Issuu on Google+

ENGL IS H WORKSHEET – FEB 2012

_____________________

ALAN T U R I NG (1912-1954) Alan Turing was born on 23 June, 1912, in London. His father was in the Indian Civil Service and Turing's parents lived in India until his father's retirement in 1926. Turing and his brother stayed with friends and relatives in England. Turing studied mathematics at Cambridge University, and subsequently taught there, working in the burgeoning world of quantum mechanics. It was at Cambridge that he developed the proof which states that automatic computation cannot solve all mathematical problems. This concept, also known as the Turing machine, is considered the basis for the modern theory of computation. In 1936, Turing went to Princeton University in America, returning to England in 1938. He began to work secretly part-time for the British cryptanalytic department, the Government Code and Cypher School. On the outbreak of war he took up full-time work at its headquarters, Bletchley Park. Here he played a vital role in deciphering the messages encrypted by the German Enigma machine, which provided vital intelligence for the Allies. He took the lead in a team that designed a machine known as a bombe that successfully decoded German messages. He became a well-known and rather eccentric figure at Bletchley. After the war, Turing turned his thoughts to the development of a machine that would logically process information. He worked first for the National Physical Laboratory (19451948). His plans were dismissed by his colleagues and the lab lost out on being the first to design a digital computer. It is thought that Turing's blueprint would have secured them the honour, as his machine was capable of computation speeds higher than the others. In 1949, he went to Manchester University where he directed the computing laboratory and developed a body of work that helped to form the basis for the field of artificial intelligence. In 1951 he was elected a fellow of the Royal Society. In 1952, Turing was arrested and tried for homosexuality, then a criminal offence. To avoid prison, he accepted injections of oestrogen for a year, which were intended to neutralise his libido. In that era, homosexuals were considered a security risk as they were open to blackmail. Turing's security clearance was withdrawn, meaning he could no longer work for GCHQ,the post-war successor to Bletchley Park. He committed suicide on 7 June, 1954. http://www.bbc.co.uk/history/people/alan_turing

1- Identify (i) type of text, (ii) its main characteristics (text organization, (iii) its main language features.

2 - Box dates and corresponding events (key words only)

3 - Which of these elements are included: (i) date of birth, (ii) place of birth, (iii) family background, (iv) family life, (v) education, (vi) career, (vii) main achievements, (viii) date of death, (ix) place of death, (x) echoesof his work for the posterity.


ROSA PARKS (1913-2005) A SIMPLE ACTION THAT CHANGED THE COURSE OF A NATION

DATE S 1913

FACTS/EVENTS was born in Alabama (RoseLouise McCauley) The eldest of two Had to walk to school daily because Attended Alabama State Teacher High School Dropped out of school because

1932 (1934) worked in the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP's) programs with her husband Worked as a seamstress 1955 Dec, 5

1957 1965

Boycott of city bus lasted for 381 days led by MLK Moved to Detroit because Worked for congressman (until 1988) Co-founded the Rosaand Raymond Parks Institute for Self-Development Educates young people on the Civil Rights movement / freedom bus tours/ lectures

2005 http://www.achievement.org/autodoc/page/par0bio-1 http://www.rosaparks.org/index.php?option=com_content&view=article&id=118&Itemid=60


DAT ES 1913

FACTS/EVENTS

was born in Alabama The eldest of two Wasraised in her grandfather’s farm Had to walk to school daily – black sts could not ride school buses Attended Alabama State Teacher High School Dropped out of school (mother and grandmother illness) 1932 Met / Married Raymond Parks (1934) Got her High School Diploma worked in the National Association for the Advancement of Colored People (NAACP's) programs with her husband Worked as a seamstress 1955 Arrested becauseRefused to give up her seat to a white male man on a bus Dec, 5 Boycott of city bus on the day of her trial Fined and found guilty Boycott of city bus lasted for 381 days led by MLK 1957 Moved to Detroit (unable to find work) 1965 Worked for congressman (until 1988) Co-founded the Rosaand Raymond Parks Institute for Self-Development Educates young people on the Civil Rights movement / freedom bus tours/ lectures 20015 died Received over 43 honorary doctorate degrees(PhD) National awards / awarded Medal by Pres. Clinton (1996) Role model of courage in the face of racial injustice Her quiet eloquence, her commitment Had greatnessthrust upon her (Maya Angelou)


Biography.ATuring-RParks