the information itself, we are becoming better at organising (13) ____________ quantities of data and facts in a more accessible way. She also said the way we use technology is changing our (14) ____________ to remember things, saying: “If you can find stuff online even while you're walking down the (15) ____________ these days, then the skill to have, the thing to remember is where to go to (16) ____________ the information."
Dave Farrow is a Canadian who appears in the
device rely began less suggests data stupid available
huge street folders becomin g find location need far
Guinness Book of World Records for having the greatest memory. As a student, Dave had a learning disability called dyslexia. Despite his struggles with subjects like reading and writing, Dave found ways to improve his memory in order to do well in school. In 2008, he set a world record by memorizing the order of 59 decks of playing cards in two days. How did his brain store all of this information? According to Dave, anybodyâ€™s brain can do it, but it helps to understand how memory works. Your brain is constantly taking in information through your senses. The information enters your sensory memory, which has the capacity to hold lots of information, but only for a few seconds. If you ignore the information, your brain will discard it. However, if you pay attention to it, the information goes into your short term- memory. This is why learning to pay attention is an important first step to improving your ability to recall what you learn. To help the brain focus, Dave recommends breaking big tasks down into smeller ones. He sets a timer and works as hard as he can for short periods of time until the timer alarm sounds. Then he takes a small break. This keeps his focus strong. Your short-term memory can only hold information from 15 seconds to a few minutes. In addition, short-term memory can only hold about seven things at one time. Memory champions like Dave have to hold long lists of information in their shortterm memory at one time. To do this, they rely on different tricks. One trick is to look at the first letter of every word you want to memorize. Then, create your own word, phrase or sentence using all of those letters. This is called an acronym. For example, if you want to remember all the colours in a rainbow, try remembering the name Roy G. Biv. Each letter in this fictional name matches the first letter of a colour: red, orange, yellow, green, blue, indigo, and violet. When you want to remember the colours of a rainbow, just think of Roy G. Biv and you will have an easier time. Another trick is to organize information into chunks. For example, when you try to remember a telephone number, your brain usually remembers it in chunks. You remember the area code as one chunk, the next three numbers as a chunk, and the last four numbers as a chunk. This way, your brain only has to remember three things instead of ten. This works for words as well as numbers. Imagine that you wish to improve your
vocabulary. Whenever you learn a new word, study words that share the same meaning. This way, you learn several new words at the same time and you only need to memorize one definition. Such words are called synonyms. For example, synonyms for the word big are huge, enormous, gigantic, large and massive. A third memory trick is to use visualization. Say you wanted to memorize how people how people developed from wormlike creatures into human beings. First, create a picture in your mind for each stage (picture a worm, a fish, a monkey and a human). Then think of a path you regularly walk along. For example, you might normally walk from the path outside your home, into your house and into the kitchen. Finally, imagine each picture in a place along that path. For instance, in the garden you might see a worm. There might be a garbage can in the garden. You can imagine that the garbage can is full of rainwater and inside you can see a fish. When you enter the house you might see a bedroom door. You can imagine a monkey is jumping on the bed. Then you might see a member of your family, a human, cooking dinner. Visualize that path a few times and youâ€™ll have the information memorized. Visualization works because the brain remembers images well, and the wackier an image is, the easier it is to remember. If you donâ€™t keep using the information, your brain throws it away. If you keep reviewing the information, it will go into your long-term memory. The more you practice recalling the information, the better you will be at remembering it. Try these tips the next time you need to remember a phone number, a new word or something for school. 1. Your brain will throw information away _______________ . A. ? if your long-term memory is full B.
if you keep reviewing the information
if you don't keep using the information
2. Dave Farrow _______________ . A. B. C.
wrote the Guinness Book of World Records
? can remember more information than anyone else ?
played cards for two days in 2008
3. Your sensory memory _______________ . A.
is able to hold lots of information for a long time
? can store a small amount of information for just a few seconds
? can store a ot of information for a very short time
4. The aricle suggests using the name Roy G. Biv to remember _______________ . A.
how wormlike creatures became humans
the order of 59 decks of playing cards
the colours in a rainbow
5. Dave Farrow is from _______________ . A.
6. The article explains tricks to remember _______________ . A. ? the life story of Roy G. Biv B.
? telephone numbers, addresses and how people developed from wormlike creatures into humans
? how people developed from wormlike creatures into human beings
7. Dave Farrow recommends breaking large tasks down into smaller ones in order to _______________ . A.
keep your motivation strong
take as many rest periods as possible
keep your focus strong
8. Dave Farrow set a world record _______________ . A.
when he was a student
9. What is the main idea of paragraph 4? A.
? People with good memories use tricks to help them remember things.
? Memory champions like Dave Farrow have to hold long lists of information in their short-term memory at one time.
? Your short-term memory can only hold information from 15 seconds to a few minutes.
What is this reading mainly about? A.
? People with a learning disability like dyslexia can grow up to set world records.
? The person with the world's greateat memory is a Canadian.
? Anyone can have a good memory, but it helps to understand how the brain works.
E) SPEAKING: -
Talk about a science subject that you studied and liked. Please say – What is it? – Why did you choose it? – How can you use it in life?
Sample Answer: At the beginning of high school, I started to learn Physics. And I was immediately attracted to such a great subject. Over the previous years, I had prepared a lot for Mathematics, but then I realized it was only about theories. I couldn’t see any realistic applications in math, yet things turned out to be much more practical when it came to Physics. I started to know how the engines were run, how things happened. I could explain some common phenomenon, such as why
there are storms and why we always see lightning before we hear the thunder’s sound. Also, I understood how, in a soccer match, the ball could travel in a curve before it passed the goal line. It was all about Physics for me. It has helped me to explain those things and build my logical thinking. It helps me a lot, not only with the school’s curriculum, but also with problems I face in my life. For example, when I am in the troublesome situation, I will consider all of the factors that might affect the outcome of my decision. With the logical thinking from Physics, I could see things from different perspectives and care about every variable. Just like the way I solve Physics problems. So, they are some basic applications of Physics that I can think of. Why are you interested in this field of science? Well it’s because I love science in general. Nature is very appealing, and Physics somehow just taps into my interest. As I said earlier, it helps me to observe the world with the different eyes, and I’m more than happy to do so. What do you think about the next technological advancements in the future? Hmm I think those advancements will facilitate human’s work tremendously and make our life more convenient. With such a rapid growth of technology, I believe we’ll receive the benefits soon. Life then will be much easier. Can you give some examples? As far as I know, scientists are developing a program called Artificial Intelligence. If it is done, the program can help us to manage our day-today life better. Everything is set up nicely during our sleep, and when we wake up, there’s virtually nothing to worry about.
Do you think scientific discoveries can have some positive and negative effects at the same time? Yes, there are always two sides of a coin. Although science can bring us certain conveniences in terms of time management and work efficiency, relying on scientific advancements too much may result in us being lazy and less flexible. What inventions might be developed in the future, in your opinion? Well, the invention that I see the most promising future is the Artificial
Intelligence. Professionals are perfecting it before they can make an official announcement. Moreover, in terms of transportation, I think flying cars will be produced to solve the current traffic jam in big cities. Do we have self-driving cars already? To be honest, I don’t really know about this. I watched some movies that showed up those cars, yet the existence of them in real world is still a mystery to me. Why do we need them? Well, perhaps because it upgrades our standard of living and makes our lives even more enjoyable. Furthermore, it helps to reduce potential risks of driving cars on highway. Please give some examples. Hmm let’s imagine when we just finished our long day at the office and were exhausted, or when we overdrank when meeting an old friend, wouldn’t it be too dangerous for us to drive with such conditions? I think that’s when self-driving cars would come in and take over the issue.
http://www.ieltscuecard.com/p/speaking-part-3.html (Go to Technology and life)
F) WRITING: You are going to write an article for a college magazine on the subject of Brains or beauty? Which brings greater success in life? A mind map is a useful way to plan your work.
Write your article (150-180 words). Remember to include the following: • topic / supporting / concluding sentences in each paragraph • questions to involve the reader• personal examples and opinions • a good engaging title
Pg 37 - Book