UNITED NATIONS INDUSTRIAL DEVELOPMENT ORGANIZATION Kenya County Office Newsletter Issue - October 2008- December 2008
* INSIDE * UNCT establishes Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (SEA) Network ~~~~~~~~~~~ COAST Collaborative Actions for Sustainable Tourism Project ~~~~~~~~~~~ Methyl Bromide Alternatives Project ~~~~~~~~~~~ Africa Industrialization Day 2008 Recap ~~~~~~~~~~~ Subcontracting and Partnership Exchange (SPX) ~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Trade Capacity Activities in Kenya
LED Lamps-improving lives and livelihoods Light Emitting Diodes, commonly known as LEDs are a very fast emerging technology in lighting which is considered by the World Bank to be the solution to addressing the lighting needs of rural, urban and peri-urban customers without access to electricity and who are predominantly low income households and businesses. LEDs are durable semi-conductors that provide one of the world's most energy efficient light sources, with the newest models delivering around 70 to 100 lumens per watt. This means LED lights use approximately 10% of the energy consumption of incandescent bulbs (normal light bulbs) and 30% of the energy of compact fluorescent lamp ('CFL') bulbs, respectively. The lights have very low failure rates (less than 1 in every 1000) and consume very little power. LEDs have a lifetime of over 100,000 hours, which means they last more than 50 times longer than incandescent bulbs and 15 times longer than CFL bulbs. Even after 100,000 hours, the LEDs don't just burnout - they just lose 10-20% of their rated intensity, which may not be noticeable in many applications. Emerging technologies in LEDs offer promise of reliable, inexpensive lighting to the poor and needy. Worldwide nearly 2 billion people are without electricity and therefore do not have access to clean and reliable lighting.
he problem is most acute in sub-saharan Africa where over 500 million people presently lack modern energy and access to grid electricity being as low as 2%.
In many the towns and villages, smoky kerosene lamps are what keeps the darkness at bay after sunset and life almost comes to a halt when darkness falls. However, kerosene is dangerous and increasingly expensive source of light for the low income households which do not have access to electricity. Lighting is often the most expensive and accounts for almost 10-15% of the total income household. Separate reports by the Intermediate Technology Development Group (ITDG) and the World Health Organization (WHO) also indicate that indoor air pollution from kerosene and similar fuels used for indoor lighting and cooking cause more than 1.5 million deaths annually. The risk of fire is another significant health hazard with kerosene lamps. LEDs promise clean, portable, durable, low cost and higher quality lighting. LEDs are far more efficient than incandescent bulbs, and eliminate indoor pollution from burning candles, paraffin, or kerosene. Replacing kerosene lamps with LED lamps provides healthier and safer living conditions as well as better light for less money. White LEDs are believed to produce nearly 200 times more useful light than a kerosene lamp and almost 50 times the amount of useful light of a conventional bulb.
ighting up Kenya a UNIDO initiative aims to promote the use of LED lamps to replace kerosene based lighting as well the use of renewable energies for productive use. The programme is designed to contribute to the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) by reducing poverty and enhancing quality of life. UNIDO links its lighting programme to development through the realization that modern lighting can:!Extend productive time by extended
lighting for income generating activities and providing development of informal cottage industries. !Enhance safety and security through outdoor lighting for business and community activities. !Expand time for students reading both at in the classroom and at home beyond daylight !Reduce exposure to indoor air pollution and improve health
!Reduce greenhouse gas emissionsUNIDO through providing the low
energy consuming white LEDs housed in a lantern type case powered by a small storage battery charged either by renewable energy sources or grid makes the lighting for the low income households a reality. The expected outcomes of the Light Up Kenya Programmes in its promotion of LED is to provide easy access to LED lamps and to substitute fossil-fuel based lighting with better quality lighting at a lower cost. There is no doubt that LED-technology is the future lighting technology and already today LED lighting is attractive from an energy savings perspective. The use of LED lights will reduce the environmental damage that kerosene lighting creates. Using an LED light compared to a kerosene lamp saves one ton of carbon emissions over 3-4 years, which equates to US$ 30 of gold standard carbon credits. Therefore 10 million LED lights would save 10 million tons of carbon emissions, which would equate to US$ 300 million.
UNCT Support For Protection From Sexual Exploitation And Abuse
he United Nations Kenya Country Team (UNCT) has established a UN Sexual Exploitation and Abuse (SEA) Network, the Network serves as the primary body for coordination and oversight on prevention and response to sexual exploitation and abuse of members of the beneficiary population by international and or national staff of the UN or affiliated organization. All agencies based at the UN Gigiri headquarters have nominated focal point as well as alternates to act as the agency's representative in the network and serve in the network. Full training of the focal points and the alternates took place in October. The Network functions under the auspices of the Resident Coordinator (RC) and Humanitarian Coordinator and report to him/her. Why the Network? In 2001, a UNHCR/Save the Children assessment found that international and national aid workers, working for Non-governmental Organisations (NGOs) and United Nations (UN) agencies were perpetrators of gross misconduct in West African camps for internally displaced persons (IDPs) and refugees. The aid workers abused their roles as decision-makers and their positions of trust, to sexually exploit and abuse beneficiary populations. Items as seemingly insignificant as biscuits were traded by humanitarian workers in exchange for sex with women and children. The shocking findings of the assessment highlighted that humanitarian and development organisations have an obligation to put in place organisational and programmatic systems that protect those we serve, and that we do not inadvertently recruit potential perpetrators. It also highlighted that we need to put in place complaints mechanisms so that alleged cases can be reported by victims and then investigated and/or referred to the police if a crime is suspected. The findings resulted in the establishment of the Inter Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Taskforce on Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, which advised the UN on specific measure and adopted six standards of behaviour (Core Principles) to be included in UN and NGO Codes of Conduct.
These core principles form the basis for the UN Secretary-General's Bulletin: Special Measures for Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Sexual Abuse (ST/SGB/2003/13) which is the UN's Code of Conduct and applies to all UN staff, partners and contractors. In recognition of the gravity of SEA, some organisations, such as BPRM and UNHCR now insist that partners have Codes of Conduct before they sign partnership/funding agreements. In Kenya In Kenya, there are many humanitarian and developmental organisations working with IDPs and with refugees (UN, NGOs, Community-Based Organisations, Red Cross Movement). On top of that many Kenyans have given their time to volunteer with those organisations to assist displaced populations. Recent trainings on SEA have shown, however, that many of those organisations do not have Codes of Conduct, and if they do, not all staff or volunteers are aware of them. There is evidence to suggest that SEA has occurred but accurate data cannot be collected a) because there is a lack of reporting mechanisms in place in both camps and within organisations and b) due to the sensitivity of the issue and the fears by beneficiaries that reporting such a case might hinder their right to aid. For these, and other, reasons, it is assumed that there is significant underreporting of cases. What is Sexual Exploitation/ Sexual Abuse? According to the Secretary General's Bulleting “sexual exploitation” means any actual or attempted abuse of a position of vulnerability, differential power, or trust, for sexual purposes, including, but not limited to, profiting monetarily, socially or politically from the sexual exploitation of another. Similarly, the term “sexual abuse” means the actual or threatened physical intrusion of a sexual nature, whether by force or under unequal or coercive conditions. The findings resulted in the establishment of the Inter Agency Standing Committee (IASC) Taskforce on Protection from Sexual Exploitation and Abuse, which advised the UN on specific measure and adopted six standards of behaviour (Core Principles) to be included in UN and NGO Codes of Conduct.
COAST - Collaborative Actions For Sustainable Tourism Project â€œSupporting the conservation of globally significant coastal and marine ecosystems and associated biodiversity in sub-Saharan Africa, through the reduction of the negative environmental impacts which they receive as a result of coastal tourismâ€?
Pristine coastline environment in Cameroon The UNIDO executed COAST project has just started (November 2008) and there are four specific objectives within it, namely: (i) To capture Best Available Practices and Technologies (BAPs and BATS) for contaminant reduction & sustainable collaborative tourism investments. This objective has three sub themes: a. Establish and implement Environmental Management Systems and Voluntary Eco-certification and Labeling Schemes b. Develop eco-tourism initatives to alleviate poverty through sustainable alternative livelihoods, and generate revenues for conservation of biodiversity and for the benefit of local communities c. Improve reef recreation, management and monitoring mechanisms and strategies;
(i) To develop and implement mechanisms for sustainable governance and management that measurably reduce degradation of coastal ecosystems from land-based tourism sources of pollution and contamination; (Ii) To assess and deliver training and capacity support requirements emphasising an integrated approach to sustainable reduction in coastal ecosystem and environmental degradation within the tourism sector; (iii) To develop and implement information capture, information processing and management mechanisms to promote information dissemination, learning & sharing. The project is is implemented by UNEP and executed by UNIDO in association with UNWTO. The primary emphasis of the Project is towards on-the-ground demonstrations which form the major expenditure in the Project. The lessons learnt and project relevant information will be disseminated through a project information exchange mechanism linked to IW: LEARN. The project is managed through a small Project Coordination Unit (PCU) which is hosted by the UNIDO Kenya office in Nairobi. The Technical Coordinator is now in post and we will be establishing a Regional Steering Committee and Technical Advisory Group to oversee project development and progress and to advise in areas where specialist knowledge may be required. There are eleven project demonstration learning sites (2 countries have two sites each), with nine different countries involved. In each country where there is a demo project, a coordinator will be identified and supported to oversee and coordinate the implementation work plans.
Coast province on the Kenyan Map
Image courtesy of Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
The overall GEF contribution to the project is just over US$ 6 million and partner country and other collaborating institutions have committed a further US$23.5 million towards the p ro j e c t ( c a s h a nd i n- k i nd commitments).
Methyl Bromide Alternatives Project, Kenya
he Methyl Bromide Alternatives Project is a National Project initiated in the year 2003 to phase out Methyl Bromide in Kenya and in accordance to the Montreal Protocol in which Kenya is Signatory. The Project assists the Kenya Horticultural Industry adopt effective alternatives to Methyl bromide in the management of soil borne diseases and weeds. The project is implemented jointly by UNIDO, GTZ and the Government of Kenya (National Ozone Office, Kenya) and is funded by the Multilateral Fund of the Montreal Protocol. What is Methyl bromide? Methyl bromide (MeBr) is an odorless, colorless gas that has been used as a soil and structural fumigant to control pests across a wide range of agricultural sectors. MeBr has been frequently used in soil disinfestations because of its ability to control a wide range of soil-borne diseases, insects, nematodes and weeds under a wide range of soil and climatic conditions. Prior to 1999, approximately 80% of the international use of MB was for pre-plant soil fumigation in horticultural sector. MeBr is toxic to humans and animals on inhalation. It escapes into the stratosphere and reacts with the ozone layer allowing emission of ultra violet B radiation which causes skin cancer, eye cataracts and weakens the immune body system. Why is Methyl Bromide being Phased Out? MeBr is a powerful ozone-depleting substance; the bromines it contains are fifty times more destructive to ozone than the chlorine found in CFCs. Destruction of the ozone layer is of international concern, as it increases the risk of health disorders such as skin cancer. Eliminating Methyl Bromide from horticultural industries worldwide is an important step towards restoring the ozone layer.The full implementation of the Montreal Protocol should see almost immediate reductions of halogen pollutants in the ozone layer and recovery of the health of the ozone layer within the next decade. This will be the first time in history that humankind has reversed an environmental problem of such magnitude.
To protect the ozone layer from further destruction, an international agreement was developed by the United Nations. The Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer, was signed by over 160 countries worldwide, it listed a number of ozone-depleting substances, including MB, and in 1997 planned for its international phase-out in soils by 2005. According to the Montreal Protocol, methyl bromide should be phased out globally by 2015. MB Phase out deadline for developed countries (article 1 countries) was 2005 except for critical use amounts that have to be applied for. The Multilateral Fund was set up to assist the developing countries (article 5 countries) accelerate the phase out before the deadline of 2015. There is also mounting pressure from consumer groups of importing countries against use of environmentally unfriendly chemicals like methyl bromide. Kenya previously consumed an average of 200 metric tones of methyl bromide annually in soil fumigation, but has now reduced to less that 100 metric tones The Project - In Kenya the project aims at assisting Kenyan horticultural and floricultural farmers phase out methyl bromide by adoption of effective alternatives to MB in the management of soil borne plant pathogens and weeds. The overall objective of the project is to train and assist MeBr users and potential users in the horticultural industry to adopt effective and sustainable alternatives. The adoption of effective alternatives will enable the farmers to progressively reduce reliance on methyl bromide and phase it out altogether before the deadline of 2015. The Methyl Bromide phase out has been targeting growers with the highest MB consumption and potential, and is expanding to cover most of the country wherever users are found. So far the project has phased out a total of 95 tonnes of Methlybromide, 55 tonnes in the cut-flower sector and 40 on the vegetable sector.
Tractor spring pesticides on a farm
The alternatives the Project promotes include use of substrate for cut flowers like roses, carnations and high value vegetables like sweet pepper. The substrates are available locally mainly pumice mined from Naivasha and cocopeat from coast where coconuts are grown. Many rose growers have moved to substrate wholly or partially. The other alternative is use of metham sodium a chemical that breaks up in soil to release methyl isothiocyanate a fumigant that kills pests, pathogens and weeds. Thorough mixing of the chemical with soil using a spading machine ensures high efficacy. The Project has acquired a spading machine which it uses to apply the chemical for the farmers. The Project also promotes use of steam especially in nurseries where there is a high turnover of planting materials and there is need to quickly disinfect the soil for repeated use. Rift Valley province the backbone of Horticultural Farming
Finally the Project addresses the problems of small scale growers by promoting seed dressing coupled with efficient water management using gravity drip irrigation. This has been found by the Project to yield nearly three times the yield level of small scale growers of high value crops like sugar snaps. The project has been carrying out trainings for growers of cut flowers, vegetable and fruits, extension people and other key players in the horticultural industry and has so far trained over 300 farmers. The trainings are carried out at different venues including areas where intense horticultural activities are carried out like Naivasha, Nakuru, Thika, Athi River, Nanyuki and Kabete Training centre. The project has set up a training facility at the University Farm, Kabete where the alternatives being promoted by the project are also demonstrated. Recently the project acquired a steam boiler for use in steaming in nurseries and for recycling used substrates. This is a very important step towards making the alternatives being promoted sustainable. The project continues to carry out intensive training of growers, building capacity and working with stakeholders.
Africa Industrialization Day 2008
Prisons Band leading the celebrations
heme: Raw materials transformation: key activity for Africaâ€™s sustainable development.Africa Industrialization day is set aside by the Conference of African Ministers of Industry to take stock of the achievements in sustainable industrial development in the African continent.
This Yearly celebration of the Africa Industrialization Day in Kenya was jointly prepared by the Ministry of Industrilization, Kenya Industrial Research and Development Institute (KIRDI) and the UNIDO office in Kenya. The international fete kicked off with a colourful march from Nyayo Stadium to KIRDI head offices in South C where the Hon. Ndiritu Murithi Hon Assistant Minister Industrialization gave a key note address to the guests and dignitaries. Amongst the activities during the celebration was a symposium held on 19th Nov 08, where topical issues relevant to the theme and industrialization will be dicussed with presentations from scholars/researchers. The exhibition begone on the 19-20 Nov with SMEs and Large Industries showcasing their products and technologies. Procession/parade led by the prison band from the Nyayo stadium to KIRDI grounds to publicise the event. The UNIDO Representative gave a speech and thereafter the presentation of Awards to companies based on the performance on the various categories including interpretation of the theme, innovation and best display among others.
UNIDO Training Programme for the Establishment of a Subcontracting and Partnership Exchange (SPX) Centre in Kenya The SPX is part of the Integrated Programme (KIP II) for Kenya´s Industrial Development. Over the last 25 years, UNIDO has established more than 60 Subcontracting and Partnership Exchanges (SPXs) in more than 30 countries worldwide, creating a network which has the objective of helping local enterprises to successfully meet the challenges of globalization by becoming subcontractors to transnational companies and other large companies including public entities. Industrial subcontracting is a reality of today´s globalization process. In their constant pursuit of a competitive edge, enterprises are outsourcing their operations and seeking suppliers around the globe, and in almost all industrial and service sectors, as evidenced by the ever increasing share of subcontracting and supply in international trade.
SPX Center, KIRDI South C, Campus, Nairobi
SMEs account for the majority of businesses in Kenya. Accordingly, improvements in the competitiveness of Kenya´s SME sector are critical. However, many of the SMEs have to grapple with low product quality standards, small production batches, limited access to finance, equipment obsolescence, lack of managerial skills and inadequate production facilities, among others. Some of the problems may be attributable to the business environment, yet the reality is that most of them are internal to the SMEs. SMEs must of necessity recognize the need for change which is a precondition for survival and their growth.
Foreign direct investment, especially in the manufacturing sector provides opportunities in this regard. The SPX can help unlock such opportunities through the provision of services that help SMEs to identify their strengths and weaknesses. SPX services should, however, go beyond mere diagnosis to provide remedies. These remedies include quality investments that bring technology, best practices in management, technical services, finance, markets and other forms of business collaborations. The lead institution for the SPX is the Kenya Industrial Research and Development Institute (KIRDI), which has a long track record of engaging the private sector with a view to ensuring private sector growth and improving private sector competitiveness through the introduction of innovative technologies. Kenya National Chamber of Commerce and Industry (KNCCI), the Kenya Association of Manufacturers (KAM) and the Kenya Private Sector Alliance (KEPSA) and other stakeholder institutions who are supporting this effort within Kenya´s SPX.
UNIDO Trade Capacity Building Activities In East Africa
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ILAC/UNIDO/PTB WORKSHOP ON ACCREDITATION KIGALI 6 -7 November 2008
he International Laboratory Accreditation Cooperation (ILAC)/ United Nations Industrial Development Organization (UNIDO)/ Physikalisch Technische Bundesanstalt (PTB) workshop on accreditation was held in Kigali, Rwanda from 6th to 7th November 2008. The main focus was accreditation of Medical laboratories that are based on ISO 15189, Medical Laboratories - Particular requirements for the quality and competence. The workshop activities included attending the presentation by various speakers (Germany, UNIDO, ILAC and EAC) and participation in discussions. Participants were from Accreditation bodies, Conformity Assessment bodies, and key stakeholder institutions such as UNIDO, EAC, RBS and key Ministries from Rwanda. Over 44 participants from Burundi, Kenya, Rwanda, Tanzania and Uganda attended the workshop. The objectives of the workshop included sharing of information and experiences from experts and other organizations, networking with other institutions regarding accreditation and conformity assessment activities together with pursuing possibilities of obtaining technical assistance in support of Kenya Accreditation Service (KENAS) accreditation programmes. The benefits of the workshop included the application of knowledge gained in accreditation activities in KENAS, networking with participants from other countries involved in accreditation activities, updates on the latest developments in the accreditation arena as well as any support areas from development partners.
MEETING OF EXPERTS ON DEVELOPMENT OF SPS PROTOCOL KAMPALA, 27th to 28th, November, 2008
he meeting was convened in order to develop the second draft of EAC SPS Protocol as per the decision of the Sectoral Council on Agriculture and Food Security of 8th September, 2006. Representatives from all the EAC Partner States attended the meeting which was chaired by Dr Isidore Gafarasi Mapendo, The Director of Veterinary Services/RARDA, from the Republic of Rwanda. Mr.Raymond Wigenge, the Acting Director of Food Safety, Tanzania Food and Drugs Authority from United Republic of Tanzania was the Rapporteur. The main objective of this meeting was to improve the first draft of the EAC SPS Protocol through technical inputs which were developed by EAC SPS Experts on 3rd to 6th December, 2007 in Nairobi, Kenya. The meeting benefited from contribution of an international SPS expert from UNIDO Headquarters through an EAC-UNIDO-NORAD Programme on Trade Capacity Building in Agro-industry Products. Overall, the meeting provided; 1.Technical inputs to the first draft of the EAC SPS protocol with a view of improving the first draft in order to ensure that it comprehensively covered all required areas and that it was in conformity with regional and international SPS agreements. The Second Draft of EAC SPS Protocol was developed by the Experts in Kampala, Uganda from 27th to 28th November, 2008. 2.Development of an agreed framework for National Consultation Workshops on SPS Draft Protocol.
PROPOSAL TO HOLD A NATIONAL AND REGIONAL STAKEHOLDER FORUMS ON THE DRAFT NATIONAL FOOD SAFETY POLICY, 25th November, 2008
he overall objective of the National Food Safety Policy was to establish and maintain a rational, integrated farm-to-fork food safety system that harmonizes inter-agency efforts, minimizes inter-agency conflict and overlap, and ensures the protection of public safety and food trade in a manner consistent with WTO/SPS and other international requirements. The objectives of the regional and national forums on the Draft National Food Safety Policy were to sensitize food industry stakeholders on the draft policy and gather region-specific issues on food safety, gather stakeholder opinion on practical guidelines for managing food hazards which respond to the modern concept of food safety and quality assurance systems based on risk, to develop region based consensus on the national food safety policy, to revise the draft in view of stakeholder comments, and to present the revised draft policy to members of the National Food Safety Coordination Committee (NFSCC) as well as the relevant government permanent secretaries and adopt it at the national stakeholder forum as the National Food Safety Policy. At least 250 participants were to be invited and key note speeches were to be delivered by senior government officers, ministers and policy makers.
SELF REGULATION AND FOOD SAFETY FOR THE KENYAN FISH INDUSTRY WORKSHOP, 2-3 October 2008
he main objectives were to bring to fore and understanding the roles of all stakeholders in the fish industry, the sustainability of the fish resources in Lake Victoria in the face of declining fish stocks, the importance of food safety, management and quality control of the fish industry, enlightenment of the participants on the fisheries regulations guiding the fishing industry and, the importance of self regulations in the fishing industry to ensure continuity of the industry. The workshop concluded with the participants acknowledging that the fish stock in lake Victoria were getting depleted at an alarming rate and that there was a need for remedial actions to be put in place so that the future generations can also utilize the same resource. The discussions also refreshed the participant's memories of the years that Kenya suffered during the bans to export to the European Union and hence appreciated the need to adhere to the required standards and at the same time get certification for their produce in order to be able to continue accessing the international markets. Moreover, all stake holders understood their role in the value chain and accepted to uphold and adhere to the set food standards as well as the rules and regulations that are in place to govern the fishing industry in Kenya.
Fishing in Lake Victoria
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