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International Research Journal of Engineering and Technology (IRJET)

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COMPARISON BETWEEN EXPERIMENTAL AND ANALYTICAL INVESTIGATION OF COLD FORMED STEEL ANGLE SECTIONS Paul Makesh A1, Arivalagan S2 Research Scholar, Dept. of Civil Engineering, Dr.M.G.R Educational and Research Institute University, India Professor and Dean, Dept of Civil Engineering, Dr.M.G.R Educational and Research Institute University, India ----------------------------------------------------------------------***--------------------------------------------------------------------1

Abstract - Structural behavior of cold formed steel angle sections are tested into two methods, 1.experimentalinvestigations and Analytical Investigations (various international codes).Specimens were fabricated four different types of thickness in cold formed steel angle plain sections and cold formed steel angle lipped sections. In which 108 specimens were carried out on tension members fastened with bolts. Experimental results of the ultimate strength were compared with various international codes. British standard BS: 5950 - 1998 (Part 5), American Iron and Steel Institute AISI manual - 2001, and Australian / New Zealand standards AS/NZS: 46002005. Key Words: Cold formed steel, BS 5950-1998, AS/NZS: 4600 – 2005, AISI: 2001 (manual)

1. INTRODUCTION Cold Formed Steel (CFS) is the common term for products made by rolling or pressing steel into semi-finished or finished goods at relatively low temperatures. In the construction industry, both structural and non-structural elements are created from thin gauges of sheet steel. These building materials encompass columns, beams, joists, studs, floor decking, built-up sections and other components. The thickness of steel members ranges from 0.4 mm to 6.4 mm. The cold forming operation increases the yield point and the ultimate strength of the steel sections. Cold formed steel members can be produced in a wide variety of sectional profiles such as angles, channels, hat sections, zed sections and sigma sections. Angles are the most common structural shape found in almost any structure due to their simplicity and ease of fabrication and erection. In building construction, cold-formed steel products can be classified into three categories: members, panels, and prefabricated assemblies. Prefabricated coldformed steel assemblies include roof trusses, panellized walls or floors, and other prefabricated structural assemblies.

1.1 Economy of cold formed steel Light steel framing using the cold-formed Steel (CFS) sections is one of the Industrialized Building System that highly recommended into our construction industry. Industrial Building System is not just speed up the construction time and reducing material usage, but also guaranteed the quality of the building, e.g., in acoustic and heat performance. The use of CFS as light steel framing © 2018, IRJET

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Impact Factor value: 7.211

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system has not been popular as a preferred option in construction practice in Indonesia and Malaysia. Therefore, there is a need to investigate the economic aspects of the CFS as light steel framing system in our local industry, conduct comprehensive testing and parametric studies to create the guidance and procedures of the analysis and design of such building.

1.2 Structural behavior of cold formed steel The resulting stress distribution justified the block shear strength equation by use of area along the gross shear plane. The von Mises stresses indicate that block shear failure might occur in a two bolt connection, and net section failure might occur in three and four bolts connection. The factor of safety for angles under tension in the limit state format giving due considerations to block shear failure and yielding of gross section was obtained. The knowledge and understanding of the behaviour of cold-formed steel bolted connections to determine tensile capacity, bearing capacity and the interaction of tension and bearing capacities were performed.

2. CODAL PROVISIONS The aim of structural design is to ensure that a structure fulfills its intended purpose during its lifetime with adequate safety and serviceability performance. Increase in utilization of cold-formed steel members has been largely due to the sustained research. 2.1 Allowable Stress Design (ASD) The factor of safety is the ratio of yield point of the material to its working stress. In ASD it is ensured that “the stresses in a structure under working or service loads do not exceed designated allowable values”. 2.2 Importance of Limit State Design Ductile structural materials such as steel can withstand strains much larger than those encountered within the elastic limit. Design methods, which are based on elastic limit, fail to take advantage of the ability of such material to carry stresses above the yield stresses (strain hardening). 2.3 Load carrying capacity The following codal provisions are used to predict member capacities of the single and double angle ISO 9001:2008 Certified Journal

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members of American Iron and Steel Institute, the Australian / New Zealand Standards, and British Standards. 2.3.1 Indian Standards, IS: 800 – 2007 2.3.1.1 Gross section yielding Steel members can sustain loads up to the ultimate load without failure. However, the members will elongate considerably at this load, and hence make the structure unserviceable. The design strength Tdg is limited to the yielding of gross cross section which is given by: Tdg= fyAg / γm0 where, fy = yield strength of the material in MPa, Ag = gross area of cross section in mm2. γm0= 1.10 partial safety factor for failure at yielding. 2.3.1.2 Net section rupture When the tension member with a hole is loaded statically, the point adjacent to the hole reaches the yield stress fy. On further loading, the stress in other fibers away from the hole progressively reaches the yield stress fy. Deformations of the member continue with increasing load until final rupture of the member occurs when the entire net cross section of the member reaches the ultimate stress fu. The rupture strength of an angle connected through one leg is affected by shear lag. The design strength Tdn, as governed by rupture at net section is given by: Tdn= 0.9 fu Anc / γm1 + β Ago fy / γm0 where, β = 1.4 – 0.076 (w/t) (fy / fu) (bs / Lc) ≤ fu γm0 / fy γm1 ≥ 0.7 where, w = outstand leg width bs = shear lag width Lc = Length of the end connection, i.e., distance between the outermost bolts in the end joint measured along the load direction or length of the weld along the load direction. 2.3.1.3 Block shear failure Block shear failure is considered as a potential failure mode at the ends of an axially loaded tension member block shear strength Tdb, of connection shall be taken as the smaller of: Tdb = (Avg fy / (√3 γm0) + fu Atn / γm1) or Tdb = (Avn fu / (√3 γm1) + fy Atg / γm0) where,

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Avg, Avn = minimum gross and net area in shear along a line of transmitted force, respectively. Atg, Atn = minimum gross and net area in tension from the bolt hole to the toe of the angle, end bolt line, perpendicular to the line of force. fu, fy = ultimate and yield stress of the material respectively. 2.3.2 Australian and New Zealand standards, AS/NZS: 4600 – 2005 The nominal section capacity of a member in tension shall be taken as the lesser of Nt= Ag fy (1), Nt= An0.85 Kt An fu where Ag= gross cross sectional area of the member, mm2 fy= yield stress of the material, N/mm2 Kt= correction factor for distribution of forces = 0.85 An= net area of the cross-section, obtained by deducting from the gross area of the cross section, the sectional area of all penetrations and holes, including fastener holes mm2 fu= tensile strength used in the design, N/mm2 2.3.2 American Iron and Steel Institute, AISI: 2001 (manual) The tensile capacity Pn, of a member should be determined from Pn = An Aefu Where fu= tensile strength of the connected part of a member, N/mm2 Ae= U An and U = 1.0 - 0.36 X / L < 0.9 and U > 0.5 An= effective net sectional area of the member, mm2 X = distance from shear plane to centroid of the cross section, mm L= length of the end connection i.e. distance between the outermost bolts in the joint along the length direction mm 2.3.3 British Standard, BS: 5950 - 1998 (Part 5) The tensile capacity Pt, of a member Pt = Ae * py Single angles Ae = a1 (3a1+4a2) / (3a1+a2) Double angles Ae = a1 (5a1+6a2) / (5a1+a2) For double angles connected to the same side of gusset plate the effective area can be determined as that of single angles. Ae = effective area of the section. a1 = the net sectional area of the connected leg. a2 = the gross sectional area of the unconnected leg.

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Table 1 : Comparison of Experimental load and predicted ultimate load obtained by various international codes(1.5mm thick)

50x50 60x60 70x70 50x50x10 60x60x10 70x70x10 50x50(o) 60x60(o) 70x70(o) 50x50(s) 60x60(s) 70x70 (s) 50x50x10(o) 60x60x10(o) 70x70x10(o) 50x50x10(s) 60x60x10(s) 70x70x10(s) 50x25 60x30 70x35 50x25x10 60x30x10 70x35x10 50x25 60x30 70x35 50x25 60x30 70x35 50x25x10(o) 60x30x10(o) 70x35x10(o) 50x25x10(s) 60x30x10(s) 70x35x10 (s)

Load (KN)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

Size of specimen (mm)

Exp valve 27.54 32.45 36.75 36.28 42.58 48.56 59.78 64.58 79.86 56.78 64.58 78.54 69.74 74.58 97.87 68.74 80.47 96.47 18.27 22.47 28.47 23.47 30.79 33.48 38.78 49.78 58.47 37.48 49.72 58.78 50.43 54.58 70.59 51.58 60.72 70.58

AS/NZS 4600: 2005 24.18 29.80 35.42 28.68 34.30 39.92 48.36 59.60 70.85 48.36 59.60 70.85 57.35 68.60 79.84 57.35 68.60 79.84 17.15 21.37 25.58 21.65 25.86 30.08 34.30 42.73 51.17 34.30 42.73 51.17 43.30 51.73 60.16 43.30 51.73 60.16

AS/N ZS/Ex p 0.88 0.92 0.96 0.79 0.81 0.82 0.81 0.92 0.89 0.85 0.92 0.90 0.82 0.92 0.82 0.83 0.85 0.83 0.94 0.95 0.90 0.92 0.84 0.90 0.88 0.86 0.88 0.92 0.86 0.87 0.86 0.95 0.85 0.84 0.85 0.85

100 80 60 40 20 0

AISI 2007 28.44 35.06 41.67 33.74 40.35 46.97 56.89 70.12 83.35 56.89 70.12 83.35 67.47 80.70 93.93 67.47 80.70 93.93 20.18 25.14 30.10 25.47 30.43 35.39 40.35 50.27 60.20 40.35 50.27 60.20 50.94 60.86 70.78 50.94 60.86 70.78

AISI/ Exp 1.03 1.08 1.13 0.93 0.95 0.97 0.95 1.09 1.04 1.00 1.09 1.06 0.97 1.08 0.96 0.98 1.00 0.97 1.10 1.12 1.06 1.09 0.99 1.06 1.04 1.01 1.03 1.08 1.01 1.02 1.01 1.12 1.00 0.99 1.00 1.00

BS:59 50 (Part 5) 1998: 26.09 32.56 39.01 28.02 34.63 41.31 55.91 58.30 82.85 55.91 58.30 82.85 60.54 76.24 88.17 60.54 76.24 88.17 20.74 26.07 31.00 23.85 29.12 34.68 43.16 53.63 64.00 43.16 53.63 64.00 51.24 43.63 73.03 51.24 43.63 73.03

BS /Exp

0.95 1.00 1.06 0.77 0.81 0.85 0.94 0.90 1.04 0.98 0.90 1.05 0.87 1.02 0.90 0.88 0.95 0.91 1.14 1.16 1.09 1.02 0.95 1.04 1.11 1.08 1.09 1.15 1.08 1.09 1.02 0.80 1.03 0.99 0.72 1.03

Size of specimen (mm)

50x50 60x60 70x70 50x50x10 60x60x10 70x70x10 50x50(o) 60x60(o) 70x70(o) 50x50(s) 60x60(s) 70x70 (s) 50x50x10(o) 60x60x10(o) 70x70x10(o) 50x50x10(s) 60x60x10(s) 70x70x10(s) 50x25 60x30 70x35 50x25x10 60x30x10 70x35x10 50x25 60x30 70x35 50x25 60x30 70x35 50x25x10(o) 60x30x10(o) 70x35x10(o) 50x25x10(s) 60x30x10(s) 70x35x10 (s)

Exp valve 29.45 34.56 40.58 39.15 46.78 52.58 62.58 68.41 84.59 62.58 76.24 84.25 76.28 82.58 103.5 76.42 88.48 106.5 21.58 25.46 32.45 28.11 31.44 39.58 40.48 57.48 67.41 41.33 52.58 68.47 58.45 68.45 81.54 56.18 67.28 81.59

AS/NZS 4600: 2005 26.11 32.18 38.25 30.96 37.03 43.10 52.21 64.35 76.50 52.21 64.35 76.50 61.92 74.07 86.21 61.92 74.07 86.21 18.52 23.07 27.62 23.37 27.93 32.48 37.03 46.14 55.25 37.03 46.14 55.25 46.75 55.85 64.96 46.75 55.85 64.96

AS/N ZS/Ex p

AISI 2007 30.71 37.85 45.00 36.43 43.57 50.71 61.42 75.71 89.99 61.42 75.71 89.99 72.85 87.14 101.4 72.85 87.14 101.4 21.78 27.14 32.50 27.50 32.86 38.21 43.57 54.28 65.00 43.57 54.28 65.00 55.00 65.71 76.42 55.00 65.71 76.42

0.89 0.93 0.94 0.79 0.79 0.82 0.83 0.94 0.90 0.83 0.84 0.91 0.81 0.90 0.83 0.81 0.84 0.81 0.86 0.91 0.85 0.83 0.89 0.82 0.91 0.80 0.82 0.90 0.88 0.81 0.80 0.82 0.80 0.83 0.83 0.80

AISI/ Exp 1.04 1.10 1.11 0.93 0.93 0.96 0.98 1.11 1.06 0.98 0.99 1.07 0.96 1.06 0.98 0.95 0.98 0.95 1.01 1.07 1.00 0.98 1.05 0.97 1.08 0.94 0.96 1.05 1.03 0.95 0.94 0.96 0.94 0.98 0.98 0.94

BS:59 50 (Part 5) 1998: 28.17 35.15 42.12 30.25 37.39 44.60 60.37 62.95 89.46 60.37 62.95 89.46 65.37 82.31 95.20 65.37 82.31 95.20 22.40 28.15 33.47 25.75 31.44 37.44 46.60 57.90 69.10 46.60 57.90 69.10 55.33 47.10 78.85 55.33 47.10 78.85

BS /Exp

0.96 1.02 1.04 0.77 0.80 0.85 0.96 0.92 1.06 0.96 0.83 1.06 0.86 1.00 0.92 0.86 0.93 0.89 1.04 1.11 1.03 0.92 1.00 0.95 1.15 1.01 1.03 1.13 1.10 1.01 0.95 0.69 0.97 0.98 0.70 0.97

50 Exp valve AS/NZS AISI

Load (KN)

S. No

Table 2 : Comparison of Experimental load and predicted ultimate load obtained by various international codes(1.6mm thick)

40 30 20

Exp valve

10

AS/NZS

0

BS

AISI BS

Size of Specimen Size of Specimen Chart – 1 Comparison of ultimate load with load based on codal provision for Double angles connected to opposite side and same side of the gussets plate. (1.5mm)

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Chart – 2 Comparison of ultimate load with load based on codal provision for single plane angles with Lip (1.6mm)

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Table 3 : Comparison of Experimental load and predicted ultimate load obtained by various international codes (2mm thick)

50x50 60x60 70x70 50x50x10 60x60x10 70x70x10 50x50(o) 60x60(o) 70x70(o) 50x50(s) 60x60(s) 70x70 (s) 50x50x10(o) 60x60x10(o) 70x70x10(o) 50x50x10(s) 60x60x10(s) 70x70x10(s) 50x25 60x30 70x35 50x25x10 60x30x10 70x35x10 50x25 60x30 70x35 50x25 60x30 70x35 50x25x10(o) 60x30x10(o) 70x35x10(o) 50x25x10(s) 60x30x10(s) 70x35x10 (s)

Load (KN)

1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36

Size of specimen (mm)

Exp valve 34.58 38.13 45.26 41.25 51.47 62.47 75.48 87.29 108.1 80.47 92.58 112.2 86.27 92.47 117.2 87.46 98.75 112.1 28.17 32.78 37.85 42.58 48.75 53.78 59.76 73.7 87.81 58.81 62.78 83.47 72.37 89.34 106.3 71.58 83.14 92.47

AS/NZS 4600: 2005 33.16 40.87 48.58 39.33 47.04 54.75 66.32 81.74 97.16 66.32 81.74 97.16 78.65 94.08 109.5 78.65 94.08 109.5 23.52 29.30 35.09 29.69 35.47 41.25 47.04 58.61 70.17 47.04 58.61 70.17 59.38 70.94 82.51 59.38 70.94 82.51

AS/N ZS/Ex p 0.96 1.07 1.07 0.95 0.91 0.88 0.88 0.94 0.90 0.82 0.88 0.87 0.91 1.02 0.93 0.90 0.95 0.98 0.83 0.89 0.93 0.70 0.73 0.77 0.79 0.80 0.80 0.80 0.93 0.84 0.82 0.79 0.78 0.83 0.85 0.89

50 40 30 20 10 0

AISI 2007 39.01 48.08 57.15 46.27 55.34 64.41 78.02 96.16 114.3 78.02 96.16 114.3 92.53 110.6 128.8 92.53 110.6 128.8 27.67 34.47 41.28 34.93 41.73 48.54 55.34 68.95 82.56 55.34 68.95 82.56 69.85 83.46 97.07 69.85 83.46 97.07

AISI/ Exp 1.13 1.26 1.26 1.12 1.08 1.03 1.03 1.10 1.06 0.97 1.04 1.02 1.07 1.20 1.10 1.06 1.12 1.15 0.98 1.05 1.09 0.82 0.86 0.90 0.93 0.94 0.94 0.94 1.10 0.99 0.97 0.93 0.91 0.98 1.00 1.05

BS:59 50 (Part 5) 1998: 35.78 44.65 53.50 38.42 47.50 56.65 76.68 79.96 113.6 76.68 79.96 113.6 83.03 104.5 120.9 83.03 104.5 120.9 28.45 35.76 42.52 32.71 39.94 47.56 59.19 73.55 87.77 59.19 73.55 87.77 70.28 59.83 100.1 70.28 59.83 100.1

BS /Exp

1.03 1.17 1.18 0.93 0.92 0.91 1.02 0.92 1.05 0.95 0.86 1.01 0.96 1.13 1.03 0.95 1.06 1.08 1.01 1.09 1.12 0.77 0.82 0.88 0.99 1.00 1.00 1.01 1.17 1.05 0.97 0.67 0.94 0.98 0.72 1.08

Size of specimen (mm)

50x50 60x60 70x70 50x50x10 60x60x10 70x70x10 50x50(o) 60x60(o) 70x70(o) 50x50(s) 60x60(s) 70x70 (s) 50x50x10(o) 60x60x10(o) 70x70x10(o) 50x50x10(s) 60x60x10(s) 70x70x10(s) 50x25 60x30 70x35 50x25x10 60x30x10 70x35x10 50x25 60x30 70x35 50x25 60x30 70x35 50x25x10(o) 60x30x10(o) 70x35x10(o) 50x25x10(s) 60x30x10(s) 70x35x10 (s)

Load (KN)

S. No

Table 4: Comparison of Experimental load and predicted ultimate load obtained by various international codes (3mm thick)

Exp valve AS/NZS AISI

Exp valve 54.28 68.45 82.45 78.25 94.28 102.5 124.2 168.2 154. 113.2 143.5 152.2 105.2 131.2 168.2 122.4 142.5 149.2 40.87 53.28 68.57 55.28 68.87 78.27 88.25 108.4 138.6 93.28 97.58 128.7 104.3 139.9 151.0 118.2 122.8 147.2

AS/NZS 4600: 2005 51.91 63.98 76.05 61.57 73.64 85.71 103.82 127.96 152.10 103.82 127.96 152.10 123.13 147.27 171.42 123.13 147.27 171.42 36.82 45.87 54.93 46.48 55.53 64.58 73.64 91.74 109.85 73.64 91.74 109.85 92.95 111.06 129.17 92.95 111.06 129.17

AS/N ZS/Ex p

AISI 2007 61.07 75.27 89.47 72.43 86.63 100.8 122.1 150.5 178.9 122.1 150.5 178.9 144.8 173.2 201.6 144.8 173.2 201.6 43.32 53.97 64.62 54.68 65.33 75.98 86.63 107.9 129.2 86.63 107.9 129.2 109.3 130.6 151.9 109.3 130.6 151.1

0.96 0.93 0.92 0.79 0.78 0.84 0.84 0.76 0.99 0.92 0.89 1.00 1.17 1.12 1.02 1.01 1.03 1.15 0.90 0.86 0.80 0.84 0.81 0.83 0.83 0.85 0.79 0.79 0.94 0.85 0.89 0.79 0.86 0.79 0.90 0.88

200 150 100 50 0

AS/NZS AISI

Size of Specimen

Chart – 3 Comparison of ultimate load with load based on codal provision for single plane unequal angles (2mm)

Impact Factor value: 7.211

1.03 1.02 1.02 0.77 0.79 0.86 0.97 0.74 1.15 1.06 0.87 1.17 1.23 1.25 1.12 1.06 1.15 1.27 1.09 1.05 0.97 0.93 0.91 0.95 1.05 1.06 0.99 0.99 1.18 1.07 1.05 0.67 1.04 0.93 0.76 1.06

BS

Size of Specimen

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AISI/ Exp 1.13 1.10 1.09 0.93 0.92 0.98 0.98 0.89 1.16 1.08 1.05 1.18 1.38 1.32 1.20 1.18 1.22 1.35 1.06 1.01 0.94 0.99 0.95 0.97 0.98 1.00 0.93 0.93 1.11 1.00 1.05 0.93 1.01 0.92 1.06 1.03

BS /Exp

Exp valve

BS

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BS:59 50 (Part 5) 1998: 56.01 69.90 83.76 60.15 74.36 88.69 120.0 125.1 177.8 120.0 125.1 177.8 129.9 163.6 189.3 129.9 163.6 189.3 44.54 55.98 66.56 51.21 62.52 74.45 92.66 115.1 137.4 92.66 115.1 137.4 110.0 93.66 156.7 110.0 93.66 156.7

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Chart – 4 Comparison of ultimate load with load based on codal provision for Double plane angles with Lip (3mm)

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3. EXPERIMENTAL INVESTIGATIONS

6. REFERENCES

In the present investigation, experiments were conducted to study the structural behavior of bolted connections in 108 specimen numbers of cold formed steel single and double angle sections. A series of tension tests were conducted on specimens and their behavior was observed in the elastic and plastic ranges of loading. The specimens are used in the present investigation were fabricated from steel sheets of four different thicknesses 1.5mm, 1.6mm, 2mm, and 3mm by bending and press breaking operations. The length of gusset plate was provided according to the requirement of pitch and edge distance as per Indian code of practice. The required numbers of bolts are calculated for all specimens and were provided according to the design procedures. All the specimens were fabricated for a length of 500mm.

[1] Lennon R., Pedreschi R. and Sinha B.P. (1999), ‘Comparative Study of some mechanical connections in cold-formed steel’, Construction and Building materials, Vol.13, pp.109-116.

4. ANALYTICAL INVESTIGATIONS The behavior of cold-formed steel single and double angles section when subjected to eccentric tension were studied. The effect of shear lag which depends on the geometry of the cross-section and disposition of the angle on the load carrying capacity was studied. The ultimate load carrying capacities of the specimens were compared with the load carrying capacities using the American, Australian/New Zealand and British standards. 5. CONCLUSIONS Experimental results were observed that the ultimate loads obtained from various international codes of thickness 1.5, 1.6, 2 and 3mm. The single equal plain angles loads are 10% lower than the experimental loads values using AISI manual-2001.

[2] Makelainen P. and Kesti J. (1999), ‘Advanced method for Light weight Steel joining’, Journal of Constructional Steel Research, Vol.49, pp.107-116. [3] March C. (1969), ‘Single Angles in Tension and Compression’, Journal of Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 95, No. 5, pp. 1043-1049. [4] Munse W.H. and Chesson E. (1963), ‘Riveted and Bolted joints: Net Section Design’, Journal of Structural Division, ASCE, Vol. 89, No. 1,pp. 107-126. [5] Murty K.S. Madugula and Mohan S. (1988), ‘Angles in Eccentric Tension’, Journal of Structural Engineering, Vol. 114, No. 10,pp. 2387-2396. Murty K.S., Madugula and Kennedy B. (1985), ‘Single and Compound Angle members’, Elsevier Applied Science Publishers Limited, England. Nabil Abdel-Rahman and Sivakumaran K.S. (1997), ‘Material Properties Models for Analysis of Cold-Formed Steel Members’, Vol.123, No.9, pp. 1135-1143.

Similarly, in case of single equal plain angle loads are 11% lower than that of the experimental loads values using AS/NZS: 4600-2005. To review that in the case of single equal angles that values from various codes are 16% lower than experimental values Experimental and ultimate loads obtained by various international codes of thickness 1.5, 1.6, 2 and 3mm. To observed the double equal plain angles opposite side the predicted loads are 12% lower than the experimental loads values using AISI manual-2001. Similarly, in case of Double equal plain angles opposite side the predicted loads are 14% lower than that of the experimental loads values using AS/NZS: 4600-2005. To review that in the case of Double equal plain angles opposite side the predicted values are 18% lower than experimental values using BS:5950 - 1998 (Part 5).

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