Interpretaci贸n de fachadas y principios de dibujo tecnico Henry ivann Reinoso Escobar
What you can see below is a brief introduction on the subject of technical drawing and what you can see there will be parts of a home tools and basic principles for interpreting and drawing architectural facades.
you must understand basic principles to interpret and draw the walls of a project
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Concept Plan ________________________________5 a 21
you must understand basic principles to interpret and draw the walls of a project
First You need to imagine that watching the house from outside. Second A house or any other type of project can have 1,2,3 or more different fronts as the design engineer or architect drawn house look below and see four different positions as shown. Third It is important to understand that each facade is different from one another, as in some other doors will not just happen in the case of windows. Left Front
Basic principles to interpret and draw architectural facades
The roof or ceiling of a building will not always architectural plan can be one, two or more water, this will decide the architect or engineer to project these on the walls must know the slope of the roof.
- The structure of pitched roofs can be concrete, wood (or metal) and laminates. - As our study is not as profound in the case of housing types, only a graph for discussion with the instructor the types of pitched roofs.
if the plant architectural design can not be drawn and interpreted the facades. cuando the building has sloped ceilings must be a floor to ceiling.
Levels We will call floor levels to the different heights of exterior and interior floor will have a house or other building. These levels are shown in the drawings using this symbol or simply using the letter "n". - Chair: height floor level where it starts out the window. - Headroom: height floor level where it terminates the window. When the 0.00 level or this is meant in a plane indicated a lower level that must carry the sign (-). All inputs and outputs of a house as well as in patios and gardens will have a change of height (level) but inmaginate that rain water would enter the house, however with a higher level or curb the stands will serve a stop. Should be clear that the term "finished grade (npt)" which is indicated on the plans means that this level is the ground level and placed, ie must not think that is the ground level. As in the work, take the basis of the finished floor level (level 0.00) to draw the walls of a house or any other type of project.
Notes to be memorized in order to draw and interpret the facades or elevations of a house
The row of blocks that go across the edge of the slab will not look at the facades of the house because it is applied to the slab with a finish called bleaching. Note: It is important to know the names of the elements that are mixed together to for different finishes used in construction. - Enzabietado: cement mix water and river sand (sifted) is applied to walls, slabs and square before pouring the plaster. - Plastering: a mixture of yellow sand, lime and a small amount of cement is applied after enzabietado. - Sifting: a mixture of white sand (sifted), lime and a small amount of cement, is applied after the plaster. Apply two vertical shapes and swirls. - Whitening: Mix a small amount of cement, white sand (sifted) and lime horcalsa refined brand.
- Mezclon: a mixture of cement, lime and yellow sand unsifted.
Important note: displayed at the drawings of facades or elevations of any house, with doors, windows and plastered walls and sifted (some) also indicated by dotted lines interior floor levels and the thickness of the slab. If the walls of the facades do not carry any type of finish, must be the symbolism of which are block walls, brick, stone or other material. In the case of the facades will be more important in the drawing which are opposite the street, was accepted as a minimum representation of a facade, leaving to the discretion of the presentation of other professional, i facades vertically narrow sections their heights with reference to the finished floor levels of preference trazarn using the same scale to which they are drawn plantas.devera avoided the shadows, being due to the different levels represent different line thickness. Note: Any type of facade you want to draw is to draw based on the plant, ie, without the project plant can not draw one or more facades as appropriate.
The heights of blocks, lintels and floor to ceiling give the engineer or architect, or teacher, which is drawn forward on the facades in the work the builders give the name of a square and if it comes from the wall more than 0.50 cmt. They give the name of roof. Basic principles of the 2 most common ways of representing the facades in the background. 1. The facades of any building, can be represented in two ways, first is the presentation type which is allowed to acclimate the facades with trees, shadows, people and any other details you can think of the designer. 2. The other way to draw the facade is to tell
The word "graph" means "concerning the expression of ideas by means of lines or marks on a surface." Then a drawing (plan) is a graphical representation of something real. The drawing, therefore, is a graphic language he uses figures to communicate thoughts and ideas.
As a drawing is a set of instructions that must comply with the operator, should be clear, correct, accurate 9
and complete. The fields are as diverse as specialized branches of industry. Some of the main areas of the drawing are: mechanical, architectural, structural and electrical.
The term "technical drawing" applies to any design that is used to express technical ideas. Implementation of Plans
As in the beginning of time man has used drawings to communicate ideas to peers and to record them, so they do not fall into oblivion.
Man has developed the drawing along two distinct branches, using each form for a different purpose. Artistic drawing is concerned primarily the expression of ideas, real or imagined cultural. Instead, the technician drawing the expression of ideas concerns technical or practical nature, and is the method used in all branches of industry. In the daily activity is very useful knowledge to understand drawing house plans, instructions for assembly, maintenance and operation of many manufactured goods plans and specifications of many hobbies and other leisure activities. Classification Plans Drawings can be classified into: General Plan or Set.
•Manufacturing and Exploded Drawing.
•ExplosivE Perspective Plan.
General Plan or the Joint
The Site Plan provides an overview of the device to build, so you can see the status of the various component parts, with the relationship and the commonalities between them.
The main function of the overall plan is to enable the assembly. This implies that the vision should prevail in the situation of the various parties, on the representation of detail.
The whole figure, we observe the following features, generally applicable to any overall plan •whEn performing the assembly drawing, you must take into account all the issues of standardization, drawing format, line weights, scales, layout views, cuts and sections, etc.. 11
â€˘in the assembly drawing should draw the necessary views. In the figure of example, it is necessary to draw the left profile view, as they already are and reference all the pieces in the elevation. We've included to give a better idea of how the whole.
â€˘to see the inner parts must be made the necessary cuts. Because what matters is to see the distribution of the pieces, you can combine different cuts in the same view. The elevation of the example, we have represented a cut in the plane of symmetry of the parts 4, 5, 6 and 7 combined with a cutting plate 10 by the screw axis and a partial cut parts 1, 2 and 3 .
â€˘in the assembly drawing must identify all the parts that compose it. So you have to assign a mark to each piece, linking them through a reference line. These marks are essential for the identification of parts over the documentation and manufacturing process. To have fully identified the pieces to be included in the overall drawing a list of items. This list should add information that you can see in the picture. For example, overall dimensions, the nominal size, standard designation, or commercial standard references, materials, etc.. Because of the importance of marking parts and the list of elements, widely discussed in the following points.
â€˘sincE they are clearly identified parts of the whole, we can simplify the representation, especially in the case of standard and commercial items.
The following figure represents a set of four pieces, clearly showing the status of each.
In the figure below, hay simplified representation of the screw and washer. Since they are clearly identified, and who will go horseback riding knowledgeable enough to correctly both the screw and the washer, the end result is the same. Thus we have simplified the design, facilitating their understanding and reducing time to fulfillment.
When assembling, have all the parts produced on the table, so who do the installation only needs to know how to identify them properly and where to put them. â€˘all technical drawings should include dimensions necessary. Since the pieces are finished, at the only set of dimensions necessary to provide the performance or testing of the assembly.
Overall in the figure is essential to draw the dimension of 35 mm, since it indicates the separation welder must 13
weld the two brackets on the motherboard. Note that there has been a partial cut on the right support (part # 3) to establish its orientation.
Manufacturing and Exploded Drawing
Refers to size each of the elements to build or manufacture according to process (machining, casting, stamping, etc..), In accordance with dimensions shown on the map. â€˘Machining: get the piece according to the plan either through processes of turning, milling, or planing.
â€˘cast: The dimensions of the castings are larger than real because they are subject to other processes.
â€˘pattErn: This is done through the use or application of matrices.
These plans are often made to fully represent simple objects such as pieces of furniture, where the pieces are small and do not have complicated shapes. All dimensions and information necessary for the 14
construction of this piece and for assembling all the pieces are given directly in terms of assembly..
Design floor plans:
When designing a machine, first of all is a plan or design to clearly visualize assembly operation, the shape and the different game pieces. From the assembly drawings are detailed drawings and each piece is assigned a number.
To facilitate assembly of the machine, the assembly plan placed the numbers of the different parts or details. This is done by attaching small circles (from 3 / 8 inch. To Â˝ inch. In diameter) that contains the number of the piece, with pieces by lines for signs. It is important that detailed drawings are not identical numbering schemes when using multiple BOMs.
Mounting Installation Drawings:
This type of assembly plan is used when employing many inexperienced people to assemble the different pieces. How are you people generally are not trained in reading engineering drawings, pictorial drawings using simplified assembly. 15
Catalogs Mounting Drawings:
Assembly drawings are specially trained to catalog companies. These assembly drawings show only the details and dimensions that may interest the potential buyer. Often the plane has dimensions expressed in letters and is accompanied by a table that is used to encompass a range of dimensions.
Unarmed floor plans:
When a machine needs service, repairs usually are made locally and does not return the machine to the construction company. This type of shot is often used in the appliance repair industry, which uses the assembly drawings for the repair work and for the period of replacement parts. It is also often used this type of assembly plans by companies that make DIY equipment, such as model making equipment, where the plans must be easily understood.
Explosive Perspective Plan The perspective plan is intended to indicate explosive in an orderly and accurate sequence location of the pieces that form a whole, thereby allowing any operator to make disarmament and later, made the repair, assemble the whole plane following information.
Design Process Before even starting with the architectural design of a building, many issues must be considered preliminary. First, the situation of the property, or land, its size and topography, along with guidance on factors affecting the place as light, sunlight, views can be admired, and the conditions for the supply electricity and water and sewer, during and after construction.
Once solved the above, should be assessed the space needs of the building such as floor area, height of mezzanine or plants, the relationships between spaces, uses, etc.. The set of architectural requirements is also known as architectural program.
As important as the previous point is to consider the budget available for construction, as before drafting the plans should be clear how much money they can invest, to avoid designing a project so expensive that it can not be paid by the owner or developer. Design stages of a project 1.
Definition of scope, needs or objectives: To develop
an architectural project, carried out a preliminary investigation process that guides the architect in their task throughout the project. The interpretation by the Architect of the results of this stage is largely defines the personality of the project. Identified in this process start three basic activities: 18
Program approach. It refers to the initial stage where a client seeks a specialist (in this case, architect) to design a building that meets your specific needs and uses of space. The client also describes the designer's resources which should be based (land or existing building, budget, execution time, etc.). Interpretation of the program. The architect studies the needs of the customer and according to their interpretation and their professional capacity, establishes the objectives to investigate before making a proposal. The interpretations that the architect makes the customer's needs will guide the next stage, but are always subject to change as you progress further the design process. Research. Taking the results of the two previous stages, it is also analysis and synthesis of information. First, it requires field research and literature to enable the details of the building, according to their type.
2. Program Design: The results of research synthesis, the designer makes a list identifying the components of the system and its particular requirements. This list is called the Architectural Program. For example, the draft of a house, or room-family (apartment), the program would include more of the following elements: - Access - Porch - Driveway or garage - Foyer or hall 19
- Room or living room - Dining room - Kitchen - Room service - Guest bathroom - Dormitories - Toilets - Terrace - Garden - Patio
3. : From the architectural program, the designer makes a graphic scheme, similar to a flowchart, which represents every element of the program and associated with lines or arrows according to the relations between the spaces. For example, the kitchen should be related to the dining room, but not the bedrooms. By the presence (or absence) of arrows indicates this relationship. In this graph the relationships between the spaces is called architectural diagram.
4. Design of the basic scheme: Studied as a stage of realization of an architectural project, the design is the process of translating the results into useful forms of all previous stages, which are represented graphically in the later stages. It is considered a creative process that involves elements such as: Scenario Design: A conceptual approach to design object, which will then be subject to change. Are 20
considered simultaneously, with equal or variable importance (according to the design philosophy of each architect) aspects of architectural context, structural criteria, form, function, budget and even fashion. Zoning: The arrangement of the components of the design established in the architectural program based on logical and functional relations between them. Outline: Three-dimensional structure is the architectural diagram, applied in a specific area with emphasis on the qualities of systems, subsystems, components and subcomponents. Party: The realization of the solution architecture, shaping spaces designed to fulfill its function. Sometimes, the designer produces two or three games (preliminary design options) before settling on one that will become a draft. 5. Draft: It consists of a set of drawings, models or other means of representation that explain for the first time in a graphic way, but at the outset, how it is designed the building. It represents the building on the ground (horizontal section, top view), elevation or elevations (front view of the facades), cuts or sections and perspectives. Generally, although the drawing is scaled only include general dimensions. Its purpose is purely preliminary, so the customer decide if the design is pleasing and meets your requirements. In the event that the Bill is approved, then performed the final draft.
6. Basic or Architectural Project: Used to describe the overall building design: form, function, distribution, construction system, represented in drawings, models or computer models, with a specification and a general budget. It includes the urban characteristics of the building and is often used to check its feasibility in official and sometimes processing the request "building permit" subject to the submission of the relevant Project Implementation (in Spain).
7. Project Execution: The purpose of the whole design process is the Executive Project is defined as the set of plans, drawings, diagrams and explanatory texts (Report and Budget) used to properly define the building. It represents the building floors, elevations or elevations, sections or sections, perspectives, models, three-dimensional model (using computer techniques or CAD) or others, for consideration by the client and designer. All plans must be to scale and properly dimensioned along the lines of technical drawing, marking the dimensions of the building and its location in the field, its orientation with respect to magnetic north, the configuration of all spaces, quality and materials and design details that deserve special mention. Project Components (Basic) The elements constituting the Basic Architectural or Project are: - Ground plane. - Location maps and location. - Plant whole. 22
- Architectural floor plans. - Architectural elevation drawings or elevations. - Architectural plane cuts or sections. - Architectural drawings. - budget
In complementary fashion, usually include some or all of the following means of representation: Perspectives. Storyboard. Visit or virtual three-dimensional animation, using CAD software. Executive Project, Project Implementation (construction plans) It is a further step to the architectural project itself, and is prepared when the design has been approved by the client and its construction is imminent. The main difference with the Architectural and Basic Project is that the earlier graphically describes "what to do" while the Executive Project specifies "how it will do." Working on the basis of the plans that integrate the architectural project, the same architect or a civil engineer working as a team, adds information and technical specifications for the builder and the various contractors to explain in detail what materials and what techniques be used. In addition to the planes that make up the package of architectural plans, must include at least the following drawings and documents: Plane Surveying earthworks, or topographical. 23
Structure plans of foundation. Plans rudeness of walls, or reframing of walls. Plans porches with columns and beams. Drawings of floor slabs and roofs or floors. Sanitation facilities Plano buried. Plans installations: electrical, plumbing, sanitary, fire, mechanical, special voice, data, and so on. Enclosure and partitioning plan defines the enclosure and partitioning elements: walls, partitions, doors, windows, fences, deck, and so on. Plans Finishes finishes: flooring, paint, plaster, acoustic and thermal insulation, waterproofing, and so on. Construction Drawings of the elements that make outdoor areas: sidewalks, landscaping, fencing, facilities, and so on. Plans Construction details of construction details (for trades). Constructive specification and applicable regulations. Regulatory compliance sheets. Justification of the solutions adopted Programming of the work. Structural calculation report. Catalog of concepts or specifications. Quantification of work or Budget Budget (with detailed measurements and uni t prices). 24
conclucion what is meant is that the student can get a good interpretation to form what is the basis of technical drawing as well so you can achieve better interpret and floor levels as Deven to the facades.
bibliogrfia Author: william nery de leon garcia year: 2000 Name of book: practical method of drawing and interpreting drawings